Paul Time Line
Tim Naab 06/02/03
4 bc Jesus and John the Baptist are born (many believe Jesus was actually
born BC because of a matter involving the Roman Calendar). The
death of Herod is important in its relation to the birth of Christ. The eclipse
mentioned by Josephus (Ant., 17, 6, 4), who also gives the length of Herod's
reign -- thirty-seven years from the time he was appointed by the Romans, 40 bc;
or thirty-four from the death of Antigonus, 37 bc. (Ant., 17, 8, 1)-- fixes the
death of Herod in the spring of 4 B. C. Christ was born before Herod's death
(Matt. 2:1), but how long before is uncertain: the possible dates lie between 8
bc and 4 bc (see a summary of opinions and reasons in Gigot, "Outlines of N. T.
Hist.", 42, 43). Herod dies and is succeeded by Archelaus.
becomes High Priest.
Annas, son of Seth,
succeeded 7ad Joazar in the high-priesthood by appointment of Quirinius who had
come to Judea to attend to the incorporation of Archelaus's territory into the
Roman province of Syria (Josephus, Ant., 18, 2, 1). Archelaus is deposed by
Augustus and replaced by Herod Antipas. Archelaus soon aroused opposition by
marrying his brother's wife -- a crime like that of Antipas later -- and having
been accused of cruelty by his subjects, "not able to bear his barbarous and
tyrannical usage of them", he was banished to Vienne, Gaul, A. D. 7 in the tenth
year of his government (Josephus., "Antiquities.", 17, 8 , 8 , 1, 2).
A young Jesus (12 yrs
of age) astounds the priests in the Temple with his wisdom (Lk. 2:41-46).
14 ad Augustus
dies “He died in the
same room as his father Octavius, in the consulship of two Sextuses, Pompeius
and Appuleius, on the fourteenth day before the Kalends of September [August 19,
14 A.D.] at the ninth hour, just thirty-five days before his seventy-sixth
birthday.” Suetonius: De Vita
Caesarum--Divus Augustus C, 1, 1, and is succeeded by Tiberius as
Annas is removed as High Priest “After his deposition (A. D. 15) by V. Gratus,
the high-priests followed upon one another in rapid succession: Ismael, Eleazar
(son of Annas; perhaps the Alexander of Acts, iv, 6, Alexander being the
Grćcized name of Eleazar), Simon, until we come to Joseph, called Caiaphas, who
knew how to retain the favour of the Roman authorities from A. D. 18 to 36
(Josephus, Ant., 18, 2, 2). and son-in-law Caiaphas eventually succeeds him.
Pontius Pilate becomes Procurator of Judea until 36 AD.
Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the
fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in 2 ad. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews
18.2.2 Tiberius..."sent Valerius Gratus to be procurator of Judea, and to
succeed Annius Rufus. This man deprived Ananus of the high priesthood, and
appointed Ismael, the son of Phabi, to be high priest. He also deprived him in a
little time, and ordained Eleazar, the son of Ananus, who had been high priest
before, to be high priest; which office, when he had held for a year, Gratus
deprived him of it, and gave the high priesthood to Simon, the son of Camithus;
and when he had possessed that dignity no longer than a year, Joseph Caiaphas
was made his successor. When Gratus had done those things, he went back to Rome,
after he had
tarried in Judea eleven years, when Pontius Pilatus came as his successor."
John the Baptist began is ministry (30 yrs of age Numbers 4) (Lk. 3: 1, 2).
Jesus is baptized by John and also begins his ministry (30 yrs of age Numbers
4) (Mk. 1: 4-11).
Jesus is crucified and resurrected from the dead This time table is based
primarily on Jesus' birth occurring at 4 BC. Hence, Jesus would have been 33
years of age when crucified. (3 ˝ years after Baptism)
Gamaliel encourages tolerance of the Christians in his speech (Acts 5: 33-42).
Steven becomes the first martyr. It appears that about this same year, Paul is
mentioned as persecuting Christians and later becoming a Christian himself (Acts
7, 9). ( 3-1/2 years after Christ is Crucified and resurrected)
occupation of Damascus by the ethnarch of King Aretas and the escape of the
Apostle three years after his conversion (II Cor., xi, 32-33; Acts, ix, 23-26).
