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THE

COMING OF MESSIAH

IN

GLORY AND MAJESTY

BY

JUAN JOSAFAT BEN-EZRA,

A CONVERTED JEW

TRANSLATED FROM THE SPANISH, WITH A PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE, BY THE REV. EDWARD IRVING, A.M.

Volume I

PUBLISHED BY L. B. SEELEY AND SON FLEET STREET, LONDON MDCCCXXVII

THIS EDITION PUBLISHED BY J G TILLIN ENGLAND © MM

“For he put on righteousness as a breast-plate, and an helmet of salvation upon his head; and he put on the garments of vengeance for clothing, and was clad with zeal as a cloke. According to their deeds, accordingly he will repay, fury to his adversaries, recompense to his enemies; to the islands he will repay recompense. So shall they fear the name of the Lord from the west, and his glory from the rising of the sun. When the enemy shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him. And the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the Lord. As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the Lord.” Isa. 59:17-21

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Dedicated to Tricia Tillin A watchman for the Lord

Go through, go through the gates; prepare ye the way of the people; cast up, cast up the highway; gather out the stones; lift up a standard for the people. Is. 62:10

 

PREFACE TO THIS EDITION

The restoration of God’s chosen people at the close of this age was a truth obscured by a Church that had appropriated those promises for its own purposes. Around the start of the nineteenth century the Lord was gracious enough to begin to open the eyes of a few to the literal significance of the prophecies set forth in His Word. The Church was perhaps entering the Laodician age and needed to prepare for the things to come. The Roman church had, certainly since the fifth century A.D. preached a gospel of replacement; that is the Church taking on the mantle of Israel and inheiriting the promises once given to that bride.

In 1812, under the very noses of some who would stifle the blessed hope of the Jews, ‘Ben Ezra’ published ‘The Coming of Messiah in Glory and Majesty’ during a brief period of respite from the Roman Catholic Inquisition. By some miracle the work reached Britain, and was taken up and translated by Edward Irving, a minister of the Church of Scotland. Published in England in 1827 the work has been oft quoted and represented (though not always accurately). It has proven difficult to place the original in the hands of modern readers due to the lack of printed copies.

‘Ben Ezra’ is the psydonim for a Roman Jesuit priest named Manuel de Lacunza. This information will occasion many Protestants to read no further, but bear with us a while before shutting the book. I would avow this before you the reader: if Luther was correct in demanding ‘Sola Scriptorum’ (and would we dare to deny that) then Lacunza may be taken as a model of those that would follow Luther’s clarion call. If ever a Christian author was to insist absolutely on the veracity and primacy of the Word of God these pages show such a one. Indeed, one of the prime reasons for his work was to rebutt the centuries old claims of the ‘doctors of the Church’ who sought to put the Church in the position of the Jews both now and during the end times. Lacunza takes us back again and again to the inerrant word of God and sweeps away 12 centuries of replacement theology to show again the teaching of the early church and the scriptures. For these reasons, and despite the support of his peers who read the work, the Catholic Church banned the book.

None-the-less, we have to recognise the Lacunza was a Roman Catholic; there are a few doctrinal views in the work that will cause concern. But, as Irving says, the few Roman doctrines that do appear are far outweighed by the light of the gospel. And who are we to strain at those few gnats when the Protestant Church has swallowed so many camels! In any case, did the reformers themselves all fully come out from some of those pervasive doctrines of the Roman Church? So, no more on this topic; the volumes herein contain so much sweetness and truth that we say let the intelligent readers of any denomination decide for themselves after studyng this work.

Why produce this version? Lacunza’s contribution to present day evangelicalism was to reassert the restoration of the Jews in the end-times, the two-fold coming of the Lord; the millenial reign; the setting up of the temple sacrifice once again; and the restoration of the earth following the yet future and final defeat of Satan. His position has been described technically as ‘futurist posttribulational’, he offers some explanations of scripture that seem unacceptable to us today (for example the concept of Antichrist as a moral body rather than a person), but always he relies on the Word as his authority. Actually he has more to say on the end-times than those few points but why repeat here what he himself so eloquently discusses.

There is a second reason for republishing the work and that is to make available to serious students of church history a work published at a time when our understanding of ‘the Church’ and the rapture of the saints was beginning to be discussed with renewed fervor amongst Christians. It is not the purpose of this preface to dicuss the relative significance of J. N. Darby, Edward Irving or Emmanuel Lacunza: others have given that fuller attention that I might ever hope to do. I simply offer this to the present Church as a servant of the Most High, giving my bretheren the opportunity to read this work at their leisure; to see what Lacunza does, and does not say. We will not agree with everything he says, indeed we may agree with nothing; but then all Lacunza ever asks of us is that we read and consider.

The copying and transcribing work that this version represents would not have been possible to me without the aid of modern electronic techniques and the peace of God during its long gestation. I have undertaken the work with the diligence due to the product of a brother in Christ: this edition is intended to be a facsimile of the original and therefore no editing has taken place. Any inconsistencies with the original publication are the unwitting fault of the present ‘scribe’; none have been intended. However, to make the flow of the work a little more restful to the modern eye a few technical amendments have been made. Obvious typographical errors have been corrected (though I may have inadvertently created some of my own in such a large undertaking).

Should you desire a taste of Lacunza’s writing then read this snippet below, and then perhaps you will see the worth of his labour:

These things which I have pointed out, and others of the same kind, are doubtless the things upon which they (the doctors) have their eye, when they set forth and exaggerate the great danger we are in from reading the scriptures without the light and help of their commentaries. It may not be, that as we believe without difficulty everything we read in the scriptures against the Jews and in favour of the Christianized Gentiles, we should likewise believe with simplicity what we find in the same scriptures to be written against, and in disparagement of the Christian nations, and in favour of the Jews. It may not be, that we should fall into the error of thinking, or suspecting, that the great affliction which befell the people of God, and his first spouse, may likewise befall the new people and the second spouse, likewise so much beloved by God. It may not be, finally, That we should open our eyes and regard even as possible, that the first spouse of God, or the house of Jacob, may one day return to the favour of her husband; may one day with great honours be recalled to her antient dignity; may one day occupy the place now filled by her who succeeded; —when she also shall have become faithless and ungrateful as the former, and when she shall have surpassed her in malice, and make her appear just, by the abundance of her own iniquity. All these things which I have pointed out as it were merely in the sketch, will, as we proceed, open out by little and little; for it is not possible to explain in a few words such great, and at the same time such delicate mysteries.

Part II PH V.

The reader may note that text unique to this edition has been presented in a sans-serif font to distinguish it from the original.

Even so, Come Lord Jesus…

Jonathan Tillin Belper December 2000

DEDICATION.

To the CHURCH OF CHRIST of all denominations who Worship God in the English tongue, and believe that Jesus Christ, who came heretofore in suffering flesh, shall come hereafter in glory.

DEARLY BELOVED IN THE LORD.

My soul is greatly afflicted because of the present unawakened and even dead condition of all the churches, with respect to the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, which draweth nigh, and which, as I believe, is, close at hand: and having, by God’s especial providence, been brought to the knowledge of a book, written in the Spanish tongue, which clearly sets forth, and demonstrates from Holy Scripture, the erroneous-ness of the opinion, almost universally entertained amongst us, that He is not to come till the end of the millennium, and what you call the last day, meaning thereby the instant or very small period preceding the conflagration and annihilation of this earth; I have thought it my duty to translate the same into the English tongue for your sake, that you may be able to disabuse yourselves of that great error, which hath become the inlet to many false hopes, and will, I fear, if not speedily corrected, prove the inlet to many worldly principles and confederacies, and hasten the ruin and downfall of the present churches. And now, forasmuch as it is to those who look for him that he is to appear without sin unto salvation, and to those who love his appearing that the crown of glory remaineth, I do exhort you, dearly beloved in the Lord, and as a friend and brother I do entreat you, yea, as a ambassador of the great God our Saviour, whose servants you are, I do command you, in that High and Holy name at which every knee shall bow, that you take leisure from your several avocations, lay aside your several speculations, and diligently apply yourselves to the Holy Scriptures and to the throne of the Heavenly Majesty, that by the Holy Spirit, whose office it is to show you things to come, you may come to some light of divine knowledge, and determination of holy purpose, upon this subject of Messiah’s advent, which until now hath ever been wont to be cherished as the great and darling hope of the believer’s soul. Whereby we know that it is the last time, because it is written (2 Pet. i.3.), there shall come in the last days scoffers, saying, Where is the hope of his coming.

From your brother in the common faith, and servant in the Ministry of the Gospel, a Presbyter of the Church of Scotland.

EDWARD IRVING.

PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE.

PART I.

GIVING SOME ACCOUNT OF THE MATTERS CONTAINED IN THIS BOOK: WHAT THE TRANSLATOR KNOWS OF IT AND ITS AUTHOR, AND THE VERY REMARKABLE PROVIDENCE BY WHICH HE WAS BROUGHT AQUAINTED WITH IT.

PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE BY THE TRANSLATOR.

I have always deemed it an honour to be instructed by good and wise men in any portion of divine truth, and felt it to be, of all others the most proper subject of thanksgiving unto God, and open acknowledgment in the sight of men; but when this instruction hath proceeded without any mediation or instrumentality of man’s teaching, I have felt that in a still higher degree my acknowledgments are due unto the Holy Spirit, and that the praise belongeth unto God. Which having been remarkably the case with respect to the great truths of the second advent contained in this book, I do now solemnly pay my vows, and offer my thanksgivings unto the Lord in the presence of his church, for whom I have undertaken this labour.

I desire to thank and praise my God exceedingly, that though like many others, I had heretofore paid little respect to the promise of his coming, and in my ignorance done my part to set forth and justify the erroneous idea which prevaileth of judgment to come, He did deliver me from my darkness, and open my eyes to the knowledge and my heart to the desire of his personal advent and reign, as it is written in the Holy Scriptures; enabling me to cast aside the traditions upon this subject which I had received from the fathers. When I obtained this light, I did not make haste to communicate it to any one, but pondered the matter for several months in my own heart, until there was not the shadow of a doubt left upon my mind that I had been in error, if the word of God was in the right. And perceiving upon the grounds laid down in a discourse which I have published under the title of “Babylon and Infidelity foredoomed,” that the time was near at hand, and the series of thick-coming judgments and fearful perplexities was just about to open, I felt it as an immediate and overpowering duty which I owed to the Lord and to his unawakened church, to make known that sure conviction to which I had attained. But still my fears withheld me, and I know not how long these unfaithful fears would have withheld me from entering with good earnest on the warfare, when the Lord himself, as oft his manner is, plunged me into the fight whether I would or not. Last Christmas, which fell upon a Sabbath, purposing to warn my flock against the several indulgences to which at that season we are all exposed, I chose for my text the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th verses of the fifth chapter of 1 Thessalonians, and beginning my discourse by an exposition of the preceding context, found that I had insensibly wandered too far into that subject which was near my heart, to return again; which feeling as the admonition of the spirit, I feared to shun any longer to declare the whole counsel of God, and so it came to pass that upon the day set apart for the commemoration of the first advent, I was found maintaining the doctrine of the second advent. It was this day twelve-months, a day to be remembered in the history of my ministry; for which, not I only, but many souls now walking in the hope of thine appearing have reason to bless thee, oh thou great Head of thy Church!

