22:1 Brethren and fathers (\Andres adelphoi kai pateres\) Men,
brethren, and fathers. The very language used by Stephen (7:2)
when arraigned before the Sanhedrin with Paul then present. Now
Paul faces a Jewish mob on the same charges brought against
Stephen. These words are those of courtesy and dignity (_amoris
et honoris nomina_, Page). These men were Paul's brother Jews and
were (many of them) official representatives of the people
(Sanhedrists, priests, rabbis). Paul's purpose is conciliatory,
he employs "his ready tact" (Rackham). The defence which I now
make unto you (\mou tˆs pros humas nuni apologias\). Literally,
My defence to you at this time. \Nuni\ is a sharpened form (by
\-i\) of \nun\ (now), just now. The term \apologia\ (apology) is
not our use of the word for apologizing for an offence, but the
original sense of defence for his conduct, his life. It is an old
word from \apologeomai\, to talk oneself off a charge, to make
defence. It occurs also in Ac 25:16 and then also in 1Co 9:3;
2Co 7:11; Php 1:7,16; 2Ti 4:16; 1Pe 3:15. Paul uses it again in
Ac 25:16 as here about his defence against the charges made by
the Jews from Asia. He is suspected of being a renegade from the
Mosaic law and charged with specific acts connected with the
alleged profanation of the temple. So Paul speaks in Aramaic and
recites the actual facts connected with his change from Judaism
to Christianity. The facts make the strongest argument. He first
recounts the well-known story of his zeal for Judaism in the
persecution of the Christians and shows why the change came. Then
he gives a summary of his work among the Gentiles and why he came
to Jerusalem this time. He answers the charge of enmity to the
people and the law and of desecration of the temple. It is a
speech of great skill and force, delivered under remarkable
conditions. The one in chapter Ac 26 covers some of the same
ground, but for a slightly different purpose as we shall see. For
a discussion of the three reports in Acts of Paul's conversion
see chapter Ac 9. Luke has not been careful to make every
detail correspond, though there is essential agreement in all
22:2 He spake (\proseph“nei\). Imperfect active, was speaking.
See aorist active \proseph“nˆsen\ in 21:40. They were the more
quiet (\mƒllon pareschon hˆsuchian\). Literally, The more
(\mƒllon\) they furnished or supplied (second aorist active
indicative of \parech“\) quietness (\hˆsuchian\, old word, in the
N.T. only here and 2Th 3:12; 1Ti 2:11ff.). Precisely this idiom
occurs in Plutarch (_Cor_. 18) and the LXX (Job 34:29).
Knowling notes the fondness of Luke for words of silence (\sigˆ,
siga“, hˆsuchaz“\) as in Lu 14:4; 15:26; Ac 11:18; 12:17; 15:12;
21:14,40. It is a vivid picture of the sudden hush that swept
over the vast mob under the spell of the Aramaic. They would have
understood Paul's _Koin‚_ Greek, but they much preferred the
Aramaic. It was a masterstroke.
22:3 I am a Jew (\Eg“ eimi anˆr Ioudaios\). Note use of \Eg“\
for emphasis. Paul recounts his Jewish advantages or privileges
with manifest pride as in Ac 26:4f.; 2Co 11:22; Ga 1:14; Php
3:4-7. Born (\gegennˆmenos\). Perfect passive participle of
\genna“\. See above in 21:39 for the claim of Tarsus as his
birth-place. He was a Hellenistic Jew, not an Aramaean Jew (cf.
Ac 6:1). Brought up (\anatethrammenos\). Perfect passive
participle again of \anatreph“\, to nurse up, to nourish up,
common old verb, but in the N.T. only here, 7:20ff., and MSS.
in Lu 4:16. The implication is that Paul was sent to Jerusalem
while still young, "from my youth" (26:4), how young we do not
know, possibly thirteen or fourteen years old. He apparently had
not seen Jesus in the flesh (2Co 5:16). At the feet of
Gamaliel (\pros tous podas Gamaliˆl\). The rabbis usually sat on
a raised seat with the pupils in a circle around either on lower
seats or on the ground. Paul was thus nourished in Pharisaic
Judaism as interpreted by Gamaliel, one of the lights of Judaism.
