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APPENDIX II

In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

WHY ALLAH SENT PROPHETS AND MESSENGERS ?

Ever since people innovated the dogma of Shirk, (i.e. joining others in worship along with Allah), Allah had been sending Prophets and Messengers to His devotees in order to invite them to the worship of Allah and Allah Alone, to order them not to ascribe partners unto Him and bring them out of the darkness of polytheism into the light of Monotheism. All the Prophets preached Tauhîd (i.e. Monotheism, the Belief in the Oneness of Allah, the Glorious, the Elevated). The following Verses from the Noble Qur'ân illustrate this fact:

"Indeed We sent Noah to his people, and he said: 'O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilâh (God) but Him. (Lâ ilaha ill Allah, none has the right to be worshipped but Allah). Certainly, I fear for you the torment of a great Day!' " (V. 7:59).

"And to 'Ad (people, We sent) their brother Hûd. He said: 'O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilâh (God) but Him. (Lâ ilâha ill Allâh, none has the right to be worshipped but Allah). Will you not fear (Allah)?' " (V. 7:65).

"And to (the people of) Madyan (Midian), (We sent) their brother Shu'aib. He said: 'O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilâh (God) but Him. (Lâ ilâha ill Allâh, none has the right to be worshipped but Allah). Verily, a clear proof (sign) from your Lord has come unto you, so give full measure and full weight and wrong not men in their things, and do not make mischief on the earth after it has been set in order, that will be better for you, if you are believers.' " (V.7:85)

"And to Thamûd (people, We sent) their brother Salih. He said: 'O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilâh (God) but Him. (Lâ ilâha ill Allah, none has the right to be worshipped but Allah).' " (V. 7:73).

"And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): Worship Allah (Alone) and avoid (or keep away from) Tâghût (all false deities etc. i.e. do not worship Tâghûts besides Allah)." (V. 16:36).

Every Prophet was sent unto his own nation for their guidance, but the Message of Prophet Muhammad SAW was general for all mankind and jinns.

"Say (O Muhammad SAW ): 'O mankind: Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah.' " (V. 7:158).

So the aim of sending these Prophets and Messengers to men and jinns was only that they should worship Allah Alone, as Allah SWT; said: "And I (Allah) created not the jinns and men except they should worship Me (Alone)" The Qur'ân (V. 51:56).

And to worship Allah means to obey Him and to do all He has ordained, and to fear Him by abstaining from all He has forbidden.

Then those who will obey Allah will be rewarded in Paradise, and those who will disobey Him will be punished in the Hell-Fire.


TAUHID - (ISLAMIC MONOTHEISM)

Tauhîd (Islamic Monotheism) has three aspects:

(A) Oneness of the Lordship of Allah; Tauhîd-ar-Rubûbiya: To believe that there is only one Lord for all the universe, its Creator, Organizer, Planner, Sustainer, and the Giver of security, etc., and that is Allah.

(B) Oneness of the worship of Allah; Tauhîd-al-Ulûhiya: To believe that none has the right to be worshipped [e.g. praying, invoking, asking for help (from the unseen), swearing, slaughtering sacrifices, giving charity, fasting, pilgrimage, etc.] but Allah.

(C) Oneness of the Names and the Qualities of Allah: Tauhîd-al-Asmâ was-Sifât: To believe that:

(i) We must not name or qualify Allah except with what He or His Messenger SAW has named or qualified Him;

(ii) None can be named or qualified with the Names or Qualifications of Allah; e.g. Al-Karîm;

(iii) We must confirm all of Allah's Qualifications which Allah has stated in His Book (the Qur'ân) or mentioned through His Messenger (Muhammad SAW ) without changing them or ignoring them completely or twisting the meanings or giving resemblance to any of the created things [e.g. Allah is present over His Throne as mentioned in the Qur'ân (V. 20:5):-

"The Most Beneficent (Allah) Istawa (rose over) the (Mighty) Throne," over the seventh heaven; and He only comes down over the first (nearest) heaven to us on the day of 'Arafât (Hajj, i.e. the 9th of Dhul-Hijja), and also during the last third part of the night as mentioned by the Prophet SAW , but He is with us by His Knowledge only, not by His Personal-Self (Bi-Dhâtihi).

Also Allah said:

"There is nothing like unto Him and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer" (V.42:11).

This holy Verse confirms the quality of hearing and the quality of sight for Allah without resemblance to others, and likewise He SWT also said:

"To one whom I have created with Both My Hands," (V.38:75);

and He also said:

"The Hand of Allah is over their hands." (V.48:10).

This confirms two Hands for Allah, but there is no similarity for them. This is the Faith of all true believers, and was the Faith of all the Prophets of Allah, from Nûh (Noah), Ibrâhim (Abraham), Mûsa (Moses) and 'Iesa (Christ) till the last of the Prophets, Muhammad SAW. [It is not like as some people think that Allah is present everywhere - here, there and even inside the breasts of men].

These three aspects of Tauhîd are included in the meaning of Lâ ilâha ill-Allâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah).

It is also essential to follow Allah's Messenger, Muhammad SAW : Wajûb al-Ittebâ' and it is a part of Tauhîd-al-Ulûhiya.

This is included in the meaning, "I testify that Muhammad SAW is Allah's Messenger," and this means, "None has the right to be followed after Allah's Book (the Qur'ân), but Allah's Messenger SAW".

Allah said:

"And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad SAW ) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it)." (V.59:7)

And also Allah said:

"Say (O Muhammad SAW to mankind), 'If you (really) love Allah then follow me [i.e. accept Islâmic Monotheism, follow the Qur'ân and the Sunnah (legal ways of the Prophet SAW)], Allah will love you and forgive you of your sins.' " (V.3:31)


SHAHADA CONFESSION OF A MUSLIM

Lâ ilâha ill-Allâh, Muhammad-ur- Rasûl-Allâh

(None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,

and Muhammad SAW is the Messenger of Allah).