The doctrine which I maintained, was, that “the coming of the Lord in judgment, from the time of Enoch, the first of inspired preachers, until the time of John, the last of them, had been upheld before the elect church as the great object of their hope and desire; and for these three great reasons. —1st. That then the number of the elect is accomplished; 2nd. That then their warfare is ended; and 3rd. That their kingdom is come: while on the other hand, it had been equally upheld before the reprobate and unbelieving; as the great object of fear and argument of repentance; 1st. because then their kingdom is ended, 2ndly. their day of grace concluded; and 3rdly. their judgment, i.e. of the quick is accomplished, and the fate of all their generations sealed until the judgment of the dead, which cometh not till after the reign of the saints and the elect, designated in scripture, “a thousand years,” and among divines, “the millennium.”

Having broken ground in this great controversy, I found it necessary to maintain myself, and to that end took up certain great and strong positions, which seemed to me the keys of the whole debatable land; of which positions these three were the chief.

First; That the present visible church of the Gentiles, which hath been the depository of the oracles and the sacraments, and the ordinances, since the Jewish state was dissolved, I mean the mixed multitude who are baptized in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, under that seal including Protestants, Roman Catholics, Greek church, Armenians, &c. and all the sects of each, as Scottish, English, Irish, Lutheran and Calvinistic churches, with the dissenters and seceders from each, that this body of baptized men, which I call the Gentile church, who should every one of them have been a saint; being “by baptism ingrafted into Christ Jesus to be made partakers of his justice, whereby our sins are covered and remitted;”1 standeth threatened in the Holy Scriptures because of its hypocrisies, idolatries, superstitions, infidelity, and enormous wickedness, “because it hath transgressed the laws, changed the ordinance, and broken the everlasting covenant” (Isaiah xxiv.) with such a terrible judgement as hath not been, nor ever shall again be seen upon the earth; in the which deluge of wrath she shall be clean dissolved, as the synagogue was heretofore in the destruction of Jerusalem, when she in like manner had filled up the measure of her iniquity: —which fearful consummation I judge to be close at hand, both by the signs of the times, and from the prophetic numbers expressly given to guide us in the anticipation of these great Gentile judgments, which arc mentioned in scripture wherever and whenever the coming of the Lord is mentioned.

Secondly; When the Lord shall have finished the taking of witness against the Gentiles, and summed up the present dispensation of testimony in this great verdict of judgment, and while the execution is proceeding, he will begin to prepare another ark of testimony, or rather to make the whole earth an ark of testimony; and to that end will turn his Holy Spirit unto his ancient people the Jews, and bring unto them those days of refreshing spoken of by all the holy prophets since the world began: in the which work of conveying to them his Spirit by the preaching of the word, he may, and it is likely will use the election according to grace, who still are faithful amongst the Gentiles; though I believe it will chiefly be by the sending of Elias who is promised before the dreadful and terrible day of the Lord, and by other mighty and miraculous signs. This outpouring of the Spirit, is known in scripture by “the latter rain,” of which I deem the religious revivals of the last thirty years to be as the first droppings of the shower, and our religious works and societies to be a sickly uncertain hue of verdure which the withered stump by the scent of the waters

1 Confession of faith of the Kirk of Scotland, ratified and established A.D 1587. And I may refer to all of the Articles, and catechisms, from the Augsburgh to the Westminster.

hath put forth, and like all God’s gifts, it will be given to those who will receive it, both Gentiles and Jews, and will prove the touchstone of both; —amongst the Gentile church awakening those persecutions of the last Antichrist which the faithful are taught to expect immediately before the coming of the Lord, and of which they have already had a foretaste in several of the Protestant churches abroad; in the Jewish church accomplishing that refining and passing through the fire which is spoken of immediately on their restoration. (Mal. iii. 3. Zech. xiii. 9.) Which Antichristian spirit among the Gentiles, and enraged infidel spirit among the Jews, may amalgamate with one another, to produce a spurious restoration of the nations to their own land, and occasion that great warfare in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, when Antichrist shall fall, and his powers be broken in the battle of Armageddon. But the faithful among the Jews now brought to believe on him whom they have pierced, shall in the mean time be prepared by much sorrow, and distress, and supplication, for the coming of the Lord to settle and establish them surely and for ever in their own land; and the faithful among the Gentiles shall be expecting the Lord to deliver them, according to the promises which he hath made to his elect church of being raised from the dead, or changed among the living at his coming, and all gathered to him in that day. It was my second proposition that in this way the Lord will be preparing for himself an ark of testimony in the Jewish nation, through whom to make the whole world one great and universal ark of faithful testimony.

Thirdly. That these judgments upon the Gentile nations and all the earth, he will finish by his own personal appearance in flaming fire, taking vengeance on those who know not God, and obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ; raising those who sleep in Jesus, and changing those of the Gentile church who still abide in life; and preserving the mourning Jewish church, as Goshen was preserved in the plagues of Egypt: and when the promised land shall have been cleared of all intruders, and they themselves by suffering perfected for the habitation of it, he shall lead them into it with a mighty and outstretched arm; and sit upon the throne of David, judging and seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness; and send forth the law from Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem; and rule among the nations, and be the Prince of universal peace; using in this judgment and government of the earth his risen saints, who shall be his ministers to execute what ever his pleasure is. And thus, Satan being cast out, and the Prince of light, and the heavenly Jerusalem, the dwelling place of his elect church being present, the Jerusalem on earth, with the house of Jacob, and all the nations shall enjoy that fullness of peace and joy, that millennial reign of righteousness, for which we all hope and pray, and diligently labour.

These three points of doctrine concerning the Gentile church, the future Jewish and universal church, and the personal advent of the Lord to destroy the one and to build up the other, I opened and defended out of the Scriptures from sabbath to sabbath, with all boldness, so far as the integrity of my own conscience was concerned, yet with fear and trembling, so far as the sweet harmony and communion of saints, in which I delight, was concerned; for at that time I did not know of one brother in the ministry who held with me in these matters; and of those to whom I broke the subject, I could not get the ear even for preliminaries. So novel and strange a doctrine, with respect especially to the outward visible churches, those great idols of Christendom, of which every one of us dreameth his own to be modelled after perfection, and to have in it the seed of eternity, and the power of universal application, if not the promise of universal conquest; such uncivil and implacable language, concerning overwhelming judgments upon the very eve of the millennial blessedness; above all, such low and derogatory ideas of the risen and exalted Saviour, as that he should ever again come to visit earth, and be visibly present in it for any length of time, could not fail, and certainly did not fail, to call down upon my head all possible forms and degrees of angry and intemperate abuse, of disappointed and sorely-afflicted expostulation. But the more I examined, the more I was convinced, and resolved, though alone and single-handed, to maintain these three great heads of doctrine from the holy Scriptures, against all who should undertake to uphold the commonly received notion, that the present Gentile dispensation was about to burst forth with great verdure and fruitfulness, and fill the whole earth with the millenia blessedness, after which, to wind up and consume all, the Lord would come in the latter end, and depart with the same expedition with which he came.

And, further, I maintained, that such ideas concerning the glorious efflorescence of this present dispensation into a universal fullness, is not only inconsistent with all the scriptures, but with the very nature and intention of the dispensation itself, as it hath been understood and is expressed by all orthodox divines; who have agreed in holding that the idea of election, that is, of a chosen seed in the midst of a wicked and adulterous world, is the fundamental idea and very definition of the present church; yea, and its very name, ή εκλησια, ‘the election,’ of which no one can be a member, but by renouncing the devil, the world, and the flesh. Doth not our Lord set this inveterate opposition of his church and the world forth, under all possible aspects in his last discourse with his disciples, (John xiv. xv. xvi.) and especially in his last prayer for them, (xvii.) when he will not so much as pray for the world, well knowing that it is not to be converted, but destroyed? Doth he not launch his church forth as into a boisterous and fatal sea, which should ever beat hard against her course, or by false currents carry her upon the rocks? And now, behold, when the ship is a wreck, and the only hope is to undergird her and keep her swimming for a little space, they doat and dream that she is about to possess the whole ocean! Doth not our Lord promise the Holy Spirit for the very end of enabling us to keep this perilous course and wage the warfare unto the end; and for that reason is he not called THE COMFORTER? Doth our Lord in this his farewell discourse and last charge unto his church, give any promise or any ground of expectation what-ever, that this strife between the world and his church should ever come to parley, or to treaty, or to hearty coalition? Doth he not declare that it shall ‘last during the whole of that “little while” during which be saith that he was to be absent? After which, indeed, that is, when he cometh again, “their sorrow should be turned into joy.” This, the constitution of the present church, the Arminian heresy hath continually sought to abrogate, and to bring the church and the world into a good understanding with one another: and to withstand such an unnatural and monstrous coalition our fathers laid down their lives. But now it hath gotten the full mastery of all men’s hopes. The millennium is the beau ideal of triumphant Arminianism. Satan could not sap these churches while they had all their eyes upon the word of God, and drew up their standards from the word of God. But now that men have presumed to hope and speculate concerning a millennium, by well chosen expedients and well made calculations, Satan hath closed with us and overthrown us: and now our churches, which in their standards abhor all communion of the old man with the new man, all league of the world with the church, do now expect that by the measures which are now taking the beautiful sight will yet be seen of a world at one with the church, of righteousness and peace harmonized, and goodness reigning universally. Fye, oh, fye upon it! ye Christians have fathered upon the scriptures the optimism of the German and French infidels!

While I continued to maintain these great heads of sound doctrine, and to defend the church from the invasion of Arminian incoherencies on the side of expectations, as our Fathers had defended her from the same on the side of principles, I sought very diligently to define from the scriptures what was the precise place and purpose of the present spiritual dispensation, which God hath interposed between a dispensation of a local and typical character upon the one hand, and a dispensation yet to be, of a universal and real character upon the other; both centering in and radiating out from the Jewish people.’ And this appeared to me to be written in these the last words which our Lord spake upon the earth, “It is not for you to know the times or the seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power. But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.” Acts i. 7,8. Having studied this passage; in connexion with the four chapters of John’s gospel referred to above, and in connexion with the eleventh chapter of the Romans; it appeared to me that the church of the Gentiles was designed to serve the same purposes to the nations which the Jewish church served to the Jewish nation, both being for the one end, of bearing witness to the righteousness which is by faith, against the righteousness which is by works; the one upon the limited scale of a particular nation, the other upon the enlarged scale of the whole world; and both concluding in the same consummation, the one of condemning that nation, the other of condemning the whole world; in order that all being concluded under sin, the Lord might come and have mercy upon all. That since Abraham’s call, until this time, the Lord had been proving to the world, under all its possible forms, that same lesson of its intrinsical and inerradicable sinfulness, which he proveth to every man in the first stage of his conversion; and for the same end, of honouring his own Son in the complete and undivided salvation of it. That as the Spirit first convinceth a soul of sin, before he can convince it of the righteousness of Christ, so hath He been convincing the world of sin before he can convince it of the righteousness of Christ; and that as Christ cometh not, neither can come in his glory and kingdom into any soul which hath not previously been judged and condemned in its own self, so neither can he come into the world in his glory and kingdom, till the Spirit shall have convinced the world in all its forms of policy and philosophy and refinement of utter worthlessness, and reduced it to the humility of sackcloth and ashes. But it may be said, And what availeth it to the world to be thus converted by a process which endeth in its judgement and destruction? Much it availeth every way; chiefly to demonstrate God’s longsuffering and forbearance during all these ages of his perverted truth and persecuted Church, and his mercy afterwards, his glorious mercy and forgiveness to the world, with which he had so long forborne; to show the glory of his power in casting out Satan from his usurped dominion; and in the enduring unchangeableness of hell, to construct an everlasting monument unto all creation, of the terrible consequence of sin; and in the enduring unchangeableness of this glorious earth, to construct an everlasting monument unto all creation of the most blessed consequences of faith and fealty to the Highest, through all temptation and tribulation. “To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the Church the manifold wisdom of God.” Eph. iii. 10.