For remarks on Gamaliel see chapter 5:34ff. He was one of the
seven Rabbis to whom the Jews gave the highest title \Rabban\
(our Rabbi). \Rabbi\ (my teacher) was next, the lowest being
\Rab\ (teacher). "As Aquinas among the schoolmen was called
_Doctor Angelicus_, and Bonaventura _Doctor Seraphicus_, so
Gamaliel was called _the Beauty of the Law_" (Conybeare and
Howson). Instructed (\pepaideumenos\). Perfect passive
participle again (each participle beginning a clause), this time
of \paideu“\, old verb to train a child (\pais\) as in 7:22
which see. In this sense also in 1Ti 1:20; Tit 2:12. Then to
chastise as in Lu 23:16,22 (which see); 2Ti 2:25; Heb 12:6f.
According to the strict manner (\kata akribeian\). Old word,
only here in N.T. Mathematical accuracy, minute exactness as seen
in the adjective in 26:5. See also Ro 10:2; Gal 1:4; Php
3:4-7. Of our fathers (\patr“iou\). Old adjective from
\pater\, only here and 24:14 in N.T. Means descending from
father to son, especially property and other inherited
privileges. \Patrikos\ (patrician) refers more to personal
attributes and affiliations. Being zealous for God (\zˆl“tˆs
huparch“n tou theou\). Not adjective, but substantive zealot
(same word used by James of the thousands of Jewish Christians in
Jerusalem, 21:20 which see) with objective genitive \tou theou\
(for God). See also verse 14; 28:17; 2Ti 1:3 where he makes a
similar claim. So did Peter (Ac 3:13; 5:30) and Stephen
(7:32). Paul definitely claims, whatever freedom he demanded
for Gentile Christians, to be personally "a zealot for God" "even
as ye all are this day" (\kath“s pantes humeis este sˆmeron\). In
his conciliation he went to the limit and puts himself by the
side of the mob in their zeal for the law, mistaken as they were
about him. He was generous surely to interpret their fanatical
frenzy as zeal for God. But Paul is sincere as he proceeds to
show by appeal to his own conduct.
22:4 And I (\hos\). I who, literally. This Way (\tautˆn tˆn
hodon\). The very term used for Christianity by Luke concerning
Paul's persecution (9:2), which see. Here it "avoids any
irritating name for the Christian body" (Furneaux) by using this
Jewish terminology. Unto the death (\achri thanatou\). Unto
death, actual death of many as 26:10 shows. Both men and
women (\andras te kai gunaikas\). Paul felt ashamed of this fact
and it was undoubtedly in his mind when he pictured his former
state as "a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious (1Ti
1:13), the first of sinners" (1Ti 1:15). But it showed the
lengths to which Paul went in his zeal for Judaism.
22:5 Doth bear me witness (\marturei moi\). Present active
indicative as if still living. Caiaphas was no longer high priest
now, for Ananias is at this time (23:2), though he may be still
alive. All the estate of the elders (\pan to presbuterion\).
All the eldership or the Sanhedrin (4:5) of which Paul was
probably then a member (26:10). Possibly some of those present
were members of the Sanhedrin then (some 20 odd years ago). From
whom (\par' h“n\). The high priest and the Sanhedrin. Letters
unto the brethren (\epistalas pros tous adelphous\). Paul still
can tactfully call the Jews his "brothers" as he did in Ro 9:3.
There is no bitterness in his heart. Journeyed (\eporeuomˆn\).