As Tiberias died in C.E. 37, and as the Arabian affair was completely settled in
39, it is evident that the date of Paul’s conversion must lie somewhere between
34 and 36. This date is further fixed by a Damascus coin, with the image of King
Aretas and the date 101. If that date points to the Pompian era, it equals C.E.
37, making the date of Paul’s conversion C.E. 34. (T. E. Mionnet, Description
des medailles antiques greques et romaines, V , 284f.). (Dosker
The Gentiles are officially received as exemplified in the case of Cornelius and
his household (Acts 10). Caligula is assassinated and Claudius becomes emperor
of Rome until 54 AD. "And
when James, Cephas [Peter], and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the
grace [i.e., the gift or office] that was given unto me, they gave to me and
Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen, and
they unto the circumcision" (Gal. 2:9). Paul further mentioned his special
office as the Gentile Apostle in II Timothy 1:11: "Whereunto I am appointed a
preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles."
Paul and Barnabas preach the gospel in Antioch (Acts 11: 20-26).
Paul and Barnabas take contributions to Jerusalem from Antioch (Acts 11:
27-30). James, the brother of John, is put to death by Herod Agrippa I (Acts
A.D., we find Peter being cast into prison at Jerusalem (Acts 12:3, 4).
Paul goes on his first preaching trip (Acts 13, 14, the first trip was probably
46-49 or part of 50 AD).
Paul and Barnabas return to Antioch after their first preaching trip (Acts 14).
Peter was still in Jerusalem, this time attending the Jerusalem Council.
The famous Jerusalem meeting in which the issue of the Christians of Jewish
descent binding the Law of Moses on Christians of Gentile ancestry was discussed
and debated (Acts 15). Peter in Jerusalem, this time attending the Jerusalem
Paul and Barnabas separate over John Mark (Acts 15: 36). Paul and Silas went on
Paul's second organized preaching trip (Acts 15: 36 - 18: 23, about three years,
54 AD). Peter was in Antioch of Syria where he got into differences with Paul
because he wouldn’t sit or eat with Gentiles. Another example of a chronological
marker occurs during the apostle Paul’s visit to Corinth following the famous
Jerusalem conference of Acts 15. This marker has value in determining the date
of the Acts 15 conference. Immediately after the conference the apostle Paul
traveled to Asia Minor and then went on to Greece ultimately settling in
Corinth. There he remained for eighteen months. Paul has a confrontation with
Diaspora Jews and appears before Gallio soon after the proconsul’s arrival and
fairly soon after Paul’s preaching in the city. Gallio served as proconsul of
Achaia for a short time (Acts 18:12), from about July 1, 51 CE to July 1, 52 C.E.,
during Paul’s stay in Corinth (Charlesworth 1971:682).
Some place the writing of Galatians and perhaps the Epistle of James at 52 AD.
Paul returns to Antioch of Syria, ending his second preaching trip (Acts 18:
22). There is great likelihood that the event mentioned in Galatians 2: 11-14
occurred at this time. It is believed to have also been 54 AD that Paul went on
his third trip in preaching the gospel (Acts 18: 23).
It was during 55, 56 AD that Paul appears to have written I and 2 Corinthians.
Paul begins his return trip to Jerusalem (Acts 20: 3).
When Paul finally arrived at Rome, the first thing he did was to summon "the
chief of the Jews together" (Acts 28:17) to whom he "expounded and testified the
kingdom of God" (Verse 23). But what is amazing is that these chief Jewish
elders claimed they knew very little even about the basic teachings of Christ.
All they knew was that ‘‘as concerning this sect, we know that everywhere it is
spoken against" (Verse 22). Then Paul began to explain to them the basic
teachings of Christ on the Kingdom of God. Some believed -- the majority didn’t.