I have noticed that most of the mankind, who embrace Islam, do not understand the reality of the meaning of the first fundamental principle of Islam, i.e. Lâ ilâha ill-Allâh, Muhammad-ur-Rasûl-Allâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and Muhammad SAW is the Messenger of Allah). So I consider it essential to explain something of the meanings of this great sentence (i.e principle) in some detail:

Lâ ilâha ill-Allâh, Muhammad-ur- Rasûl-Allâh

"None has the right to be worshipped but Allah... and Muhammad SAW is the Messenger of Allah" has three aspects: A,B and C.

A. It is that, you have to pledge a covenant with (Allah), the Creator of the heavens and earth, the Ruler of all that exists, the Lord of Majesty and Highness, on four points (or conditions):

Point I: A confession with your heart that the Creator (of everything) is Allah, it is that you have to say: "I testify that the Creator of all the universe including the stars, the planets, the sun, the moon, the heavens, the earth with all its known and unknown forms of life, is Allah. He is the Organizer and Planner of all its affairs. It is He Who gives life and death, and He (i.e. Allah Alone) is the Sustainer, and the Giver of security, etc." And this is called (your confession for the) "Oneness of the Lordship of Allah," - Tauhid-ar-Rubûbiya.

Point II: A confession with your heart that you have to say: "I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah Alone." The word "Worship" (i.e. 'Ibadah) carries a great number of meanings in the Arabic language: It conveys that all kinds of worship are meant for Allah [and none else, whether it be an angel, Messenger, Prophet 'Iesa (Jesus) - son of Maryam (Mary), 'Uzair (Ezra), Muhammad, saint, idol, the sun, the moon and all other kinds of false deities]. So pray to none but Allah, invoke none but Allah, ask for help from none (unseen) but Allah, swear by none but Allah, offer an animal as sacrifice to none but Allah,...etc, and that means, all that Allah and His Messenger SAW order you to do, (in His Book, the Qur'ân and in the Sunna (legal ways of Prophet Muhammad SAW ) you must do, and all that Allah and His Messenger SAW forbid you, you must not do. And this is called (your confession for the) "Oneness of the worship of Allah," - Tauhid-al-Uluhiya. And that you (mankind) worship none but Allah.

Point III: A confession with your heart that you have to say: "O Allah! I testify that all the best of names and the most perfect qualities with which You have named or qualified Yourself in Your Book (i.e. the Qur'ân) or as Your Prophet Muhammad SAW has named or qualified You, with his statement, I confirm that all those (names and qualifications) are for You without changing their meanings or neglecting them completely or giving resemblance to others." As Allah said:

"There is nothing like unto Him and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer." (V. 42:11).

This holy Verse confirms the quality of hearing and the quality of sight for Allah without resemblance to others, and likewise He also said:

"To one whom I have created with Both My Hands," (V.38:75)

and He also said:

"The Hand of Allah is over their hands." (V.48:10)

This confirms two Hands for Allah, but there is no similarity for them. Similarly Allah said:

"The Most Beneficent (Allah) Istawa (rose over) the (Mighty) Throne." (V.20:5).

So He rose over the Throne really in a manner that suits His Majesty. And Allah is over His Throne over the seventh heaven, as the slave-girl pointed towards the heavens, when Allah's Messenger (Muhammad SAW ) asked her as to where Allah is. He only comes down over the first (nearest) heaven to us on the day of 'Arafât (Hajj, i.e. the 9th of Dhul-Hijja), and also during the last third part of the night as mentioned by the Prophet SAW , but He is with us by His Knowledge only, not by His Personal-Self (Bi-Dhâtihi). It is not like that, as some people say that Allah is present everywhere - here, there, and even inside the breasts of men. He sees and hears all that we do or utter, etc. And this is called (your confession for the) "Oneness of the Names and Qualities of Allah" - Tauhîd-al-Asma was-Sifat and this is the right Faith, the Faith which was followed by the Messengers of Allah [from Nûh (Noah), Ibrâhim (Abraham), Mûsa (Moses), Da'ud (David), Sulaimân (Solomon), 'Iesa (Jesus) to Muhammad alai-hiss-salaam and the Companions of Prophet Muhammad SAW ] and the righteous followers of these Messengers alai-hiss-salaam .

Point IV: A confession with your heart that you have to say: "O Allah! I testify that Muhammad SAW is Your Messenger." That means that none has the right to be followed after Allah, but the Prophet Muhammad SAW as he is the last of His Messengers. As Allah said:

"Muhammad (SAW) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last (end) of the Prophets and Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything." (V.33:40).

"And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad SAW ) gives you, take it and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain from it,"(V.59:7).

And Allah said:

"Say (O Muhammad to mankind): 'If you (really) love Allah, then follow me.' " (V.3:31)

As for others than Muhammad SAW, their statements are to be taken or rejected as to whether these are in accordance with Allah's Book (i.e. the Qur'ân) or with the Sunna (legal ways, orders, acts of worship, statements, etc.) of the Prophet SAW or not. As the Divine Inspiration has stopped after the death of Prophet Muhammad SAW and it will not resume except at the time of the Descent of 'Iesa (Jesus) - son of Maryam (Mary) and he (i.e. Jesus) will rule with justice according to the Islamic laws, during the last days of the world as it has been mentioned in the authentic Hadîth (i.e. narration of Prophet Muhammad SAW). (Sahih-Al-Bukhari, Vol. 3, Hadîth No. 425).