This idea being clearly demonstrated to my mind as the root and germ of the dispensations both Jewish and Gentile, or of “the earthly things” as distinguished from “the heavenly things,” or the things of the kingdom, (John iii.) it was a very easy matter to derive and set forth the wisdom and adaptation of those particular forms which the purpose assumed, under the one and the other of these great preparatory institutions of God. To make such a testimony for righteousness before one nation or all nations, it was necessary to raise up a succession of chosen and endowed men, who holding the truth and maintaining the righteousness, should from age to age be God’s mouths unto men, and his faithful witnesses in the midst of men, to suffer and endure whatever might be laid upon them; according to whose treatment less or more afflictive, he might dispense his blessings or his curses upon men; in the event of whose utter rejection and extermination, he might bring down the judgment upon men. This succession of witnesses in the midst of the days is THE CHURCH. Besides these living tongues and patient witnesses who were removed by death, it was necessary moreover to have a standing record which should contain the sum and substance of that to which every man was to testify, and in the midst of all change of time and space, and fluctuations of mortal things, preserve the unity, the continuity and perpetuity of the Church, in the midst of the variety and infinite perplexity of the devil, the world, and the flesh: this standing record, this food for the spirit of these men, this bridle upon their tongue, we have in THE HOLY SCRIPTURES. It was necessary furthermore, to have a visible representation or unchanging body of that truth, which was to be testified to, that is, “the incarnation of the Son of God,” for the declaration of the righteousness which is by faith; in order that the mystery might come full before the observation of men, and be a witness against them, whether they would read the written word or not: this they had in the temple and sacrifice and levitical priesthood of the former dispensation, and this we have now in the two sacraments of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper, and the Communion of Saints, who are partakers of Christ’s sufferings, and “fill up that which is wanting of these sufferings for his body’s sake, that is the church.”

These three great parts are necessary to express and embody that idea of witness and testimony for the conviction of the world, which we believe to be the germinating principle of this preparatory dispensation. For the rest, the choosing of a particular family, in which to begin the great work of contradiction, gave form and demonstration to that principle of election or free and sovereign mercy which is the beginning and ending of the whole scheme of grace. And the giving unto this family an inalienable right of precedency, even when the world should all be brought in, and the gift become universal, was necessary to express the unchangeableness of God’s grace, which is another fundamental principle of the whole scheme, or as St. Paul expresseth it, “that the gifts and callings of God are without repentance.” The casting away of this nation when they had refused the succession of spiritual witnesses, and crucified THE FAITHFFUL AND TRUE WITNESS, whom all others do but represent, and rejected the HOLY SPIRIT of witness poured out in their chief city and upon their countrymen; their rejection for these enormities, and their present dispersion and unequalled degradation and misery, is necessary to express the free-will and responsibility and retribution for all God’s gifts, which is another fundamental principle of the scheme. The calling thereupon of a church out of the Gentiles, that is, the taking away the Jewish garb from the church, and the Jewish locality, and constituting it for all places and conditions, by making it spiritual, with just so much of form as would express the great doctrine of “the incarnation and resurrection of the Son of God, for the declaration of the righteousness which is by faith,” this was necessary in order to show that God is no respecter of persons, or of nations, in his gifts, but designeth them for all living, which is another great fundamental principle of the scheme. The casting out of those nations, when they likewise shall have filled up the measure of their iniquity in persecuting the true and faithful servants and witnesses of the Lord, and both kings and people shall be confederates against the Lord and his anointed, to break their bands and cast their cords away from them, that is, wholly to extirpate his Church and the testimony of his righteousness from the face of the earth, this also is most necessary, both for the ends of justice and retribution mentioned above, and to the end that the great scheme which contemplateth universality and eternity may not be cut short in its progress, and require to be begun anew.

The restoration of the Jewish nation, to be again the Church of God, and their reestablishment in their own land, to be the head of nations, and the centre of the earth’s unity, and the going forth from them of that Spirit of righteousness which is to bring in all nations to the Church, and bind the whole world in one great community of Christians, acknowledging the Son of God, as the Lord of all, and practising the righteousness which is by faith, to constitute a worship and service which shall have in it the universality of the spiritual, combined in some way with the locality of Jerusalem as a centre, and the supremacy of the seed of Abraham as an example, and of David their king, as the head of all; this is only the fulfilling of that glory of Christ and blessedness of the whole earth, for which the whole dispensation and witness that hath been since Abraham, and now is present in the world, is but preparatory. We have had the variety of the wicked earth, we wait for the unity of the saved earth; we have had the humility of the suffering Church, we wait for the glory of the triumphant Church.

Such is the skeleton of that body which God hath given to his great purpose of saving the world, by that one truth "the Incarnation of his Son, for the salvation of man, through the righteousness which is by faith. This is the progress of the growth of the visible church, from a family to the whole world. But here two questions present themselves. First: If, as you have argued, the world be of such rebellious stuff, that in the face of this dispensation of witness and testimony, sustained all the while by an active Providence, it will not amend its obstinate ways, but persevere in them to the end; yea, and wax bolder and bolder against God and his chosen ones; until it is necessary to take measures that the cause of righteousness perish not utterly, by coming upon the confident world with a series of judgments, which shall make it reel to and fro like a drunkard, and consume its inhabitants, till hardly “a gleaning as of the vintage grapes is left;” how all at once shall it come to pass that the most obstinate of the nations shall at once be converted, and the whole world follow in its train, and persevere in a state of peace and blessedness? This is precisely the question to which I desire the attention of the church. How, indeed, will that great revolution be effected? I have a means most effectual in the casting out of Satan with all his angels from the possession of the earth and the heavens, in the destruction of all his works of despotism and superstition, infidelity and radicalism from the face of the whole earth. He who was the beginner of the declension, and of all the mischief which the earth has endured, must be cast out by the seed of the woman, before the warfare will end which the seed of the woman in his church hath maintained till this hour against the serpent and his generation of vipers. This is the great work behind the scenes in the spiritual world, out of the observation of the sense of man, which will prepare the way for the great work of peace and blessedness, which will then follow, almost as of course, behind the scenes, that is in the intercourse and conduct of men. I say almost of course, yet not altogether of course; because though Satan shall then be cast out of the world, and his active temptations wholly at an end, men will still be in the flesh and heirs of death, during the whole period of the millennial kingdom. And therefore they will need government, both civil and ecclesiastical, a law and a religion, or rather a law in a religion; that is, the same law of righteousness which we now possess, administered according to the wisdom of Christ and his reigning church without any opposition or strife of Satan. Power shall then be holy; and the creation shall then be pure; and the bondage of Satan shall have ceased.

There is not only this negative, but also another provision of a positive kind, which answers to the second question that might be started froth the premises: viz. And what is to become of those spiritual witnesses, who since the calling of Abraham have been raised up in the likeness of Christ Jesus, to preserve the testimony of the righteousness which is by faith in his blood? What is to become of this elect church that have suffered, before his incarnation and since his incarnation, by the same eternal Spirit and for the same end of the Father’s glory for which he suffered? To this I answer, that the whole scripture, from the beginning to the ending of it, doth testify that they shall come with Christ to be partakers of his glory, that he may be glorified in them in whom also he was dishonoured; and that they may be the sharers of that throne, and kingdom, and power, whereof he hath the promise from the Father, and is now expecting the fulfilment. These are the dead who shall hear the voice of the Son of God and live. These are they who shall be changed. These are they who shall meet the Lord in the air, and reign with him on the earth, and be forever with the Lord, in that new Jerusalem which cometh down from heaven. This new Jerusalem that which flesh and blood cannot inherit, where they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like the angels of God. And this is that of which the pillar of fire was the emblem in the wandering church; and the Shechinah, or glory between the cherubim, was the emblem in the resting church. There shall be to the whole earth such a glory beyond the light of the sun, as there was in the Holy of Holies, in the temple of Jerusalem; in which shall dwell the shining ones, the companions of the Lord, the true priesthood after the order of Melchisedek, who shall undertake the government of the whole earth, and carry it on under the great King; by whose active ministry, by whose speedy obedience, passing to and fro at will with angelic freedom and readiness, they shall preserve and maintain that peace and blessedness amongst the sojourners of the earth, in which the millennium will consist. And thus, without going into further particulars, it is that the change in the world’s temper and condition will be accomplished; and thus that the elect church will be rewarded by being made the spouse, the sister of the King, the joint-heirs, the fellow-judges, and governors, and possessors of the kingdom.

Such, in few words, is the form of doctrine concerning the second advent of our blessed Lord, which was made known to me in the much study of the Holy Scriptures; and which, after several months of secret meditation, I began last Christmas, with all discretion and with fear and trembling, to break up and deal out to the church which God hath committed to my charge, resting and grounding the substance of it all upon the very words of our Lord himself, and using the Old Testament only when the language manifestly carried me thither, and the other books of the New Testament for further exposition and unfolding of those seeds of truth which are all contained in our Lord’s own recorded discourses. For I hold it to be a great principle, which may almost be laid down as a canon of exposition, that every fundamental truth of faith should be shown to be present under some form or other, in every part, or rather I should say in every period, of divine revelation, unfolding itself more and more onwards to the end.

I have begun the preliminary discourse by giving an exposition of the doctrine which I have been teaching; first, to justify myself before the church of Christ in general, and especially before the church of Scotland, which ordained me to the ministerial and pastoral office, against the crude misapprehensions which in a day of such theological ignorance, and the malicious misrepresentations which in a day of such sectarian bigotry and bitterness, have gone forth on all hands against me, as if I were propounding speculative notions, or propagating heretical errors. Secondly; to show the wonderful coincidence of the doctrine, which I had taught in ignorance at it was taught by any other, with the doctrine contained in this book which I now present to the churches using the English tongue, and I may say with the doctrine which is now in all quarters beginning to take root and bear fruit in these parts. And here I must not be silent concerning the very wonderful and providential way by which this train of discoursing brought me acquainted with the work which I now offer to The English churches. But here I must go a step or two backwards, and narrate how the original work found its way first into this country; and next how it was brought by God’s grace into my hands, and so into the hands of the English reader; which particularity he will excuse, and thank me for, if he value the gift as I did value it.

This book entitled “La Venida del Mesias en Gloria y Majestad,” i.e. “The Coming of Messiah in Glory and Majesty,” was, so far as I can learn, first printed in Spain in the year 1812, in three volumes, during the short period of the Cortez, from which edition our translation is made. The manuscript must have been prepared by the author, as we find him complaining of and disavowing certain spurious and imperfect manuscripts, which had crept into circulation, both at home and on the other side of the ocean, that is, I suppose, in the Spanish colonies of South America. The government of the Cortez was no sooner dissolved, and the old order of things re-established, than this book among others was suppressed, and as much as possible withdrawn from circulation. And here I cannot deny myself the pleasure of introducing a very instructive anecdote, related to me by a Spanish refugee of great honour and worth, with whom I have oft conversed concerning this work and the author of it. When the inquiring mind of the Spanish youth was hindered from the food which it desired and had been entertained with during the Cortez, they formed secret societies, of which the object was to procure and read those books expressly which were prohibited by the Inquisition. In the number of which finding this work of Ben-Ezra, the society to which he belonged obtained it, and read it with much delight. And perceiving in its style and sentiment certain traits of resemblance to that of one of the clergy with whom they could hold confidential intercourse, my friend and informant asked him in great confidence if he was the author of it; to which he replied that he was not, but knew the book, and agreed with its doctrine.