Imperfect middle indicative of \poreuomai\, and a vivid reality
to Paul still as he was going on towards Damascus. To bring
also (\ax“n kai\). Future active participle of \ag“\, to express
purpose, one of the few N.T. examples of this classic idiom
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1118). Them which were there (\tous
ekeise ontas\). _Constructio praegnans_. The usual word would be
\ekei\ (there), not \ekeise\ (thither). Possibly the Christians
who had fled to Damascus, and so were there (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 548). In bonds (\dedemenous\). Perfect passive
participle of \de“\, predicate position, "bound." For to be
punished (\hina tim“rˆth“sin\). First aorist passive subjunctive
of \tim“re“\, old verb to avenge, to take vengeance on. In the
N.T. only here, and 26:11. Pure final clause with \hina\. He
carried his persecution outside of Palestine just as later he
carried the gospel over the Roman empire.
22:6 And it came to pass (\egeneto de\). Rather than the common
\kai egeneto\ and with the infinitive (\periastrapsai\), one of
the three constructions with \kai (de) egeneto\ by Luke
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1042f.), followed by \kai\, by finite
verb, by subject infinitive as here. As I made my journey (\moi
poreuomen“i\). To me (dative after \egeneto\, happened to me)
journeying (participle agreeing with \moi\). See this same idiom
in verse 17. Luke uses \egeneto de\ seventeen times in the
gospel and twenty-one in the Acts. Unto Damascus (\tˆi
Damask“i\). Dative after \eggizonti\ (drawing nigh to). About
noon (\peri mesˆmbrian\). Mid (\mesos\) day (\hˆmera\), old
word, in the N.T. only here and 8:26 which see where it may
mean "toward the south." An item not in ch. 9. Shone round about
me (\periastrapsai peri eme\). First aorist active infinitive of
\periastrapt“\, to flash around, in LXX and late Greek, in the
N.T. only here and 9:3 which see. Note repetition of \peri\. A
great light (\ph“s hikanon\). Luke's favourite word \hikanon\
(considerable). Accusative of general reference with the
22:7 I fell (\epesa\). Second aorist active indicative with
\-a\ rather than \epeson\, the usual form of \pipt“\. Unto the
ground (\eis to edaphos\). Old word, here alone in N.T. So the
verb \edaphiz“\, is in Lu 19:44 alone in the N.T. A voice
saying (\ph“nˆs legousˆs\). Genitive after \ˆkousa\, though in
26:14 the accusative is used after \ˆkousa\, as in 22:14
after \akousai\, either being allowable. See on ¯9:7 for
discussion of the difference in case. Saul's name repeated each
time (9:4; 22:7; 26:14). Same question also in each report:
"Why persecuted thou me?" (\Ti me di“keis?\). These piercing
words stuck in Paul's mind.
22:8 Of Nazareth (\ho Naz“raios\). The Nazarene, not in 9:5;
26:15 and here because Jesus is mentioned now for the first time
in the address. The form \Naz“raios\ as in Mt 2:23 (which see)
is used also in 24:5 for the followers of Jesus instead of
\Nazarˆnos\ as in Mr 1:24, etc. (which see).
22:9 But they heard not the voice (\tˆn de ph“nˆn ouk
ˆkousan\). The accusative here may be used rather than the
genitive as in verse 7 to indicate that those with Paul did not
understand what they heard (9:7) just as they beheld the light
(22:9), but did not see Jesus (9:7). The difference in cases
allows this distinction, though it is not always observed as just
noticed about 22:14; 26:14. The verb \akou“\ is used in the
sense of understand (Mr 4:33; 1Co 14:2). It is one of the
evidences of the genuineness of this report of Paul's speech that
Luke did not try to smooth out apparent discrepancies in details
between the words of Paul and his own record already in ch. 9.
The Textus Receptus adds in this verse: "And they became afraid"
(\kai emphoboi egenonto\). Clearly not genuine.
22:10 Into Damascus (\eis Damaskon\). In 9:6 simply "into the
city" (\eis tˆn polin\). Of all things which (\peri pant“n
h“n\). \H“n\, relative plural attracted to genitive of antecedent
from accusative \ha\, object of \poiˆsai\ (do). Are appointed
for thee (\tetaktai soi\). Perfect passive indicative of
\tass“\, to appoint, to order, with dative \soi\. Compare with
\hoti se dei\ of 9:6. The words were spoken to Paul, of course,
in the Aramaic, Saoul, Saoul.