B. It is essential to utter: Lâ ilâha ill-Allâh, Muhammad-ur-Rasûl Allâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and Muhammad SAW is the Messenger of Allah.) As it has come in the statement of the Prophet Muhammad SAW to his uncle Abû Tâlib at the time of the latter's death: "O uncle, if you utter it (Lâ ilâh ill-Allah, Muhammad-ur-Rasûl Allah, none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and Muhammad SAW is the Messenger of Allah), then I shall be able to argue on your behalf before Allah, on the Day of Resurrection." Similarly, when Abû Dhar Al-Ghiffari embraced Islam, he went to Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (i.e. the Ka'ba) and he proclaimed it loudly in front of the Quraish infidels until he was beaten severely.

C. It is essential that the limbs and all the other parts and organs of one's body testify to it, and this is very important as regards its meaning (i.e., the meaning of Lâ ilâha ill-Allâh Muhammad Rasul Allah - none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and Muhammad SAW is the Messenger of Allah). So whoever has confessed this (with his Lord), he shall not commit sins like robbing, killing, stealing, illegal sexual intercourse, eating pig meat, drinking alcoholic beverages, taking undue advantage of orphan's property, cheating in trade, bribery and earning money through illegal means, telling lies, backbiting etc., or otherwise the limbs and all the other parts and organs of his body will testify against him that he was a liar in his words which he pledged to Allah. In case he commits the above sins, he should know that it is a sin that obliges him to repent to Allah, and ask His Forgiveness, as (his) body parts (i.e. skin, private parts, hands, tongue, ears, etc.)will testify to the above mentioned crimes (i.e. actions) against his self on the Day of Resurrection.

And with the confession of this great sentence (i.e. principle) a person enters in the fold of (i.e. embraces) the Islamic religion accordingly, it is essential for him to believe in all the Messengers of Allah and not to differentiate between them. As it is mentioned in His Book, Allah said:

"Do then those who disbelieve think that they can take My slaves [i.e. the angels; Allah's Messengers; 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), etc.] as Auliyâ' (lords, gods, protectors etc.) besides Me? Verily, We have prepared Hell as an entertainment for the disbelievers (in the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism).

Say (O Muhammad SAW ): 'Shall We tell you the greatest losers in respect of (their) deeds?'

Those whose efforts have been wasted in this life, while they thought they were acquiring good by their deeds!

"Those are they who deny the Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of their Lord and the Meeting with Him (in the Hereafter). So their works are in vain, and on the Day of Resurrection, We shall not give them any weight.

"That shall be their recompense, Hell; because they disbelieved and took My Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, revelations, etc.) and My Messengers by way of jest and mockery.

"Verily! Those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism), and do righteous deeds, shall have the Gardens of Al-Firdaus (Paradise) for their entertainment.

"Wherein they shall dwell (forever). No desire will they have to be removed therefrom.

"Say (O Muhammad SAW to mankind): If the sea were ink for (writing) the Words of my Lord, surely the sea would be exhausted, before the Words of my Lord would be exhausted even if we brought (another sea) like it for its aid.

"Say (O Muhammad SAW ): I am only a man like you, it has been inspired to me that your Ilâh (God) is One Ilâh (God, i.e. Allah). So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord." (V. 18:102-110).

This introduction is necessary for anyone who wishes to embrace Islam. After this confession he ( or she) should take a bath (i.e. Ghusl) and then offer a two Rak'at prayer, and act upon the five principles of Islam, as narrated by lbn 'Umar Rahiallahu'anhu in the Book, Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol.1 Hadîth No.7:-

Narrated lbn 'Umar Rahiallahu'anhu : Allah's Messenger SAW said: Islam is based on the following five (principles):

1. To testify Lâ ilâha ill-Allâh wa anna Muhammad-ur-Rasul-Allâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger).

2. Perform Iqâmat As-Salât[].

3. To pay Zakât[].

4. To perform Hajj. (i.e. pilgrimage to Makka).

5. To observe Saum (fast) during the month of Ramadân.

[and must believe in the six articles of Faith, i.e. to believe in:

(1) Allah, (2) His angels, (3) His Messengers, (4) His revealed Books, (5) the Day of Resurrection,and (6) Al-Qadar (Divine Preordainments i.e. whatever Allah has ordained must come to pass)]

IMPORTANT NOTE:-

The acceptance of the righteous deeds is stipulated with the following two basic conditions which must be fulfilled:

(1) The intentions while doing such deeds must be totally for Allah's sake only without any show off or gaining praise or fame, etc.

(2) Such a deed must be performed in accordance with the Sunna (legal ways, orders, acts of worship. statements, etc.) of Allah's Messenger Muhammad bin 'Abdullah, the last (end) of all the Prophets and the Messengers alai-hiss-salaam .


POLYTHEISM AND DISBELIEF

Salvation of all mankind from the greatest sin against Allah

(Shirk and Kufr i.e. polytheism and disbelief)

I consider it essential to mention here some details of the greatest sin which will not be forgiven by Allah. This unpardonable sin is Shirk

Shirk implies ascribing partners to Allah or ascribing divine attributes to others besides Allah and believing that the source of power, harm and blessings comes from another besides Allah.

Almighty Allah says:

"Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin."(V. 4:48).

Almighty Allah says:

"Then when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another.

"Then those whose scales (of good deeds) are heavy, - these! they are the successful.

"And those whose scales (of good deeds) are light, - they are those who lose their ownselves; in Hell will they abide."

"The Fire will burn their faces, and they will grin with disfigured lips (disfigured)."

"(It will be said) 'Were not My Verses (this Qur'ân) recited to you and then you used to deny them?'

"They will say: 'Our Lord! Our wretchedness overcame us and we were (an) erring people.

"Our Lord! Bring us out of this; if ever we return (to evil) then indeed we shall be Zâlimûn (polytheists, oppressors, unjust, and wrongdoers etc.).'