It made its way into France, I know not when, in the form of an abridgment of extracts, and has been much read by the members of the Gallican church; amongst certain of whom, I am informed it is a common thing under the term of the “Apostate Gentility” to express the first of those three positions which have laid down above. In the year 1816, it came to England by the circuitous route of the Spanish colonies; being sent hither to the diplomatic or commercial agent of the Buenos Ayres government to be printed, and an edition of 1500 copies was actually printed for the use of the Spanish colonies. But though I have had the assistance of the very kind and honourable gentleman who was employed in this service, I have not been able to procure one single copy of that edition, and have reason to believe that it scattered no seeds of knowledge in this country by that visit, for I cannot hear of one man who had perused it, or become at all acquainted with its doctrines.

About three or four years ago, a clergyman of the church of England, whose name, if I might mention it, would prove that he was worthy to be employed by God in this ministry and whose labours for the consolation temporal and spiritual of suffering Spaniards and suffering Spain, perhaps commended him to God as worthy to bring to Britain this Spanish prize, more precious than any galleon which was ever carried into a British port; this parish priest received from a Catholic friend on the continent, whose name I may not mention, but whose labours in the Lord are well know, that copy of the Spanish edition of 1812, from which this translation is made, and brought it with him to England. He was not a stranger to its value, and the truth of its doctrine did not long lie hid from him; but he had not yet given any publicity to it, beyond the circle of his immediate friends and visitors, of whom one, and at that time only one, was a very dear and honoured friend of mine. That friend hearing him speak much during a visit in his neighbourhood, of the Spanish work, and having in former days become acquainted with the Spanish language, thought well, or rather was directed of God, to request the loan of Ben-Ezra to peruse during this visit, and subsequently to bring it to London. Deeply impressed with the truth and the importance of the doctrines contained in it, concerning the glorious advent of the Lord; long thought and much consideration were exercised, how others might be made partakers of the benefit. And taking counsel with some friends, they meditated in their hearts to prepare portions of it, one to translate and another to revise, and to lay them as specimens of the work, before such members of the church as might be thought competent to decide on the best manner of its publication, and so wait the openings of Divine Providence. When the Lord hath a work to do, he soon findeth instruments, and he bringeth help from all quarters until it is accomplished. So it happened in this case by a very wonderful providence, as I shall now tell.

While this was in progress, I was obeying the call of God’s Spirit to set forth from the pulpit those truths whereof I have given an abstract above; and it began to be noised abroad, as every thing is in this city and age of news-mongers, and was brought to the ears of a dear brother in the ministry of Christ, now most dear, though then unknown to me, save by his report which was in all the churches, for his labours of love and munificence in behalf of the dispersion of Judah. He had been standing in his watch-tower, in the capital of another country, and crying aloud those very truths which I had begun to proclaim, and of which indeed he had been long convinced, and had written very ably, though as yet I had not read any thing of his writing. But God who ordereth all things to accomplish his many ends, had brought him over to England, in one of the maritime towns of which he was residing for the recovery of his health, when he heard the report of the doctrine which I was maintaining. And being very desirous to know the exact purport thereof, and not able to hear it for himself, he requested one of his friends in town, who was at that time attending my ministry, and taking down the substance of my discourses, to continue to do so, and transmit them regularly for his perusal. And who should this be, but one of the friends who had been consulted respecting the publication of Ben Ezra, and in whose house the translations were revising, in order to prepare them for the press? And thus it came to pass, that the pages of Ben Ezra and the substance of my discourses met together upon the same table in London, on their passage to two different destinations. The truth which he had been taught in the midst of Catholic superstition, and had written with fear and trembling under the walls of the Vatican, met with the truth which God’s Spirit had, during a season of affliction, taught me, in the midst of the intellectual pride of my native country; and which I was preaching in the midst of the contemptuous derision of the church in these parts, their scoffs, their insinuations, their magazine raillery, and their news paper abuse. To this very providential meeting of our mutual thoughts it was, that I was indebted for the great edification which I have derived from this book: to the same cause the church is indebted for the edification, which I trust she may derive from this attempt to translate it.

For when it was perceived that the substance of what he had written and I was preaching was the same, and the feelings which we expressed the same, and even the expressions sometimes the same, they thought it good to bring the book to me for my perusal. Four months previous to this it would have been a sealed book to me, by reason of my ignorance of the language, but during that short time having taken a few lessons, and practised a little the reading of the scriptures and some other books, I durst venture upon the perusal of it, and permitted it to lie upon my table. For several days I suffered it to lie untouched, little dreaming of the treasure and edification to my mind, which was contained in these leaves. But when I had read a very small portion of it, yea, before I had done with reading the Dedication, the hand of a master was made manifest to me; and ever as I proceeded the chief work of a master’s hand appeared most clear. Then I pondered the purpose of God, in sending to me at such a time such a master-piece of reasoning upon scripture premises, and such a confirmation to my soul, distressed for want of brotherly countenance and help. And I took courage and gave thanks, and resolved to weigh well how I might turn the gift to the profit of his whole church; well assured that it was for the love of his church, which he hath purchased with his blood, that he had sent it at such a critical time to me. The first thought which occurred was, that it should go forth entire, and not piecemeal, as had been suggested by one or two persons who considered so voluminous a work on the subject might find fewer readers than an abridgement of it would do. And glad to have my counsel and help in any way, and willing to resign the whole charge of it to me, the friends readily gave way to this advice. But the question was, who should undertake the complete translation; for at that time I never dreamt of such a thing, and can only now wonder how I ever came to consent to it, though God knows I do not regret it, whoever may. The brother who had brought it over was withheld by diffidence, and I was withheld by disability; so we resolved that the two friends should proceed as before to complete the work, and that I should charge myself with the superintendence of its publication. And thus matters stood, at the time when the Prospectus of the translation was issued.

But here I take leave to introduce an anecdote which is curious in itself, and casts light upon the value in which the work is held in other lands. In order to prepare a proper prospectus of that which we has in contemplation, and to inform the church who this Hebrew-Christian or converted Jew, Juan Josafat Ben-Ezra actually was, and what was known concerning him, I caused the minister and good servant of the Lord who had brought us acquainted with his work to be written to. To which application, before we had received any answer, it pleased the Lord to bring up to this city that benefactor of Israel, who had taken such pains to become acquainted with the substance of my doctrine. He is the man in the English church who has been most forward in maintaining these views, both from the pulpit and the press, who being arrived here, and having taken the first opportunity of hearing me, (when it was so ordered that I should preach upon our Lord’s interview with Nicodemus, and maintain that the present dispensation of water and the Spirit was but the latter half of the earthly things of which Moses had delivered the former half; and that the heavenly things were still to come;) he came forward after public worship and gave me the right hand of fellowship. The Lord bless him, and the very few ministers from whom I have heartily received it! For it has been my hard lot to have found few brethren in the ministry of Christ; the more do I love those whom I have found. This was the beginning of a brotherly communion, which I hope will never end; in the course of which I asked him, among other things, what works had been written upon these subjects; for, as yet, I had read none. Having named several, he added, But the great work upon the subject is by one Lacunza a Jesuit; I have often heard of it upon the continent, but have never been able to see more of it than is contained in a French abridgment. Upon which I explained to him the remarkable way in which a Spanish work upon the subject, written by One Ben-Ezra had come into my hands, and the purpose which I had conceived of seeing it translated into English. Of that work, said he, I have never heard, but my impression is that the great work of Lacunza was written in Latin. Next day, or a few days after, an answer arrived from our friend to whom we had written in view of the Prospectus, informing us that the name of Juan Josafat Ben-Ezra was taken for a covert or disguise, and that the true name of the author of the Spanish work was Lacunza, a Jesuit; who, along with the rest of his order, had been exiled from the Spanish colonies of South America, whereof he was a native, and had taken refuge in Italy. Also, that, the character of converted Jew was assumed for the same reason; but of this I confess that I am still sceptical.

So that it appeared that the great work among the divines on the continent, written by one Lacunza a Jesuit, was the same work which was laid upon my table without any information concerning it, except that it was written by Juan Josafat Ben-Ezra; but of which God had given me the discernment to perceive that it was the master work of one of his most gifted servants. Now let this book be read as a voice from the Roman Catholic Church, and let the Palingenesia and Basilicus’ Letters of my friend be read as a voice from the Church of England, and let the substance of my discourses for the last year, as given above, be read as a voice from the Kirk of Scotland; and when the coincidence of sentiment and doctrine is perceived in the diversity of personal character and particular interpretations, let any one if he dare, reject the whole matter as the ravings and dreamings of fanciful men.

About this time it pleased the Lord to stir up the greater part of my flock to exhort me by all means, as I valued my own health and their well-being, to remove a little from the bustle and intrusion of this great city, and abide in the country during some of the summer months; and two of the brethren, who love me much, engaged, unknown to me, a place in the country, where, without forsaking my charge, I might reside in peace and quietness amidst the beauty and bounty with which God hath covered the earth. This occurring so unexpectedly, at the time when all concerned were soliciting me to undertake the whole care and responsibility of the translation, and perceiving that the work was likely to suffer from a divided labour, without being at all hastened, I resolved at length, insufficient as was my knowledge of the language at that time, to conquer all difficulties, and heartily to give myself to the Lord and to his church during these weeks of retirement. For I was well convinced that the health which I most needed was the healing water of the Holy Spirit, which I thus made bold to solicit by devoting myself to his service. And certainly the labourer was not disappointed of his hire. I prevented the dawning of the morning, and I envied the setting in of the shades of evening, to labour in my work: and when my hands and my eyes failed me, because of weakness, the helper whom God hath given meet for me, served me with hers, and so we laboured to bring this labour of love to completion, purposing to offer it to the Church as our Christmas Offering, which was only hindered by a very remarkable occurrence, which I shall relate in its place, as most worthy the attention of the Church. Oh that my brethren in Christ might have the same divine satisfaction and unwearied delight in reading, that I had in translating this wonderful work!

When I had brought the work almost to a conclusion and wanted but a few sheets to complete it, it came to my knowledge for the first time, that another edition, in the Spanish tongue, had been proceeding in London, and was just finished. Which I immediately procured, and, upon collating it with our original Spanish edition, I find it to be fuller in some parts, and in others expressed with a greater freedom, than that from which I was translating. But that it may be seen there is no essential difference in the matter or method of the work, I have added to my work the Indice razonado or digested index of the London edition. Nevertheless, when I shall have sufficiently inquired into the authenticity of the MSS. and editions upon which they wrought, and over which Lacunza’s Preface had cast a shade of suspicion in my mind, I shall complete the collation of the two editions, and publish in an Appendix whatever additional matter or various readings may appear to me of any moment, that it may be had separately. But I did not think this a matter of sufficient importance to delay the publication; and I count it well that it has been so ordered, because the members of the Roman Catholic church, for whose sake I undertake this labour, as for all others who believe in the two advents of Christ, would have ill brooked that an edition prepared in London, under the eyes of those they know not, should have been preferred to the edition published under the authority of the Spanish church, at a time when the press of that country was known to be free. But if it should appear that from any cause, a portion of the life-blood of this master spirit should have been drained off, I promise it to my love for the integrity of his work, and the honour of his memory, that it shall fully appear in the Appendix which I propose to this edition, and in the body of another edition, if it shall be required: from which we shall possess a curious and valuable document of the fears of the Romish Church, from the work of one of her most gifted and most dutiful Sons.