22:11 I could not see (\ouk eneblepon\). Imperfect active of
\emblep“\, I was not seeing, same fact stated in 9:8. Here the
reason as "for the glory of that light" (\apo tˆs doxˆs tou
ph“tos ekeinou\). Being led by the hand (\cheirag“goumenos\).
Present passive participle of \cheirag“ge“\, the same verb used
in 9:8 (\cheirag“gountes\) which see. Late verb, in the N.T.
only in these two places. In LXX.
22:12 A devout man according to the law (\eulabˆs kata ton
nomon\). See on ¯2:5; 8:2; Lu 2:25 for the adjective \eulabˆs\.
Paul adds "according to the law" to show that he was introduced
to Christianity by a devout Jew and no law-breaker (Lewin).
22:13 I looked up on him (\anablepsa eis auton\). First aorist
active indicative and same word as \anablepson\ (Receive thy
sight). Hence here the verb means as the margin of the Revised
Version has it: "I received my sight and looked upon him." For
"look up" see Joh 9:11.
22:14 Hath appointed thee (\proecheirisato\). First aorist
middle indicative of \procheiriz“\, old verb to put forth into
one's hands, to take into one's hands beforehand, to plan,
propose, determine. In the N.T. only in Ac 3:20; 22:14; 26:16.
Three infinitives after this verb of God's purpose about Paul:
to know (\gn“nai\, second aorist active of \gin“sk“\) his will,
to see (\idein\, second aorist active of \hora“\) the Righteous
One (cf. 3:14), to hear (\akousai\, first aorist active of
\akou“\) a voice from his mouth.
22:15 A witness for him (\martus aut“i\). As in 1:8. Of
what (\h“n\). Attraction of the accusative relative \ha\ to the
genitive case of the unexpressed antecedent \tout“n\. Thou hast
seen and heard (\he“rakas\, present perfect active indicative
\kai ˆkousas\, first aorist active indicative). This subtle
change of tense is not preserved in the English. Blass properly
cites the perfect \he“raka\ in 1Co 9:1 as proof of Paul's
enduring qualification for the apostleship.
22:16 By baptized (\baptisai\). First aorist middle
(causative), not passive, Get thyself baptized (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 808). Cf. 1Co 10:2. Submit yourself to baptism.
So as to \apolousai\, Get washed off as in 1Co 6:11. It is
possible, as in 2:38, to take these words as teaching baptismal
remission or salvation by means of baptism, but to do so is in my
opinion a complete subversion of Paul's vivid and picturesque
language. As in Ro 6:4-6 where baptism is the picture of death,
burial and resurrection, so here baptism pictures the change that
had already taken place when Paul surrendered to Jesus on the way
(verse 10). Baptism here pictures the washing away of sins by
the blood of Christ.
22:17 When I had returned (\moi hupostrepsanti\), while I
prayed (\proseuchomenou mou\), I fell (\genesthai me\). Note
dative \moi\ with \egeneto\ as in verse 6, genitive \mou\
(genitive absolute with \proseuchomenou\), accusative of general
reference \me\ with \genesthai\, and with no effort at
uniformity, precisely as in 15:22,23 which see. The participle
is especially liable to such examples of anacolutha (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 439).
22:18 Saw him saying (\idein auton legonta\). The first visit
after his conversion when they tried to kill him in Jerusalem
(9:29). Because (\dioti, dia\ and \hoti\), for that.
22:19 Imprisoned and beat (\ˆmˆn phulakiz“n kai der“n\).
Periphrastic imperfect active of \phulakiz“\ (LXX and late
_Koin‚_, here alone in the N.T.) and \der“\ (old verb to skin, to
beat as in Mt 21:35 which see). In every synagogue (\kata tas
sunagogas\). Up and down (\kata\) in the synagogues.