"He (Allah) will say: 'Remain you in it with ignominy! And speak you not to Me!' (V. 23:101-108).

"And whoever invokes (or worships) besides Allah, any other îlâh (god), of whom he has no proof, then his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely! Al-Kafirûn (disbelievers in Allah and in the Oneness of Allah, polytheists, pagans, idolaters, etc.) will not be successful." (V. 23:117).


ASH-SHIRK
POLYTHEISM AND ITS VARIOUS MANIFESTATIONS

Definition: Shirk basically is polytheism, i.e., the worship of others along with Allah. It also implies attributing divine attributes to any other besides Allah. It particularly implies associating partners in worship with Allah or to believe that the source of power, harm or blessings is from others besides Allah.

Types: There are three types of Shirk, namely:

(1) Ash-Shirk-al-Akbar, i.e. major Shirk

(2) Ash-Shirk-al-Asghar, i.e. minor Shirk

(3) Ash-Shirk-al-Khafi, i.e. inconspicuous Shirk.

Manifestations: (1) Ash-Shirk-al-Akbar (The major Shirk): The major and serious polytheistic form, it has four aspects:

(a) Shirk-ad-Du'â, i.e. invocation.This aspect implies invoking, supplicating or praying to other deities besides Allah.

Almighty Allah says:

"And when they embark on a ships they invoke Allah, making their Faith pure for Him only, but when He brings them safely to land, behold, they give a share of their worship to others," (V.29:65)

(b) Shirk-al-Niyyah wal-Iradah wal-Qasd. This aspect implies inten-tions, purpose and determination in acts of worship or religious deeds not for the sake of Allah but directed towards other deities.

Almighty Allah says:

"Whosoever desires the life of the world and its glitter, to them We shall pay in full (the wages of) their deeds therein, and they will have no diminution therein. They are those for whom there is nothing in the Hereafter but Fire; and vain are the deeds they did therein. And of no effect is that which they used to do."(V. 11:15,16)

(c) Shirk-at-Tâ'a. This aspect implies rendering obedience to any authority against the Order of Allah.

Almighty Allah says:

"They (Jews and Christians) took their Rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah (by obeying them in things which they made lawful or unlawful according to their own desires without being ordered by Allah), and (they also took as their lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded (in the Torah and the Gospel) to worship none but One Ilâh (God i.e., Allah), Lâ ilâha illâ Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). Praise and Glory be to Him, (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him)." (V.9:31).

Once, while Allah's Messenger SAW was reciting the above Verse, 'Adi bin Hatim said, "O Allah's Prophet! They do not worship them (rabbis and monks)." Allah's Messenger said, "They certainly do. They (i.e. Rabbis and monks) made legal things illegal, and illegal things legal, and they (i.e. Jews and Christians) followed them; and by doing so they really worshipped them."(Narrated by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Jarir). (Tafsir At-Tabari, Vol.10, Page No. 114).

(d) Shirk-al-Mahabbah. This implies showing the love which is due to Allah Alone, to others than Him.

Almighty Allah says:

"And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe, love Allah more (than anything else). If only those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment, that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is Severe in punishment." (V. 2:165)

(2) Ash-Shirk-al-Asghar Ar-Riyâ' (The minor Shirk, i.e. acts performed to show off). Any act of worship or any religious deed done in order to gain praise, fame or for worldly purposes, falls under this minor form.

Almighty Allah says:

"Say (O Muhammad SAW ) : 'I am only a man like you, it has been inspired to me that your Ilâh (God) is One Ilâh (God i.e Allah). So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord.' " (V. 18:110)

(3) Ash-Shirk-al-Khafi (The inconspicuous Shirk). This type implies being inwardly dissatisfied with the inevitable condition that has been ordained for one by Allah; conscientiously lamenting that had you done or not done such and such or had you approached such and such you would have had a better status, etc.

The Noble Prophet Muhammad SAW said:

"Ash-Shirk-al-Khafi in the Muslim nation is more inconspicuous than the creeping of black ant on black rock in the pitch-darkness of the night." And this inconspicuous Shirk is expiated by saying thrice the following sentences within a day and a night: "O Allah! I take Your refuge from that I should ascribe anything as partner in Your worship, being conscious of that, and I beg Your pardon for that sin which I am not aware of."


AL-KUFR

DISBELIEF AND ITS VARIOUS MANIFESTATIONS

Kufr is basically disbelief in any of the articles of Faith in Islam.

The articles of Faith are: To believe in -

(1) Allah,

(2) His angels,

(3) His Messengers,

(4) His revealed Books,

(5) The Day of Resurrection, and

(6) Al-Qadar, Divine Preordainments (Fate i.e. whatever Allah SWT has ordained must come to pass).

There are two aspects of disbelief:

(1). The major disbelief (Al-Kufr-al-Akbar): This aspect excludes one completely from the fold of Islam. There are five types (of this major disbelief):-

(a) Kufr-at-Takdhîb. This implies disbelieving the divine truth or denying of any of the articles of Faith.

Almighty Allah says:

"Then who does more wrong than one who utters a lie against Allah and denies the truth [this Qur'ân, the Prophet (Muhammad SAW), the Islamic Monotheism, the Resurrection, and the reward or punishment according to good or evil deeds], when it comes to him. Is there not in Hell an abode for the disbelievers? " (V. 39:32)

(b) Kufr-al-Ibâ' wat-Takabbur ma'at-Tasdîq. This implies rejection and pride to submit to Allah's Commandments after conviction of their truth.

Almighty Allah says:

"And (remember) when We said to the angels: 'Prostrate yourself before Adam.' And they prostrated except Iblis, he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah)." (V. 2:34).

(c) Kufr-ash-Shak waz-Zan. This implies doubting or lacking of conviction in the six articles of Faith.