During the progress of the work, the more I discovered its great weight and value, as an all-sufficient argument for the orthodoxy of the ancient system, and the heterodoxy of the commonly received one, the more desirous did I become that it should have a fair and free introduction to the Church: and, perceiving that it bore hard against the stream of common opinion, I thought within myself, how I might best defend from the storm which would be raised against it on all hands by the British inquisition, whose ignorance of truth I knew to be equalled only by their malice against every thing which touched the infallibility of their idol, PUBLIC OPINION. I mean by the British Inquisition, that court whose ministers and agents carry on their operations in secret; who drag every man’s most private affairs before the sight of thousands and seek to mangle and destroy his life as an instructor trying him without a witness, condemning him without hearing, nor suffering him to speak for himself; intermeddling in things of which they have no knowledge, and cannot on any principle have a jurisdiction; and defacing and deforming the finest beauty and the profoundest wisdom by the rancour of their malice. I mean those who set principle, who set truth, who set feeling, who set justice; who set every thing sacred up to sale. I mean the ignorant unprincipled, unhallowed spirit of criticism, which in this Protestant country is producing as foul effects against truth, and by as dishonest means, as ever did the Inquisition of Rome. Perceiving well that my worthy master Ben-Ezra had in his own right nothing to expect but the most vehement abuse and ridicule of his opinions, and, in my company, still more I weighed well how I might obtain for him a fair hearing from the Church which has become review-ridden to a most alarming degree: and, having well meditated this matter and besought the guidance of the Lord, I was directed to send a goodly portion of the work, when printed, to the ministers and members of the Church of Christ, who should seem to me the most honourable, simple-minded, and single-eyed before the Lord; in order that the blasphemers of fair and honest truth might be prevented from prejudicing the easy, drowsy, luke-warm Church against the best gift which hath been offered to her in these latter times. And I requested of those reverend and worthy men that they would send me any observations which might occur to them as likely to improve the work, that I might embody them in the notes, which at that time I purposed to append to the work. And the result was, that, though they were taken from all denominations of the Church, I received nothing but the highest approbation of the spirit of the writer and the power of his argument. This ought to be known and spread abroad as some covert, the only one which I could construct, against the evil report which a thousand ignorant and sectarian pens will, in the plenitude of their all-comprehending ignorance, immediately set abroad against him. Oh, but I do rejoice that from the moment I began to use a pen for the instruction of my countrymen, I did, without any compromise; expose the character of the Protestant Inquisition, and make war against it!

It was the opinion of many friends, that in notes I should go into an explanation of the points in which the text of the book varied from our Protestant doctrine. But after calm consideration, I declined this, upon the following grounds, —The doctrines of the Romish Church which now and then appear, are brought forward with so much simplicity and sincerity of faith, and so little in the spirit of obtrusion or controversy, that it seemed to me like taking an advantage of the honest, well-meaning man, to enter the lists against him, unaccoutred as he was. Besides, I was so pleased with the light of Holy Scripture which he cast into my mind in almost every page, that I was in no humour to be angry with the Romish fashion in which some of his opinions were cut. They were never principal but only accessory; never substantial, but only accidental to the question. And, I believe, no Protestant living could write so long with so little of the spirit of sectarianism, as this worthy old Jesuit has contrived to do. And I am very certain that with all our boasted liberality, there is not one amongst us who durst have spoken such free truths of the evils and errors of his communion, as this honest Catholic hath of the Papal Church. Oh no! I had no heart to catch him tripping or to expose the weakness of so dear a teacher, concerning whom I was continually exclaiming to the companion of my solitary labour, 'I hope yet, in some of my future pilgrimages, to meet this grey-headed saint in the flesh, and receive his blessing, while I tell him how much I love him, and have profited from his instructions.'

For I did not then know that he was now no more, which I have since learned through the means of that Spanish officer whom I have mentioned above. The picture is altogether so innocent and so sweet, and so entirely justifies the sentiment which I have just expressed, that I make no apology for introducing it in this place.

“EMANUEL LACUNZA was born at Saint Iago, of Chili, in South America, on the 13th of July, 1731. He was the son of noble, though not very rich parents, who, however, did all they could to give him a good education: they sent him to the college of the Jesuits, of which society he became a member on the 7th of September, 1747. The silence, retirement, and many other troubles attending a Jesuit’s life, soon tired him; and the vivacity of his temper brought upon him many a reprimand by his superiors. He was appointed to the superintendence of the noviciates, in which situation, he showed his zeal for the spiritual good of the young people under his care. But this employment having proved burdensome to him, he left it, to dedicate himself exclusively to geography and astronomy; in which sciences he could not make great progress, for want of the necessary instruments. Exiled from his native land at the time of the expulsion of his order, Lacunza came over to Europe, and established his residence at Imolo, in Italy, where he lived in retirement avoiding society, conversing only with his books. He used to take a walk alone, in the fields every afternoon by the side of the river near the town. On the 17th of June, 1801, in the morning, he was found dead by the river side, where probably he dropped in his walk the afternoon before: The only work which he has left behind is, his ‘Venida del Mesias en Gloria y Magestad;’ an abridgment of which was published at the Isle of Leon, in two small octavo volumes. In 1816, a complete edition of this work was published in London, in four volumes, octavo, by the diplomatic agent of the republic of Buenos Ayres. “I forgot to say, that he had exercised preaching in America; and, though his style was not the best, he acquired a reputation as a preacher.”

So far from entering into controversy with such a man, I have, ever since my dream of meeting him in this life was dissolved, been meditating of the joy with which I shall meet him in “the New Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from our God,” if we should be judged worthy. And this I say, with the full perception of the capital and fundamental points on which we differ, and amongst which are transubstantiation, the sacrifice of the mass, the seven sacraments, the hierarchy, and the central unity of the church in Rome. But though no one more abhorreth, or will more steadily contend against these and other deadly errors of the Romish church, I am not ignorant, nay I am sure, from the very invocations of Scripture, that God hath a people in the midst of her, of whom I believe that my Ben-Ezra was one and I confess the talismanic virtue of that word protestantism is departed from me, by my looking upon the prostrate, the rebellious, the antichristian condition of most. I had almost said all, the Protestant churches abroad. But I love the Reformers only the more, and cherish their memory the more dearly, that I perceive their successors have so trodden down and trampled upon their work. And oh! I love them very greatly as my only shield at this time, while endeavouring to maintain their spiritual doctrines. Were it not for the standards of the reformation behind which I can rally myself, I durst not open my mouth upon the subject of the sacraments, or the church, in an age when baptism and the Lord’s supper are regarded as mere signs by the spiritual, and the church as nothing but a political establishment. Yes, I would rather, if I had no other choice, hold with a church that believed in transubstantiation, than with another which believed the supper of the Lord to be but a commemorative sign. Thanks be to my God that our church abhorreth and detesteth such a thought, “We utterly abhor and detest the doctrine that the sacraments are but naked signs.”2

Holding with these a position half way between the pious people with whom I am surrounded, and the papal church, I had the less disposition to doubt that Ben-Ezra and many pious Catholics, might without peril of salvation though to the prejudice of their spiritual perfection, hold such offensive and erroneous notions. But why not do so in the way of caution and safety to the Protestant reader, who might drink in those errors the more easily, for being found in the bosom of so excellent and kindly a teacher? I answer, that if I had found them introduced with any art or insinuation, I would have done so; but on the other hand, finding them stated with no sort of equivocation, and with no sort of argumentation, as matter of every-day belief, as the household words of the papal church, I deemed it utterly beside the office of a translator to take upon himself any such duty, which belongs to the every day duty of the Protestant preacher. I can well believe, indeed, that in the present day of liberal forbearance to all sorts of error, especially to those of the much-injured Catholics of Ireland (as they say), many, aye by far the most part of our flocks, will be found utterly unable to state the points in dispute between us and the Catholics, much less to maintain them. It is not the fashion, it is illiberal, it is uncharitable: Oh, I could almost wish that this book which I am publishing might fetch a back-stroke against the smooth check-bone of such oily talkers, though it were in this very way of shaking their unrooted disciples; and forcing them to take regular arms against an opinion which will be strong and struggling to the very death. But not purposing to supplement the deficiencies of

2 Confession of the Kirk of Scotland, above referred to. Art. Of the Sacrament.

either them or their disciples, and having no fear for any Protestant who knows the Mother's Catechism, I resolved that I would resist the importunities of my friends, and let the book go forth, a simple and faithful translation, like those of the work of Thomas à Kempis, Pascal, Boussuet, Fenelon, and others.

I confess, however, I am tempted to break a spear with my master upon the subject of Prophetic Interpretation, because here, the case is completely altered, for as much as he appears directly as an antagonist. In the main here also I confess myself indebted to him beyond the power of acknowledgement in all that respects those prophecies which may be called discursive, in contradistinction, to those of Daniel and the Apocalypse, which are historical, he is to my mind altogether unrivalled. I do not find him so strong perhaps in the analogies of scripture and Providence, as the author of Basilicus and Palingenesia, but in the interpretation of the various texts and contexts of the prophetic Scriptures, (and to him all Scripture is prophetic), there is no Protestant writer whom I know of, to be at all compared to him. His book is the finest demonstration of the orthodoxy of the ancient system of the millenarians which can be imagined; indeed I may say perfect and irrefragable. I never expect to see an answer to it nor do I believe an answer will ever be attempted. Likewise with his view of the present state of Christendom I perfectly coincide, and that infidelity is fast breeding out of the serpent’s egg of superstition and will speedily lay violent hands upon its mother; and confederate all nations against the Lord and his anointed, persecuting the Christian church, circumventing the conversion of the Jews with every snare, and otherwise perverting the faith and hope of the world. With all the substance of his argument I most heartily coincide, and in his impressions of the nearness of the great crisis, I do most heartily sympathize. Nevertheless there are several points connected with his interpretation of the exact or historical prophecies, upon which I will say a few words, as also upon the perverted use which is made by our adversaries of these disagreements among interpreters.

First of the prophecies of Daniel. I see no sufficient reason to depart from the commonly received interpretation of the great statue, and subdivision of the four monarchies; while I can easily perceive the clue which has led our author into his interpretation, that the Babylonian and Persian do together compose but one of the kingdoms, and that the fourth is the Gothic kingdom, or system of power which hath obtained in Europe since the sixth century, and obtaineth unto this day. That which drove him into this interpretation which he hath so ingeniously maintained, was doubtless the attempt of his church, and indeed of many of the Protestants, to make the kingdom of the stone begin with the former advent of Christ and so avoid the second advent altogether, as an event in the history of the earth’s amelioration. But this is sufficiently answered by observing that though the fourth kingdom was come into being at the former advent of the Lord, it was not in the divided condition of the legs of the statue, and still less of the toes partly iron and partly clay upon which the stone impingeth. If the toes were not then in existence how could the stone fall upon them at the time of the former advent? And how can it be said to have broken then while the whole operation of the Christian religion has been to support the authority of the powers that be? This I say, of Christianity truly so called, and of the apostasy I may add, that it has been the cement instead of being the destruction of the last four of the kingdoms, which hath hung together for the last 1300 years by no principle of union but that derived from the common profession of the Christian faith. For the rest, what our author says concerning the oneness of the Babylonian and Persian kingdom may be true politically considered but is not so prophetically considered, forasmuch as all the prophets from Isaiah to John do regard the taking of Babylon by Cyrus, and the events which followed upon it, as the greatest and most remarkable retribution and revelation of God, which hath happened to the church and nations since the destruction of Pharaoh king of Egypt.