22:20 Was shed (\exechunneto\). Imperfect passive of \ekchunn“\
(see on ¯Mt 23:35), was being shed. Witness (\marturos\). And
"martyr" also as in Re 2:13; 17:6. Transition state for the
word here. I also was standing by (\kai autos ˆmˆn ephest“s\).
Periphrastic second past perfect in form, but imperfect (linear)
in sense since \hest“s=histamenos\ (intransitive). Consenting
(\suneudok“n\). The very word used by Luke in Ac 8:1 about
Paul. _Koin‚_ word for being pleased at the same time with (cf.
Lu 11:48). Paul adds here the item of "guarding the clothes of
those who were slaying (\anairount“n\ as in Lu 23:32; Ac 12:2)
him" (Stephen). Paul recalls the very words of protest used by
him to Jesus. He did not like the idea of running away to save
his own life right where he had helped slay Stephen. He is
getting on dangerous ground.
22:21 I will send thee forth far hence unto the Gentiles (\Eg“
eis ethnˆ makran exapostel“ se\). Future active of the double
(\ex\, out, \apo\, off or away) compound of \exapostell“\, common
word in the _Koin‚_ (cf. Lu 24:49). This is a repetition by
Jesus of the call given in Damascus through Ananias (9:15).
Paul had up till now avoided the word Gentiles, but at last it
had to come, "the fatal word" (Farrar).
22:22 They gave him audience (\ˆkouon\). Imperfect active, they
kept on listening, at least with respectful attention. Unto this
word (\achri toutou tou logou\). But "this word" was like a
spark in a powder magazine or a torch to an oil tank. The
explosion of pent-up indignation broke out instantly worse than
at first (21:30). Away with such a fellow from the earth
(\Aire apo tˆs gˆs ton toiouton\). They renew the cry with the
very words in 21:36, but with "from the earth" for vehemence.
For it is not fit (\ou gar kathˆken\). Imperfect active of
\kathˆk“\, old verb to come down to, to become, to fit. In the
N.T. only here and Ro 1:28. The imperfect is a neat Greek idiom
for impatience about an obligation: It was not fitting, he ought
to have been put to death long ago. The obligation is conceived
as not lived up to like our "ought" (past of owe). See Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 886.
22:23 As they cried out (\kraugazont“n aut“n\). Genitive
absolute with present active participle of \kraugaz“\, a rare
word in the old Greek from \kraugˆ\ (a cry). See on ¯Mt 12:19.
Two other genitive absolutes here, \rhiptount“n\ (throwing off,
present active participle, frequent active variation of \rhipt“\)
and \ballont“n\ (present active participle of \ball“\, flinging).
These present participles give a lively picture of the
uncontrolled excitement of the mob in their spasm of wild rage.
22:24 That he be examined by scourging (\mastixin anetazesthai
auton\). The present passive infinitive of \anetaz“\ in indirect
command after \eipas\ (bidding). This verb does not occur in the
old Greek (which used \exetaz“\ as in Mt 2:8), first in the
LXX, in the N.T. only here and verse 29, but Milligan and
Moulton's _Vocabulary_ quotes an Oxyrhynchus papyrus of A.D. 127
which has a prefect using the word directing government clerks to
"examine" (\anetazein\) documents and glue them together into
volumes (\tomoi\). The word was evidently in use for such
purposes. It was a kind of "third degree" applied to Paul by the
use of scourges (\mastixin\), instrumental plural of \mastix\,
old word for whip, as in Heb 11:36. But this way of beginning
an inquiry by torture (inquisition) was contrary to Roman law
(Page): _Non esse a tormentis incipiendum, Divus Augustus
statuit_. That he might know (\hina epign“i\). Final clause
with \hina\ and second aorist active subjunctive of \epign“sk“\
(full knowledge). Lysias was as much in the dark as ever, for
Paul's speech had been in Aramaic and this second explosion was a
mystery to him like the first. They so shouted (\houtos
epeph“noun\). Imperfect active progressive imperfect had been so
22:25 When they had tied him up (\hos proeteinan auton\). First
aorist active indicative of \protein“\, old verb to stretch
forward, only here in the N.T. Literally, "When they stretched
him forward." With the thongs (\tois himasin\). If the
instrumental case of \himas\, old word for strap or thong (for
sandals as Mr 1:7, or for binding criminals as here), then Paul
was bent forward and tied by the thongs to a post in front to
expose his back the better to the scourges. But \tois himasin\
may be dative case and then it would mean "for the lashes." In
either case it is a dreadful scene of terrorizing by the
chiliarch. Unto the centurion that stood by (\pros ton hest“ta
hekatontarchon\). He was simply carrying out the orders of the
chiliarch (cf. Mt 27:54). Why had not Paul made protest before
this? Is it lawful? (\ei exestin?\). This use of \ei\ in
indirect questions we have had before (1:6). A Roman and
uncondemned (\Romaion kai akatakriton\). Just as in 16:37
which see. Blass says of Paul's question: _Interrogatio
subironica est confidentiae plena_.