It is evident from this that Peter was not in Rome prior to this. Paul is
arrested and imprisoned in Caesarea for two years (Acts 22-24). After the
rejection of the Jewish elders, Paul remained in his own hired house for two
years. During that time he wrote Epistles to the Ephesians, the Philippians, the
Colossians, Philemon, and to the Hebrews. And while Paul mentions others as
being in Rome during that period, he nowhere mentions Peter. The obvious reason
is -- the Apostle to the circumcision wasn’t there.
Some believe Mark and Matthew were written in 60 AD.
After two years, it is believed that Nero found Paul innocent of wrongdoing and
Paul is set free (Acts 28). It was during this confinement in Rome that Paul
wrote his prison epistles (Ephesians, Colossians, etc.). Acts would then cover
a span of about 30 years and is a valuable source of information relative to
inception, growth, and problems experienced by the early church. With the
expiration of Paul’s two year’s imprisonment, he was released. But about four
years later (near 65 A.D.), he was again sent back a prisoner to Rome. This time
he had to appear before the throne of Caesar and was sentenced to die. Paul
describes these circumstances at length in II Timothy.
Rome burns and Nero blames the Christians. As a result severe persecution
against Christians is experienced.
64 - 66
on the Island of Patmos to receive visions that constitute the Book of
The Apostle Paul distinctly informs us that Peter was not in Rome in 65 A.D.
Paul said: "Only Luke is with me" (II Tim. 4:11).
66 AD as the time of Paul's second imprisonment. Paul apparently is put to
death at this time (cp. 2 Tim. 4: 6-8). Peter in the city of Babylon among the
Jews (I Pet. 5:13). With the expiration of Paul’s two year’s imprisonment, he
was released. But about four years later (near 65 A.D.), he was again sent back
a prisoner to Rome. This time he had to appear before the throne of Caesar and
was sentenced to die. Paul describes these circumstances at length in II
Temple at Jerusalem is destroyed as prophesied by Jesus (Olivet Discourse).
Daniel 9:24-27 Time Line
There are but three
possible dates for the commencement of the seventy-week calendar. First,
Zerubbabel led a group of Hebrews out of captivity in 536 B.C. This seems to be
an unlikely beginning point, however, because 486 years from 536 B.C. would end
at 50 B.C., which was eighty years prior to Jesus’ death. Second, Nehemiah led a
band back to Canaan in 444 B.C. Is this the commencement point for computing the
prophecy? Probably not, for 486 years after 444 B.C. ends at A.D. 42 — a dozen
years after the death of Christ. However, in 457 B.C., Ezra took a company from
Babylon back to Jerusalem. Does this date work mathematically? Indeed. If one
starts at 457 B.C., and goes forward for 486 ˝ years, the resulting date is A.D.
30 — the very year of Christ’s crucifixion! This is the common view (Scott, p.
objection to this argument is the claim that Ezra issued no charge to rebuild
the city of Jerusalem, and so the starting point of the prophecy could not date
from the time of his return. Noted scholar Gleason Archer has responded to this
allegation by affirming that Ezra’s commission:
“. . . apparently
included authority to restore and build the city of Jerusalem (as we may deduce
from Ezra 7:6,7, and also 9:9, which states, ‘God . . . hath extended
lovingkindness unto us in the sight of the kings of Persia, to give us a
reviving, to set up the house of God, and to repair the ruins thereof, and to
give us a wall in Judea and in Jerusalem,’ ASV). Even though Ezra did not
actually succeed in accomplishing the rebuilding of the walls till Nehemiah
arrived thirteen years later, it is logical to understand 457 B.C. as the
terminus a quo for the decree predicted in Daniel 9:25” (p. 387, emp. in orig.).
In “the midst” of the
seventieth week, i.e., after the fulfillment of the 486˝ years, the Anointed One
was to be “cut off.” This is a reference to the death of Jesus. Isaiah similarly
foretold that Christ would be “cut off out of the land of the living” (Isaiah
Seventy weeks are determined
upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make
an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in
everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint
the most Holy.
25 Know therefore and
understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build
Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and
two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous
26 And after threescore
and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of
the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end
thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are
27 And he shall confirm
the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause
the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of
abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that
determined shall be poured upon the desolate.
7 weeks = 49 years.