This is further manifest from the vision of the eighth chapter of Daniel, where the Persian power comes upon the prophetic stage with its proper emblem, acting in its own separate nationality. And it is further manifest from the narration of the tenth and eleventh chapters into which our limits will not allow me to enter at present. Finally, in what he says concerning the character of the fourth kingdom, as being so appropriate to the spirit and acts of the Gothic kingdoms, I heartily concur; observing merely, that when we attribute this to the Roman kingdom, we include the Gothic period as one of the integral parts of it, and that which is the most frequently regarded in prophecy; being the period of the ten horns, and also of the little horn.

Nevertheless, though I hold to the common interpretation of the whole vision and agree with my author in looking for the smiting of the stone and the consumption of the whole Statue at the second advent of the Lord, I must confess that my author casts a very strong and steady light upon it, and in the argument derived from it for the second advent, he has my entire concurrence and great admiration, as I am sure he will have of all who give themselves to these studies. The principle of a territorial respect in this prophecy, as in all of them, is also beautifully illustrated by this interpretation of Ben-Ezra. Upon which territorial aspect of the prophecies I may here observe in passing, lest it should escape me in another place, that I know not how it is possible for those prophecies which respect the latter times of Egypt, and Moab, and Ammon, &c. to be accomplished if you make them to respect the races of the inhabitants who are all intermingled and lost; but if you make them to respect. the territories of these people, with such of the antient descendants as are there found, they are capable of an exact accomplishment. I refer for further remarks upon this subject, to “Frere’s Combined View.”

With respect to our author’s interpretation of the vision of the four beasts contained in the seventh of Daniel, I cannot but admire the ingenuity of the whole, and the great value of the particular observations which are contained in it. But I cannot agree with it for several reasons which I will introduce by previously rebutting one or two of his objections; whereof the first is Daniel’s exceeding terror and affright on account of a vision which he had already seen. This our author argues was not to be expected if he had seen but the repetition of a former vision, which had then caused to him no such overpowering horror. But the spirit of the former vision is the subversion of the four empires by the saints, the spirit of this vision is the oppression of the saints by the fourth of the kingdoms; the former an occasion of joy, the latter an occasion of horror to a prophet of the Lord. For though the saints in the one as in the other are to possess the kingdom, here it is not till after a long long period of oppression and persecution. This was what occasioned the prophet’s abject sorrow and great astonishment. To the second of his objections, that the Babylonian monarchy was then past, I have nothing to say except that it is not unusual for the spirit of prophecy to take a retrospective view of the conditions of the church, in order to make the whole complete. Whereof we have a notable example in the first and second chapters of Zechariah, under the emblem of the four horns. It is a thing quite usual in the discursive prophecies to derive the history of the sufferings of the church from so high a source even as the bondage of Egypt. And what wonder then if in this prophecy, whose object, as I judge, is to set forth the captivity of the saints, and the duration of the militant suffering church, the terrors of the bestial reign until the reign of the Son of man shall come and put them under his feet, according to the promise of the eighth Psalm, prefigured by the creation of man upon the eve of the sixth day, before the sabbath of rest; what wonder, I say, if such a revelation of the mystery of iniquity whereof the last of the four periods was to endure, no less than "a time, times, and half a time,” should have smitten the prophet’s spirit unto the very earth. That this is the scope of the vision, nay, that the “time, times, and half a time” of the little horn’s blasphemous usurpation, and the great deliverance therefrom, is the one object of the vision I have no doubt, from its being so much dwelt upon, and from its being the object of the prophet’s interrogatory, and of the angel’s interpretation; but more particularly from the reference made to this vision in the twelfth chapter, by this very characteristic mark of “time, times, and half a time.”

Now it was this very thing, —that our author perceived not the symbolical meaning of this period “time, times, and half a time,” but interpreted it literally, to mean three years and a half; or forty and two months, or 1260 days, —which led him into his whole theory of this vision, or as he modestly proposeth it, his conjecture. Having fallen into this error, which I can only account for from his total unacquaintance with any of our protestant interpreters, it was quite natural for him to find infidelity represented in this beast of ten horns which is to consummate the wickedness of the last times, and bring in the glorious advent of the Lord. Because he is too shrewd an observer of the spirit and aspects of human society to doubt that it is infidelity which is to play the last desperate game of wickedness; yea, not to perceive that it is already doing its work masterfully, and hath been for the last thirty years. I am perfectly amazed at his insight into this mystery; the concurrence of such a man to the opinions which I have expressed in ‘Babylon and Infidelity foredoomed,’ concerning the imminent peril of infidelity, may, I think, open the eyes of those who dream that religion is making great and mighty progress upon the earth. Being fully convinced of this point, and perceiving that this ten horned beast was to consummate the mystery of iniquity, and not perceiving the emblematical character of its period, it was most natural, and as it were necessary for him to conclude that this ten-horned seven-headed beast must be an emblem of infidelity; and having arrived at this conclusion, it was most natural, and as it were necessary, to infer that the other three must likewise represent false religions, and so we have the clue to this interpretation also.

Now I am not ignorant that there are amongst ourselves men who doubt and disbelieve the interpretation which almost all protestants give to this period, as containing a term of 1260 years; and that of late a pamphlet has been written by a very worthy clergyman of the Church of England to this effect: but really I have thought this matter so completely set at rest by Mede, and Henry More, and the common consent of those who have written since, as not to need any demonstration. And it is manifest that, if in emblematical visions, such as those of Daniel and the Apocalypse, you will interpret the periods literally, you may as well interpret the other parts literally; and insist upon literal beasts of the character there set forth, and a literal throne, and so of the rest, which no one will be so foolish as to require. And why require it in one part and not in another? The word time, rather than year; and times, rather than two years; and the dividing of time, rather than half a year; were evidence to me that there was a mystery under it: but when I find it in the midst of an emblematical vision I can have no doubt thereof, according to all rules and canons of interpretation.

This indeed is the point in which our author falls short of himself, viz: in all that respects the chronology which is intermingled with the prophecy, whereof he makes not the slightest use in guiding himself with respect to our present place in the prophetic chart, but simply looks upon all the numbers 1260, 1290, and 1335 days, as determining the duration of the great and awful era which precedes the coming of the Lord. And I confess that upon this system he hath made out such a very strong case, derived and deduced from all the scriptures, that though he hath not shaken me in the least out of our interpretation of these numbers, he hath sometimes awakened in my mind the suspicion of a possibility, that when the time of that last great antichristian trouble shall arrive, these numbers may be found to have a literal application without prejudice to that symbolical one which they have already had; even as this symbolical answers, as I conceive, to a former literal period given in the three years and a half famine in the time of Ahab, which closed in the destruction of the priests of Baal, and the coming of rain, after seven successive messages to look out for it from Elias the true prophet of God. And I have sometimes had a suspicion, moreover, that the three years and a half duration of the Lord's suffering ministry, may be a type of the duration of the sufferings of the Jewish church when it shall be again called; for I continually find the suffering Messiah, and the suffering Jewish church, interwoven in the prophecies of the Old Testament, especially in the Psalms, of which the one hundred and fifty-first may be taken as an example. Now it may be as Ben-Ezra argueth, that while the Israel of the apostate Gentile church is enduring the three years and a half famine and sore suffering in the days of king Ahab, or the personal infidel Antichrist, the Jewish church may be suffering the same three years and a half trial and persecution, which Messiah endured for them, ending in that agony of sorrow described in the twelfth chapter of Zechariah, and in their apparent death preparatory to their great resurrection. I know not what there may be in this, and I do but throw it out as a conjecture and suspicion which hath oft been forcibly awakened in my own mind. And thus it may be, that both we Protestants, and Ben-Ezra, may be in the right.

However this may be, I consider our disparity on this point (for it is not a disagreement, inasmuch as he seemeth not to have known our opinion, and I am sure we knew not his) to be more providential than our concurrence, and more demonstrative of the truth, inasmuch as notwithstanding this diversity of education and method, we both discern the great lineaments of the truth, he from the one side, we from the other side of heaven, perceiving the manifest sign of the day of the Son of man. We agree in perceiving that the papacy hath furnished, is furnishing, and will furnish the great strength and supply of the infidel power, that the infidel power will carry along with it the papal hierarchy and kingdom, that it will be supported by these in the persecution of the true church of Christ; that it will stand up against the Lord and his anointed, and not be destroyed but by the brightness of his coming. I may add, moreover, that his interpretation of the actings of this future infidel beast of ten horns, so exactly concurs with our interpretation of the actings of the past papal beast, that I oft fancied he was describing rather than anticipating; and a friend of mine in whose sound judgment I have much reliance, remarked to me that it confirmed him in the protestant interpretations, more than any thing which he had ever read in their own works. Now how much additional evidence is brought to these things, which we agree are now in the world, or to be immediately anticipated, is brought by our disagreement in the minor points of interpretation. It shows that we are not misled by the spirit of system, it shows that we do not, as our gainsayers, follow each other like a flock of sheep, it shows that we are not betrayed into our opinion by protestant or catholic prejudices; but are forced, not withstanding our different positions and different methods of observation, to conclude the same thing from the very manifest signs which will not suffer themselves to be read wrong. This is an observation of very wide application.

Next with respect to the Apocalypse, for the above mentioned are the only two visions of Daniel which he treateth at large, I must begin by observing that I perfectly concur with his idea that the title of this book “The Revelation, of Jesus Christ,” is to be understood in an active, not in a passive sense, to signify as it doth in all the epistles “the revealing of Jesus Christ,” or the manifestation of his promised coming. And it may be some confirmation of this idea to state that I had been convinced of this several months before I saw the work, and had suggested it to a friend, who is conversant in these matters. But though concurring with my author in this the germ of his system of interpreting the Apocalypse, I do by no means concur in his inference, that therefore it must wait for and immediately precede the day of the Lord’s coming, and be all evolved with a rapidity of succession which will not fill many years; and that no part of the book from the fourth chapter to the end, has yet been accomplished. In this inference I do not concur, though I concur in the idea that the book is nothing but the manifestation of the Lord’s coming, revealed for the teaching and consolation of his church. But such a manifestation as will comfort and sustain the church during the whole period of his absence, being to her what the succession of prophets was to the former church.

As at every hard passage in the Church’s history, under Pharaoh, under Ahab, on the eve of the Assyrian, and, anon, of the Babylonish captivity, in the duration of the same, in the hard times which followed thereupon, and, finally, for the seventy years which preceded the destruction and downfall of Jerusalem, there were raised up prophets who should direct the eye of the Church to her great redemption and restoration at the coming of Messiah; by one of whom was given also the times and seasons thereof, exactly numbered and set off; so it is analogous to believe that the Lord would do the same by the Christian Church, in that book which was added for the interpretation of all the other books of revelation, and for the express manifestation of that coming kingdom, whereof the expectation of the Church had been defeated at the time of the former advent. If such a book was to be given, to conclude the canon and serve the part of a prophecy to the Gentile Church, leading in and pointing directly, like all prophecy, to the grand restoration, by the coming of the Lord; it is, I say, according to the analogy of all God’s dealings, that it should be so disposed as to open now one part and now another, according to the successive judgments of his providence and hidings of his countenance, with which it might please him to visit his beloved Church, for her chastisement and perfection by suffering. And it is not according to the analogy of God’s dealings with his Church, that this book should lie a long while without any bearing upon, or application unto the conditions of the Church during that long period of her distress. So that while Ben-Ezra has most triumphantly refuted those who would make all the Apocalypse to run out or terminate long ere this, he has laid himself open to the same sort of triumphant refutation by confining it to a short period towards the end of time, which is not yet arrived.