Almighty Allah says:

"And he went into his garden while in a state (of pride and disbelief) unjust to himself. He said: 'I think not that this will ever perish. And I think not the Hour will ever come, and if indeed I am brought back to my Lord (on the Day of Resurrection) I surely shall find better than this when I return to Him.' His companion said to him during the talk with him: 'Do you disbelieve in Him Who created you out of dust (i.e. your father Adam), then out of Nutfah (mixed semen drops of male and female discharge), then fashioned you into a man? But as for my part (I believe) that He is Allah, my Lord, and none shall I associate as partner with my Lord.' " (V.18:3538)

(d) Kufr-al-I'râd. This implies turning away from the truth knowingly or deviating from the obvious signs which Allah has revealed.

Almighty Allah says:

"We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except with truth and for an appointed term. But those who disbelieve turn away from that whereof they are warned." (V.46:3)

(e) Kufr-an-Nifâq. This implies hypocritical disbelief.

Almighty Allah says:

"They have made their oaths a screen (for their hypocrisy). Thus they hinder (men) from the Path of Allah. Verily, evil is what they used to do. That is because they believed, then disbelieved, therefore their hearts are sealed, so they understand not." (V.63:2-3)

(2) The minor disbelief (Al-Kufr-al-Asghar): This aspect of disbelief does not exclude one from the fold of Islam. It is also termed Kufr-an-Ni'mah. This implies disbelief manifesting itself in ungratefulness for Allah's Blessings or Favours.

Almighty Allah says:

'And Allah puts forward the example of a township (Makka), that dwelt secure and well-content; its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it (its people) denied the Favours of Allah (with ungratefulness). So Allah made it taste the extreme of hunger (famine) and fear, because of that (evil, i.e. denying Prophet Muhammad SAW ) which they (its people) used to do." (V.16:112).


AN-NIFAQ

HYPOCRISY AND ITS VARIOUS MANIFESTATIONS

Hypocrisy is of two types, namely:

(A) Hypocrisy in Belief.

(B) Hypocrisy in deeds and actions.

(A). Hypocrisy in Belief

There are six aspects of hypocrisy in Belief:

1.To belie the Messenger (Muhammad SAW)

2.To belie some of all that was brought by the Messenger (Muhammad SAW). (e.g. the Qur'ân, Sunna, legal laws and principles of Islam, etc.).

3.To hate the Messenger (Muhammad SAW).

4.To hate some of all that was brought by the Messenger (Muhammad SAW). e.g. Islamic Monotheism, etc.

5.To feel happy at the disgrace or becoming low of the religion of Allah's Messenger (Muhammad SAW ).

6.To dislike that the religion of Allah's Messenger (Islamic Monotheism) becomes victorious.

A person having these six types (of hypocrisy) will be in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire (Hell). (See V. 4: 145).

(B). Hypocrisy in deeds and actions

There are five aspects of hypocrisy in deeds and actions, and their proof is from the statement of Allah's Messenger SAW :- The signs of a hypocrite are these:

1. Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie.

2. Whenever he promises, he always breaks it (his promise).

3. If you trust him, he proves to be dishonest (if you keep something as trust with him, he will not return it).

4. And in another narration of the Prophet SAW : Whenever he quarrels, he behaves in a very imprudent, evil, insulting manner.

5. Whenever he makes a covenant, he proves himself treacherous.


THE JEWS AND THE CHRISTIANS

As for the Jews and Christians, they are particularly warned by Allah, as the Almighty Allah says:

"And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers." (V.3:85)

And they are also warned by the Prophet as it is mentioned in the Book (Sahih Muslim The Book of Faith).

It is obligatory to have Belief in the Messengership of the Prophet (Muhammad )

Narrated Abu Huraira : Allah's Messenger said;"By Him (Allah) in Whose Hand Muhammad's soul is , there is none from amongst the Jews and the Christians (of these present nations) who hears about me and then dies without believing in the Message with which I have been sent (i.e. Islamic Monotheism), but he will be from the dwellers of the (Hell) Fire."

(Sahih Muslim, the Book of Faith, Vol.1, Chapter No.240).

The Qur'ân in itself is a miracle, Whosoever reads it, is convinced that it is such a Book that could not be produced by a human being.

Almighty Allah says:

"And this Qur'ân is not such as could ever be produced by other than Allah (Lord of the heavens and the earth), but it is a confirmation of (the revelation) which was before it (i.e., the Torah and the Gospel, etc.) and a full explanation of the Book (i.e., laws and orders etc. decreed for mankind) - wherein there is no doubt from the Lord of the 'Alamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists).

Or do they say: 'He (Muhammad ) has forged it?' Say: 'Bring then a Sûrah (chapter) like unto it and call upon whomsoever you can, besides Allah, if you are truthful!' "

(V. 10:37,38).


JESUS AND MUHAMMAD (peace be upon them)
IN THE BIBLE AND THE QUR'AN

BIBLICAL EVIDENCE OF JESUS BEING A SERVANT OF GOD AND HAVING NO SHARE IN DIVINITY

By Dr.M.T. Al-Hilali,Ph.D.

Professor of Islamic Faith and Teachings, Islamic University, Al-Madina.

(Rendered into English by Adam M. Makda)

INTRODUCTION

All praise be to the One to Whom all Dignity, Honour and Glory are due; the Unique with perfect attributes, Who begets not, nor is He begotten. He has no equal but He is the Almighty, Omnipotent. He sent His Messengers and Prophets to guide humanity towards monotheism; to worship Him Alone, the only One Worthy of worship, and to warn them of the eternal dire consequences of polytheism; associating partners with One Allah and the worship of creatures.

Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon all the Prophets and Messengers, especially on Muhammad, the last of the Prophets, and on all who follow him in righteousness until the Day of Recompense.