7 weeks then 62 weeks then 1 week = 49 years + 434 years + 7 years (490 years).
First 7 weeks (49
years) = 457 to 408 B.C.
Restoration and rebuilding of Jerusalem under Ezra and Nehemiah. From the
beginning to the settling in Jerusalem.
62 Weeks (434 years) = 408 B.C. to 27 A.D. From the
settling in Jerusalem to the baptism of Jesus. He was born around 4 B.C. and was
“about” 30 years old when baptized, hereby publicly identified as the Messiah.
The 30th year was the age at which men of Israel were permitted to become active
in temple or tabernacle service.
Last Week, 1st part (3 ˝ years) After his baptism
Jesus demonstrated the new in-breaking kingdom of God, preaching and manifesting
the gospel of the kingdom saying the time is fulfilled, culminating in his death
Middle of the Week (between the last 7 years) Christ’s death ended the Old Covenant obligation, though continued to be
practiced, it no longer had value and acceptability, been superseded by the
once-for-all sacrifice of Christ. It sealed the fulfillment of all six promises
of verse 24.
Last Week, 2nd part (3 ˝ years) The first half
being fulfilled, there remains another half to be fulfilled before Jesus’
followers would be free to take the Gospel outside the Jewish realm. Acts 11:19
Now they which were scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about
Stephen traveled as far as Phenice, and Cyprus, and Antioch, preaching the word
to none but unto the Jews only. Paul says: Acts 22:20 And when the blood of
thy martyr Stephen was shed, I also was standing by, and consenting unto his
death, and kept the raiment of them that slew him. Romans 15:16 That I should
be the minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God,
that the offering up of the Gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by
the Holy Ghost. The Gospel was freed to go to the gentiles at the calling of
Paul. This Generation ended the Jewish age. Hebrew 9: The Holy Ghost this
signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest,
while as the first tabernacle was yet standing:
Notes on Daniel 9:27:
And he shall confirm the
covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the
sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations
he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined
shall be poured upon the desolate.
The word “he” is a singular pronoun and must refer to a
singular noun. For instance, if I were to say, “Joe is going to Disney land and
John’s friends are going with him. He is buying the tickets when they get
there.” The word “he” must refer back to “Joe” because only Joe and “friends”
are going. John was not said to be going to Disney Land but only his friends.
Therefore only Joe can be the “he” that is buying the tickets. If I had said,
“They (plural pronoun) are buying the tickets.”. I would have been referring to
John’s friends. There is no indication that John is even going to Disney Land.
“John” is simply a modifier of the plural noun “friends”.
In looking at the “he” in verse 27 we need to go back
to verse 26 to see who this “he” is.
And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for
himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and
the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of
the war desolations are determined.
There are only 2
singular nouns in this passage that “he” can be referring to, Messiah or prince.
The verse does not indicate that the “prince” is coming but only the people OF
the prince that shall come. “Prince” is used as a modifier to tell us who the
“people” are. If we knew who these people were then “the prince” could be
removed from the verse and do no harm, i.e.,
And after threescore and
two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people that
shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall
be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.
The only singular noun left is “Messiah”. The “he” in
verse 27 must refer to Messiah.
So now we can read verse 27 as “And Messiah shall
confirm the covenant with many for one week”. Also the second part of verse
27, “and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the
oblation to cease,” Who but the Messiah could possibly cause the sacrifices
and oblation to cease, notice it was in the midst of the week, (3 ˝ years)
Christ was crucified 3 ˝ years after His baptism.. Note the 3rd part
of this verse, “and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it
desolate”, the word “for” means “because of” in other words “because of the
overspreading of abominations, Messiah will make it desolate. If this were
referring to the anti-christ in the tribulation, then why would he be concerned
with abominations being “overspread” ( or wide spread)? Would not this be
what the anti-christ would want to happen?
There is no gap in Daniels 70 weeks. Verse 24 says “seventy weeks are
determined” or to be “decreed” set in stone, neither unmovable nor changeable.
Paul said, Galatians 3:17 “And this I say, that the covenant, that was
confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty
years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.”