Still I go hand in hand with him in the idea, that it is to the revelation or manifestation of Jesus Christ, that every part should be shown to have respect. And if this idea be true, and the question of its truth must be determined on other grounds besides analogy, we have the best reason to assign why there should be so much disputation and disagreement among the interpreters of this book. For as it would have been bad husbandry to have given to Moses what fitted the times of Isaiah, or to Isaiah what suited the times of Daniel, or to Daniel what suited the times of the Baptist; so, would it have been equally bad husbandry to have opened the prophecy which respecteth the downfall of the Papacy to the Church while suffering under Paganism, or that which respecteth the downfall of Infidelity to the Church while suffering under the oppression of the Papacy: but rather to open unto each that which concerned its own trial, and in mercy to hide the various trials which were to follow, lest haply she might think them interminable, and lose heart altogether. Yet as in the former prophets of the old dispensation there is an infantine discernment, and, as it were, embryo revelation of all the prophecy which was to follow, so ought there to be a system, and combination, and evenness of progress and end in this book, which was thus gradually to be opened, as the Church should stand in need of its consolation. Thus, concurring with my author in the germ of his system, I concur with him so far in its spirit likewise as to believe, that, as upon the eve of Messiah’s former coming there was the dispensation of a fore runner and a preparation; so, upon the eve of his latter coming there may be, nay, there will be, a dispensation of special preparation and perhaps, even of a forerunner; which, I think, is signified in that prophetic voice announced under the sixth vial, “Behold, I come,” &c. —Finally, it is enough for the confirmation of these views to find that each of the three great oppressions of the Church, the Pagan, the Papal, and the Infidel, was attended with a corresponding opening and understanding of that part of this book which severally concerneth each, and of the corresponding scriptures, which breathe the promise of the like deliverances. And this, I assert, has been the case: during the first three centuries, the Apocalypse was known and cherished in the Church as the great assurance of the downfall of Paganism; during the sufferings of the Waldenses and the Protestants, it was cherished as the ground of belief, that the Pope and the papal empire was the beast: and now it is beginning to be known from the same, that the infidel antichrist, who is to take the other out of the way, is the great sign of, and shall himself be destroyed in, the coming of the Lord.

Besides this, there is another reason, derived from the same high ground of the analogy of the prophetic spirit, which I have to assign for differing from the opinion of my author, —that the apocalyptic seals, trumpets and vials, &c. have in no part been fulfilled; while I agree with him, that the only end of the Apocalypse is, to manifest, or reveal the coming of Christ in glory and majesty. And it is this: that every other prophetic book, and, I may say almost every prophecy of every prophetic book, hath a part which had immediate, or speedy fulfilment, in order to justify the prophet's pretension, and give assurance and certainty to that other part which remained, unfulfilled till its proper time should arrive. In every prophecy of the Old Testament, and in the prophecies of the Lord recorded in the Gospel, there are two parts, —the former, of private application to a people and to a time close at hand; the latter, not of private interpretation, being spoken by the Holy Spirit for the good of the elect church in all ages, and waiting for its accomplishment till the time of the end, or of the Lord’s glorious advent.

For example; The personal prophecy of Emanuel, given to King Ahaz, was linked into connexion with those two sons of Isaiah, Shear-jashub and Mahar-shalal-hash-baz, in whose times an overthrow of the enemies of Judah was predicted to take place; having come to pass, did stamp that glorious prophecy with the signet of Almighty and Omniscient truth, and leave it a most precious jewel of the Church’s dowry. It was repeated by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary, and by Zacharias commented upon, and had its opening in the birth of Christ of virgin’s seed. But the great accomplishment of it abides outstanding till the times of refreshment shall come. So it is also with all the prophecies concerning the captivity in, and the overthrow of Babylon, whereof I will assert, that not one hath had its full and perfect accomplishment in any events yet passed, which events the prophecies indeed included, but they included more; the captivity in Babylon being to the national church of the Jews what Egypt was to the patriarchal church, —a great event, doubtless, and a great chastisement; but chiefly so, as it afforded a language of facts, in which to express their national captivity to this day, and in which also to express the spiritual thraldom of the Gentile church to the mystical Babylon. So much, also, do I affirm of the deliverance afforded by Cyrus to that handful which returned to Jerusalem; the true Cyrus with his sanctified ones being yet for to come, and deliver those of the captive Israelites who will be delivered. So also our Lord’s prophecies of his Second coming in power and great glory, for judgment upon the earth, and deliverance to the Church, have a part which bore upon and had immediate accomplishment in that very generation, to that very city, and upon that visible Church: which being fulfilled shortly thereafter, not only served the end of warning the proper objects of its burdens or woe, but, which is far more important, it authorized the future application of those parts of it which can by no power of ingenuity be compelled to bend to that event, or any other event but the coming of the Son of man.

So also the prophecies scattered through the epistles, of an apostacy that was to come in the Christian Church before the time of the Lord’s appearing, had a partial fulfilment in those very days, as Paul and John do testify. And, without multiplying instances, I appeal to all the prophecies for the fact, that every one of them hath a part that beareth upon some proximate event, which in the analogy of divine providence doth resemble and serve to shadow forth an ultimate event, to which the other part of the prophecy hath respect. For the providence of Cod is as subservient to the great end of foreshowing the grand consummation of this world’s redemption and blessedness at the second advent of the Lord, as is the prophecy; or rather, the word of prophecy gives signal of the event of providence, according to the Scottish proverb, ‘Before wierd there's word.’ And the word is not only the signal, but the cause of the event, as we see in the acts of creation; so that the proverb might have this more religious form, 'Word makes wierd.’ Furthermore, it is this partial application of the prophecy to a former event which makes the one half of men say it is all fulfilled already; and it is this partial in-application of it which makes the other half of men say, that it is never to be fulfilled in any real event, but must be understood spiritually, anagogically, &c.

Against both of which perversities St. Peter, in the end of the first chapter of his second epistle, maketh strong debate: insisting against the former class, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private application that is, neither to private men, nor particular ages, nor particular events, but hath an outstanding application to events yet to come, being spoken by the Holy Ghost for the profit of the Catholic Church; while against the spiritualizers, who were not then in being, he deals an anticipative blow, by directing the Church to look to the “sure word of prophecy, as unto a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day-star arise on their hearts:” and he brings them a second blow, as I judge, by calling them “the scoffers who were to arise in the last times,” saying, “Where is the hope of his coming?" From all which we surely conclude, that it is the rule of the Prophetic Spirit for these two great and necessary purposes, of guiding the church then being, and directing the church which should be unto the end, for the purpose also of verification, in order that the word so confirmed and verified, might be locked up in the faith and hope of the church unto the end; always to have a part of every prophecy applicable to things at hand, as well as a greater part applicable to things afar off.

Now this principle established upon so broad a basis, bears hard upon our author’s theory of the apocalyptic prophecy who goes about to deprive it of the former part altogether, and to interpose seventeen hundred years, during which no part of it hath been confirmed. For, according to the views, all from the fourth chapter forward unto the end of the book, remain unaccomplished, and will be rapidly evolved in a regular succession; immediately upon the eve of the Lord’s coming. In which case it is like no other prophecy that the Spirit of God ever indicted; and wants the prophetic sanction of embracing what hath already come to pass, and therefore wants the irreversible claim upon the belief of the church. Whereas taking it as I have elsewhere done (following Mr. Frere's scheme) as successive revelations of prophecy, and correspondent acts of Providence, all bearing upon and announcing near and still more near, the great and glorious consummation, everything comes out in beautiful harmony with the other revelations of the prophetic Spirit. We have first the vision of Christ in emblematic form as the Shepherd and Bishop of the churches; and then we have his epistles to the seven churches of Asia, which I have no doubt were seven actual churches, as Babylon, and Egypt, and Jerusalem were actual places; and that their encouragements, admonitions, threatenings, and promises, were both needed by them and carried to them by the messenger to whom they were entrusted. And as I perceive moreover, that the threatenings contained in them have all an allusion to the pagan persecutions which were about to come upon them, I am very much disposed to confine these epistles to that specific object.

But if any one, considering the broad characteristic differences which there is amongst them, and the promises all applicable to the coming of the Lord, and the mystical import of the number seven be disposed to regard them as including in some larger sense the successive states of the whole Christian church up to the coming of the Lord, I am not careful to controvert that position; so that it be granted to me that this part of the book which is called “the things that are”, had a real and literal application to those seven churches to which it is by name addressed. By these seven epistles the great and good shepherd having signified his watchful care and inspection over all the churches, and foretold a speedy persecution that was to arise against them of ten days duration, about to come upon all the world; having also pointed their eye to the great hopes; powers, possessions, and glories of his second coming, and of the new Jerusalem state, as the grand support of all his tried and troubled members and finally having given express predictions with respect to the destinies of these seven most conspicuous Christian churches, which all might observe, and observing believe the prophecy of this book; he proceeds to reveal himself in another character, as the possessor of all power, and dominion, and authority and might, who is about to be put into sure possession thereof, when the times and the seasons appointed by the Father should have fulfilled their courses. This picture is given in the 4th and 5th chapters, upon which our author's observations are most masterly, and most grand, and so I may say of every part of his observations upon this book, though I be forced to take these exceptions to his general method. Thenceforward from the 6th chapter, we have the seven acts by which he takes possession of the purchased inheritance of this earth and sets the prisoners free; which arc given under the emblem of seals opened and trumpets sounded, the last or seventh including the seven vials, being removed out of its place to make room for the parallel succession of the trumpets which affect the eastern as the seals do the western half of the fourth empire, and also to make room for the parallel history of the little book of the church under its threefold oppression of paganism, popery, and infidelity. In like manner the seventh trumpet with its seven thunders is postponed, and along with the seventh seal laid out in detail under the seven vials; after which we have six chapters of explanation or interpretation by the angel, having all a direct reference to the events immediately preceding, and attendant upon, the coming of the Lord. This, arrangement of the prophetic part of the book I cannot stay to open nor to defend. Suffice it to say, that it is derived wholly from internal evidence, and set forth in a small tract published a few weeks ago by Mr. Frere, entitled “The general Structure of the Apocalypse,” which leaves nothing to be done or said further upon that head, and to which I therefore refer. So much however was necessary to be, said here in order to demonstrate the completeness of the analogy between the method of this book, and that of the other prophecies.