CHRISTIANITY: MEN WITHOUT RELIGION

ISLAM: RELIGION WITHOUT MEN

A Muslim never lacks proofs about the purity and truthfulness of his religion, but what he lacks are those truthful brothers who stand for Allah and His Prophet SAW testifying to the truth. Indeed, in this age, Islam is a religion without men (custodians and propagators) whereas Christianity is men without a religion; yet, by their endeavour, adventurous spirit, patience and monetary contributions they are able to falsify truth and make falsehood appear true. In this materialistic age most of humanity have become slaves to wealth, fashions, and mansions.

There is none worthy of worship but Allah and in Him (Alone) do I put my trust, and towards Him am I destined.

JESUS AND THE DEVIL IN THE BIBLE

In the New Testament of the Bible, in the fourth chapter of the Gospel according to Matthew, the sixth and seventh verses clearly indicate that Jesus is an obedient mortal and God is the Master and Lord according to his saying in the seventh verse:

"It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord, thy God."

In this chapter we read that the Devil actually carried the Messiah, and took him from place to place. How can the Devil carry God? Glory be to Allah; He is above such blasphemy!

Then the Devil orders him to prostrate before him and worship him, even tempting him with worldly possessions. How can the Devil even dare such an audacity with God? When the Devil wanted Jesus to comply with his orders, he (Jesus) replied by saying that it was written (in the previous Books):

"Thou shalt worship the Lord, thy God; And Him only shalt thou serve." Matthew 4:10.

CHILDREN OF GOD

Jesus never called himself Son of God as far as I know but he used to call himself the 'Son of Man' (ref. Mark 2:10) although he heard himself being called by that name he did not object as assumed in the Bible and did not consider the title exclusively for him.

According to the Biblical term in the Old and New Testaments, every God- fearing righteous person is called 'Son of God'. In Matthew 5:9 we read:

"Blessed are the peace-makers, for they shall be called the children of God."

In Matthew 5:45 -

"That ye may be children of your Father which is in heaven..."

GOD THE FATHER

In Matthew 5:48 -

"Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect."

In Matthew 6:1 -

"... otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven."

Matthew 7:21 -

"Not every one that sayeth unto me (Jesus), Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven: but he that doeth the will of my Father, which is in heaven."

N.B. The word 'Lord' here was translated as Rabb in the Arabic version of the Bible so that people may be convinced that Jesus is God! But if one studies the rest of the verse, one will note that the verse bears testimony to the subservience (to God's Will) of the Messiah (Jesus). Therefore the correct translation should be:

"Not every one that sayeth to me, O my Master, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven."

It is obvious from the above readings from the Bible that the term 'Father' is used for God in numerous places in the Bible. It is never used exclusively for the Messiah (Jesus).

Matthew 11:25 -

"At that time Jesus answered and said, 'I thank Thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because Thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent and has revealed them unto babes.'"

JESUS THE WORSHIPPER

Matthew 14:23 -

"And when he had sent the multitudes away, he went up into a mountain apart to pray....."

I say: If he (Jesus) is God or a part of God then why did he pray? In fact, prayer is always from a submitting, needy and dependent one for the Mercy of Almighty Allah as mentioned in the Qur'ân. (V. 35:15):-

"O mankind! it is you who stand in need of Allah but Allah is Rich (Free of all wants and needs), Worthy of all praise" (35:15).

And in (V. 19:93) of Qur'ân:-

"There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Beneficent (Allah) as a slave."

A BIBLICAL STORY

Matthew 15:22-28 -

"And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts and cried unto him, saying, 'Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou son of David: my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil.' But he answered her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying; 'Send her away, for she crieth after us.' But he answered and said, 'I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.'

Then came she and worshipped him, saying, 'Lord, help me.' But he answered and said, 'It is not meet to take the children's bread and to cast it to dogs.'

And she said, 'Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters' table.'

Then Jesus answered and said unto her, 'O woman, great is thy faith: be it unto thee even as thou wilt. And her daughter was made whole from that very hour.' "

In this story about a woman from Canaan there are noteworthy points:

(1) Lack of mercy and love charged against Jesus (if the incident is reported correctly).

(2) Degraded discrimination in regard to the uplifting of his tribe and not for the others.

(3) Tribal pride of descendance and prejudice against others and calling them dogs.

(4) An ignorant polytheist woman debated with him and won him over.

JESUS: A PROPHET OF ALLAH.

Matthew 19:16-17 -

"And behold, one came and said unto him, 'Good master, what good thing shall I do that I may have eternal life?' And he said unto him, 'Why callest thou me good? (There is) none good but one, (i.e.) God, but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.' "

In the above verses we note this acknowledgment of his submissiveness (to Allah's Will).

Matthew 21:45-46 -

"And when the chief priests and pharisees had heard his parable, they perceived that he spoke of them. But when they sought to lay hands on him, they feared the multitude because they took him for a Prophet."

Here it is proved that all those who believed in Jesus during his life-time did not believe in him being God or the Son of God or one in the doctrine of Trinity; but they believed in him as being a Prophet only. This is indeed one of the strongest points of evidence against those who believe in the Divinity of Jesus (Incarnation of God) if only they pondered.

JESUS: A SERVANT OF ALLAH.

Matthew 23:8 -

'But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your master, even Jesus, and all ye are brethern."

Here it is clearly proved that Jesus was servant of Allah, and that there is only One Master and He is Allah. In the Arabic version of the Bible this verse has been translated so that Jesus is meant to be the master whereas the English rendering is nearer the original sense.

Matthew 23:9 -

"And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father which is in heaven."

From this you will note that fatherhood and sonship is meant to be the relationship between the Lord and His servants: it is meant in a general sense and not specifically for Jesus.

Matthew 24:36 -

"But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only."