22:26 What art thou about to do? (\Ti melleis poiein?\). On the
point of doing, sharp warning.
22:27 Art thou a Roman? (\Su Romaios ei?\). Thou (emphatic
position) a Roman? It was unbelievable.
22:28 With a great sum (\pollou kephalaiou\). The use of
\kephalaiou\ (from \kephalˆ\, head) for sums of money (principal
as distinct from interest) is old and frequent in the papyri. Our
word capital is from \caput\ (head). The genitive is used here
according to rule for price. "The sale of the Roman citizenship
was resorted to by the emperors as a means of filling the
exchequer, much as James I. made baronets" (Page). Dio Cassius
(LX., 17) tells about Messalina the wife of Claudius selling
Roman citizenship. Lysias was probably a Greek and so had to buy
his citizenship. But I am a Roman born (\Eg“ de kai
gegennˆmai\). Perfect passive indicative of \genna“\. The word
"Roman" not in the Greek. Literally, "But I have been even born
one," (i.e. born a Roman citizen). There is calm and simple
dignity in this reply and pardonable pride. Being a citizen of
Tarsus (21:39) did not make Paul a Roman citizen. Tarsus was an
_urbs libera_, not a _colonia_ like Philippi. Some one of his
ancestors (father, grandfather) obtained it perhaps as a reward
for distinguished service. Paul's family was of good social
position. "He was educated by the greatest of the Rabbis; he was
at an early age entrusted by the Jewish authorities with an
important commission; his nephew could gain ready access to the
Roman tribune; he was treated as a person of consequence by
Felix, Festus, Agrippa, and Julius" (Furneaux).
22:29 Departed from him (\apestˆsan ap' autou\). Second aorist
active indicative (intransitive) of \aphistˆmi\, stood off from
him at once. Was afraid (\ephobˆthˆ\). Ingressive aorist
passive indicative of \phobeomai\, became afraid. He had reason
to be. That he was a Roman (\hoti Romaios estin\). Indirect
assertion with tense of \estin\ retained. Because he had bound
him (\hoti auton ˆn dedek“s\). Causal \hoti\ here after
declarative \hoti\ just before. Periphrastic past perfect active
of \de“\, to bind.
22:30 To know the certainty (\gn“nai to asphales\). Same idiom
in 21:34 which see. Wherefore he was accused (\to ti
kategoreitai\). Epexegetical after to \asphales\. Note article
(accusative case) with the indirect question here as in Lu
22:1,23,24 (which see), a neat idiom in the Greek. Commanded
(\ekeleusen\). So the Sanhedrin had to meet, but in the Tower of
Antonia, for he brought Paul down (\katagag“n\, second aorist
active participle of \katag“\). Set him (\estˆsen\). First
aorist active (transitive) indicative of \histˆmi\, not the
intransitive second aorist \estˆ\. Lysias is determined to find
out the truth about Paul, more puzzled than ever by the important
discovery that he has a Roman citizen on his hands in this