This is a definite proof that the Final Hour is unknown to any but Allah, thus Jesus' knowledge is imperfect like all other men; Allah Alone is All-Knowing, Omniscient.

Matthew 26:39 -

"And he (Jesus) went a little farther, and fell on his face and prayed, saying, 'O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as Thou wilt.' "

We note here that the person speaking is unaware of Allah's Will and realizes the fact that he is a servant of Allah. He (Allah) Alone can cause the change.

THE COMPILATION OF THE BIBLE

Matthew 27:7-8 -

"And they took counsel and bought with them the potter's field to bury strangers in. Wherefore that field was called the Field of Blood, unto this day."

From these verses we understand that the Bible (the New Testament) was not written during Jesus' life-time but long after the occurrence of the events described, having been retained in the memory of the people.

Matthew 27:46 -

"And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, 'Eli,Eli, lama sabachthani? (My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?')"

This is according to their (Christians') assumption that Jesus cried in a loud voice saying the above words while he was being crucified. This is a great insult as such words could only come from unbelievers in Allah. Further, it is incredible that such words should come out from a Prophet of Allah because Allah never breaks His Promise and His Prophets never complained against His Promise.

JESUS: PREACHER OF MONOTHEISM (TAUHID)

In John 17:3 -

"And this is life eternal, that they might know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou has sent."

In Mark 12:28-30 -

"And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, 'Which is the first commandment of all?' And Jesus answered him: 'The first of all the commandments is; hear O Israel, the Lord thy God is One Lord: and thou shalt love the Lord, thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment.' "

In Mark 12:32 -

"And the scribe said unto him, 'Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is One God; and there is none other but He.' "

In Mark 12:34 -

"...he (Jesus) said unto him, 'Thou art not far from the kingdom of God...' "

In these verses, Jesus (peace be upon him) himself had testified that Allah is the One God, there is none other than Him, and that whoever believes in His Oneness, he is near the Kingdom of Allah. Therefore whoever associates partners with Allah or believes in the Trinity is far away from the Kingdom of Allah, and whoever is far away from the Kingdom of Allah he is the enemy of Allah.

In Matthew 24:36 -

"But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of the heaven, but my Father only."

I say: A similar text was quoted from S.Matthew which is exactly as proclaimed by the Qur'ân in that none knows when the Hour will come except Allah. This establishes the fact that Jesus was subservient to Allah and that he had no share in Divinity: that he was an incarnation of God, was an innovation by the people of Canaan.

In John 20:16 -

"Jesus said unto her, 'Mary'. She turned herself, and sayeth unto him, 'Rabboni', which is to say, Master, Jesus saith unto her, 'Touch me not: For I am not yet ascended to my Father; but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father and your Father; and to my God and your God.' Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she has seen the Lord, and that He had spoken these things unto her."

In the above narrative Jesus clearly testified that Allah is his God and their God, making no difference between him and them in the worship of the One Allah. Whoever believes that Jesus is God has indeed blasphemed against Allah and betrayed the Messiah (Jesus) and all the Prophets and Messengers of Allah.


BIBLICAL PROPHECY ON THE ADVENT OF MUHAMMAD (peace be upon him SAW)

John 14:15-16 -

"If you love me, keep my commandments. And I will pray the Father and He shall give you another Comforter that he may abide with you forever."

Muslim theologians have said that "another Comforter" is Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah; and him to "abide forever" means the perpetuity of his laws and way of life (Sharia') and the Book (Qur'ân) which was revaled to him.

John 15:26-27 -

"But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me: And ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning."

John 16:5-8 -

"But now I go my way to Him that sent me and none of you asketh me 'Whither goest thou?' But because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart. Nevertheless I tell you the truth; for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and approve righteousness and judgment."

John 16:12-14 -

"I have yet many things to say unto you, but you cannot bear them now. How be it when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak; and he will shew you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and he shall shew it unto you."

John 16:16 -

"A little while and ye shall not see me: and again a little while, ye shall see me, because I go to the Father."

Muslim theologians have stated that the person who is described by Jesus to come after him in the above verses does not comply with any other person but Muhammad SAW the Messenger of Allah. This 'person' whom Jesus prophesied will come after him is called in the Bible 'Parqaleeta' This word was deleted by later interpreters and translators and changed at times to 'Spirit of Truth', and at other times, to 'Comforter' and sometimes to 'Holy Spirit'. The original word is Greek and its meaning is 'one whom people praise exceedingly.' The sense of the word is applicable to the word 'Muhammad' (in Arabic).


FINALITY ON PROOFS ON THE FABRICATION

OF THE STORY OF THE CROSS

(1) The Bible testifies to the fact that Jesus was known among the Jews; he used to preach and deliver sermons in the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. It was therefore, unnecessary to hire a Jew for thirty pieces of silver to direct them to him as related in S. Matthew.

(2) It is related that one of the twelve disciples named Judas Iscariot was hired to direct the Jews to Jesus. They then sentenced him after which Judas was greatly ashamed and dissociated himself from their act and then committed suicide. All this took place within twenty four hours. The contradictions are obvious.

(3) The clearest proof which alone is sufficient to discredit this story is when the Jews passed the sentence of death against Jesus and intended to get the approval of the governor, Pontious Pilate.

Matthew 27:11-14 -

'And Jesus stood before the governor: The governor asked him, saying, 'Art thou the king of the Jews!' And Jesus said unto him, 'Thou sayeth (sayest)': And when he was accused of (by) the chief priests and elders. He answered nothing. Then said Pilate unto him, 'Hearest thou not how many things they witness against thee?' And he answered him never (to) a word..."

The Christians will interpret the above verse to mean that Jesus wanted to die on the Cross for the redemption of mankind and for the forgiveness of their sins: if so, then why did he ask to turn away that cup from him (i.e. death)? Why did he cry out while on the Cross (as they assume): "O Lord, why hast thou forsaken me?" How could he have remained silent when the truth was being challenged? He was known for his soul-inspiring sermons challenging the learned Jewish Rabbis. No sane person can believe in this. If the story of the Cross is disproved then the very foundation on which Christianity is based, will be demolished.

Muslims believe that Jesus was not crucified by the Jews as revealed in the Holy Qur'ân by Allah in a crystal clear manner: V. 4:157,158.-

"And because of their saying (in boast): 'We killed Messiah Jesus, son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah'; - but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of Jesus was put over another man (and they killed that man), and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely, they killed him not (i.e., Jesus, son of Mary). But Allah raised him (Jesus) up (with his body and soul) unto Himself (and he alai-hiss-salaam is in the heavens).. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise."

The Jews themselves, together with the entire Christian world, believe that he was crucified. As proofs against their views and to prove the truth of the Muslim verdict through the Bible, I prepared the following set of questions based on the Book of S. Matthew in the New Testament of Bible. (Chapters 26 and 27):

(1) Did those who captured Jesus (according to their assumption) know him in person? or did they not know him?

S. Matthew testifies that they did not know him.

(2) Was it during the day or night that he was captured?

S.Matthew says it was during the night.

(3) Who was the one that directed them to him?

S. Matthew says: He was one of his twelve disciples called Judas lscariot.

(4) Did he direct them free of charge or for a fixed reward which they specified, for him?

S. Matthew says: He directed them to him for a fixed reward of thirty pieces of silver.

(5) What was the condition of Jesus during that night?

S. Matthew says: He was fearful and prostrated in prayer saying: "O God, if it is possible for You to let this cup pass from me, then let it pass." It is incredible that such words could come from a believer in God, let alone a Prophet of God, because all believers believe that God has power over all things.

(6) What was the condition of his eleven disciples?

S. Matthew says: Sleep overcame them that night together with their teacher (according to their assumption) out of fear.

(7) Was Jesus contented with their condition?

S. Matthew says (verses 40-46): He was not satisfied. He used to come to them to wake them up saying: "Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation; the spirit indeed is willing but the flesh is weak." Then he would come again to find them asleep and he would again wake them up and say the same thing. This weakness could not have been spoken of righteous pupils even if they were pupils of an ordinary pious teacher, let alone the disciples of Jesus, son of Mary.

(8) Did they help him when those ruffians captured him?

S. Matthew says: They forsook him and fled.

(9) Did Jesus have confidence in his disciples that night?

S. Matthew says: Jesus informed them that they will all forsake him. Then Jesus said unto them: "Verily I say unto thee that this night before the cock crows, thou shall deny me thrice." Peter said unto him, "Although I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee." Likewise also said all the disciples. And so it happened.

(10) How did those ruffians capture him?

S. Matthew says: They came to him with swords and staves after they were directed to him by a Jew, then they captured him as described in verse 57:

"And they that had laid hold on Jesus, led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the elders were assembled."

There they passed the sentence of death on him. The ruffians then took him away, spat on his face and struck him with their hands after which they stripped him of his clothes and clad him in scarlet robes, then placed a crown of thorns on his head and took him about, teasing and mocking him. They said to him: 'You are the king of Israel according to your claim.' They severely degraded him.

(11) Who finally decided to pass the death sentence against him?

S. Matthew says: He was Pontious Pilate, a Greek Roman, who was at that time the governor of Palestine.

(12) When the ruffians brought that man before the governor and informed him that the priest of the Jews passed the sentence of death by crucifixion according to their law (Torah), did he believe in them without investigation?

S. Matthew says: He did not believe them but asked that man: "Is it true what they have said?" He remained silent. The question was repeated and he continued to remain silent. He remained silent in view of the truth; it was essential for him even if he was not a Prophet to clarify the truth and deny the false accusation of the Jews. The governor's wife went to the governor and she said to him: "Have thou nothing to do with that just man? for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him."

The Bible states that Jesus delivered lengthy speeches to the Jews rebuking and warning them which amounted to defaming them. Then why was he silent that day? The governor's intention for asking him was to stand for the truth.

(13) How was he crucified according to their assumption?

S. Matthew says: They crucified him between two thieves both of whom abused him by saying to him, "If you are truthful then save yourself."

(14) This was a great calamity. What did he say while on the cross (according to their assumption)?

S. Matthew says (27:46):

Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, Iama sabachthani? (that is to say,) my God, my God, why has Thou forsaken me?"

This is a blatant declaration of disbelief according to all theological authorities. Whoever relates it to a Prophet is a disbeliever according to the revealed religions.

Almighty Allah, in the Qur'ân warns, the Jews and the Christians against their blasphemy; that Jesus is an incarnation of God (Allah) or the son of God (Allah) or in rejecting him totally; and that they must believe in him as a Messenger of Allah only:

"And there is none of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), but must believe in him (Jesus, son of Mary, as only a Messenger of Allah and a human being), before his (Jesusalai-hiss-salaam or a Jew's or a Christian's) death (at the time of the appearance of the angel of death). And on the Day of Resurrection, he (Jesus) will be a witness against them." (V.4:159).

    Dr. M. Taqî-ud-Din Al-Hilâlî
    Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khân
    Islamic University,

    Al-Madina Al-Munawwara



In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

Whoever finds any mistake in our translation of the interpretation of the meanings of the Noble Qur'ân into English, we request him to write to the Chancellor of the Islamic University at Al-Madîna, indicating the mistake and its place along with the correct translation. We thank all those who will point out these mistakes with the intention of seeking Allâh's Pleasures, and of correcting the translation of the interpretation of the meanings of the Noble Qur'ân and peace and Allâh's Blessings be upon our Prophet . Allâh is Surety over what we say.

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