The epistles to the seven churches of Asia, to whom the whole book of the Apocalypse is addressed, do show that it was intended for the instruction and consolation of the Gentile and not of the future Jewish church as my author would have it. Upon the same grounds, on which I conclude that Isaiah was inspired to be a witness to the Jewish church and nation, and believe that all the terms there used of Jerusalem, Zion, Judah, Israel, &c. are to be literally understood of them, and by right be long to them in the first intention, and will certainly be fulfilled of them, I do conclude that the Apocalypse belongeth to the Gentile church, and was given for her instruction and consolation, and will be all fulfilled in her. I conclude the former, because to them it is addressed; I conclude the latter for the same reason, because to them it is addressed. Will any one say to me that what was written to the Thessalonians was not intended for the Thessalonians; and will any one then say, that what was written to the seven Gentile churches, was not intended for them? To them certainly, the Apocalypse was directed, and through them to all the churches of the Gentiles, not of that generation only, but to all that should arise in all parts of the world, and to us, who treat it as if it were Talmudical fables. (Woe, woe, unto us, therefore!) From whence we conclude, as well as from the emblematical character of the whole book, that if Jewish names do occur in it, as in the sealing of the tribes, and in the new Jerusalem which cometh down from heaven, they ought not to be understood literally, but emblematically, as Egypt, and Sodom, and Babylon are.

But to proceed with our purpose. Those epistles contained a prophecy of trials to come from persecutions, and of deliverance out of them. This was the Pagan persecution. Therefore we should expect that the first revelation of future things should be the taking of that out of the way which troubled the churches, while it let or hindered the apostacy from strengthening itself, that is, the taking away of Paganism. And this we believe is the object of the first four seals, and the first four parallel trumpets, and of so much of the little book of the history of the church as concerneth the great red dragon. Paganism being taken out of the way, the apostacy which had been leavening the church from the be ginning, began wholly to possess it; which being properly an ecclesiastical event, is merely mentioned as the subject of the fifth seal, but fully described under the beast from the sea with ten crowned horns, and the beast like a lamb which wrought miracles in his presence, their common period being forty and two months. To have revealed this event and period to the seven churches in the plain way in which the Pagan persecutions were revealed, would have been to have weighed down those who could already hardly stand upright under the load of present and instant afflictions which were upon them. And therefore he shut it up in an emblematical form, the shell of whose mystery, Providence and the Holy Spirit would break in due time. Yet in the midst of the mystery there is a plain enough encouragement to the suffering church, “Here is the patience of the saints, he that leadeth into captivity shall be led into captivity, and he that killeth with the sword shall be killed with the sword.” But, for as much as in the eastern half of the church, the visitation of Mahomedanism was not a persecuting apostacy, but a destroying conquest; not a captivity, but a death; not an ecclesiastical, but a political event, we have it set forth under the two trumpets; immediately following the first four, which bring things in the east down to the beginning of this eradication, as the four seals bring them down in the west to the beginning of the apostacy. Now when the church of the Gentiles had arrived at this sorrowful, tedious, and languishing captivity of Babylon, they had received in the events of the annihilation of Paganism, the fulfilment of the promises which had been made to the seven churches; and they might see in the existing state of the seven churches the exact accomplishment of the threatenings passed upon them. And therefore the Gentile church in her Babylonish captivity did possess the same assurance of the divinity of this book, which the ancient Jews had of all their prophecies when they had seen the first application of them answered by the event. And even this captivity under the mystical Babylon, which occupies the fifth seal and the second part of the church history, and fills up the 1260 years, is but as it were a further confirmation of the book, in order to assure us of the certainty of the great ultimate object of the book, expressed in its title, "The Revelation of Jesus Christ,” which is also the ultimate object of all the prophecies from Moses unto John. So that while I agree with my author that the revelation or second coming of Jesus Christ is the great end of this prophecy, as the fifth kingdom of the Son of man is of Daniel’s vision of the four beasts; yet as in that and the other prophecies, I find also in this a train of lesser lights leading onwards through thick gloomy navigation to the harbour, and home, and rest of the church. There are lesser lights to rule the night, as well a greater light to rule the day. The watchman telleth of the morning, but also of the night. “Watchman, what of the night? The morning cometh and also the night.”

Now I can step aside, seeing my argument has led me into such detail, to make a remark before passing forward, for the sake of my reader, who haply may be one of this sceptical generation of the church, “That almost all, indeed I may say all interpreters of the Apocalypse, are agreed that we are living under the sixth vial, during the procession of the three unclean Spirits, who are now actively engaged in gathering their various hosts to the great battle of the day of God Almighty.” Almost all believe that the 1260 days closed in the French revolution, and that the seven vials then began to be poured out upon those who had the mark of the beast. That for the last seven or eight years the sixth hath been pouring out upon the great river Euphrates, or the Turkish power; and that we now stand upon the very eve, upon the very edge and lip of that seventh vial, which is to consummate all wrath, and make a full end of the indignation. Even my author, who hath no knowledge of the apocalyptic arrangement, considering it all as future, although he died in 1801, perceives that Infidelity had been playing an active part upon the stage, and that after a short remission and temporary concealment, it will come forth the second time, and complete the work of the annihilation of the papal religion, and then be swept into destruction by the appearing of the Lord. Seeing this unity of sentiment amongst such differently constituted minds, and differently constituted systems, with respect to the one great point of the place at which we presently stand, and with respect to our instant expectations, who is he that will upbraid the holy subject of prophecy with the disagreement of them who intermeddle therewith. We disagree in parts, because we conceive the subject to be of such infinite importance as not loosely to agree with one another, but you agree in whole to despise God’s prophecy altogether, and not to care for it disagreeing in parts, we agree in the great point of our Lord’s immediate advent, of the immediate destruction of all his enemies, of the infinite delusions of Satan which are gone abroad, of the necessity, of the most urgent necessity for continual watchfulness (for my own part I feel as if all the legion of hell were continually attempting me): but you agree in scoffing, and contemning and making jokes upon the whole subject, and eating and drinking, and making merry, and calling aloud for gladness and glory. "And in that, day did the Lord God of hosts call to weeping, and to mourning and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth: And behold joy and gladness, slaying oxen, and killing sheep, eating flesh, and drinking wine.” Isa. xxii. 12, 13.

I never feel satisfied that I have either discovered or removed the error of a great, and a good man, until I have found out the causes which led him into it. This I have pointed out with respect to our author’s interpretations of Daniel, and I think I can point it out here also. Seeing with his wonted sagacity the capital idea that the great object of the book is the manisfestation of the Lord’s second coming, and not perceiving that every prophecy hath a train connecting it with the time of the Prophet, he was naturally led to refer the whole to a time still future. Then perceiving that a great part of it, as the destruction of the witnesses, and the abode of the woman in the wilderness, and the persecution of the two confederate beasts, was to be accomplished in 1260 days, which he understood literally to be three years and a half, it was natural to infer that the rest should be on a similar scale of time, and that therefore the whole could not include a much longer period than a few years at the most. In this notion he seemed to himself to be confirmed by the introductory vision of the fourth and fifth chapters, which presenteth the Lord in full possession, as receiving the homage of the whole creation. Then taking the seven-sealed book to be the new covenant promised against that clay to the Jewish people, and through them to all the world, he was as it were rooted in the idea that the rest of the Apocalypse was but a thick-coming series of signs ushering in that glorious possession. This also led him to find in it so much concerning the Jewish nation and church, who, as I judge, have little or no inheritance in it at all. But the great source of his error is not having studied the structure of the book itself, which I hold to be the only defence against the spirit of system, and the subtle ingenuity of private interpretation. Our author does not seem to have known the method of synchronism first laid down by Mede, and now perfected by Mr. Frere in the ingenious little tract referred to above. And I perceive that it is but labour in vain to study it otherwise, and that it is time wasted even to listen to the wild and visionary hypothesis which every one who hath not so studied it maketh for himself.

But Ben-Ezra is one of those men whose errors become instructive by the stores of collateral truth with which they are defended. And I may truly say of his interpretations of the Apocalypse, that I have found them amongst the most instructive chapters of his work, though I differ from him in these essential points. Nay, as I have observed above, he sometimes made me to suspect that there might be towards the end, three years and a half in which all those things may be literally fulfilled of the personal Antichrist, which have been emblematically fulfilled of the mystical Babylon. Certainly, the infinite ingenuity and apparent simplicity with which he brings out the whole mystery of the woman in travail, as applicable to the Jewish nation, and the mystery of the beast, as applicable, to the infidel Antichrist, made me once more go about and examine all the foundations of those opinions which I have formed, and of those judgments which I have given in my Discourse of “Babylon and Infidelity foredoomed,” whereof the result has been, to convince me more and more, that they are thoroughly well founded. And yet I confess myself indebted in the highest degree to his misinterpretations for the cross light they cast upon all the other parts of scripture whence he derives his proofs and illustrations.

Having this opinion even of the few mistakes into which my author has fallen in so great a subject, it may by some be thought wiser, that I should have passed the whole with out any strictures. And so my reverence for him would have led me to do: but my greater reverence for sound interpretation, and my conviction of the importance of prophetic truth to these times in which we live, and, above all, my reverence for the Apocalypse itself, forced me, against my inclination and first purpose, to say thus much. For I was afraid lest those ignorant and lazy men, who will not inquire into prophecy until it is passed and gone, saying with most consummate conceit of wisdom, Oh, it is all for a far distant, future time! might shelter themselves behind the authority of Ben-Ezra; and that the book of the Apocalypse, upon the study of which such destinies are suspended, and which seems now fairly to be brought again before the Church, might once more be laid aside, under the idea that it had no bearing upon the present times: wherefore, feeling burdened with a great responsibility to the Church in this which I have undertaken, my conscience would not permit me to flinch from the painful duty of saying wherein I thought my author had mistaken the mind of the Holy Spirit.

Before passing from this part of my subject, I have one observation to make further, concerning a personal Antichrist, which my author rejects, having found it amongst the traditions of the Church, encrusted with all manner of rust and corruption. But as he hath justified the opinions of the ancient Millenarians from the errors and gross indelicacies which were intermingled therewith, so might he have done by this ancient and constant tradition of the church concerning a personal Antichrist. That the falling away or apostacy described in Scripture properly answers to a Spirit, and that this Spirit is in the last times to be the Spirit of apostasy, or dissolving the bonds of Christ, and that it will bring about a confederacy of the powers now professing Christianity against the Lord and his anointed, there can be no doubt; but why may there not be a head and leader of this confederacy? To one who studies the seventeenth chapter of the Apocalypse, it is manifest that he is the 8th head of the beast, and likewise of the seven; to one who studies the prophecies of Isaiah, it is manifest that he is the same there signified by 'the Assyrian,’ and to one who studies the eleventh of Daniel I think it will be also manifest, that he is the same with “the wilful king,” and also with the ‘lawless one,’ who is mentioned in the second chapter of the second epistle to the Thessalonians, by the characteristic of the seventh head, “that he is destroyed or goeth into perdition at the coming of the Lord.” He is the person typified in Pharaoh and Sennacherib, and the destruction of his host is figured in their consummate and instantaneous destruction. If I err not, the mystery of his being the eighth head, and of the seven, indicates that he is to be in some way or other a double personage, which seems also to be indicated in Isaiah xiv. 29, as I think it also is in the eleventh of Daniel; the former personage being as a sign before the fearful appearance of the latter: and both for a sign unto the Jews of their speedy deliverance; and if I err not both to prove a snare unto the Jews. The former, whose day is already past, indicated by the gathering together of the Sanhedrim, and other acts of favour towards them, that course of policy which his successor, covetous perhaps of their riches, the sinews, as they say, of power, may follow up and complete. For this Antichrist is certainly appointed to fall upon the mountains of Israel, whether perhaps he may be driven in some mimickry of divine power, to fulfil the divine decree, or, as he may suppose, to thwart it; —like Julian the apostate, purposing to falsify God's word, or to do by his own power that which God hath reserved for the stretching out of his own most glorious arm. But into this subject I enter no further at present. And here I close the first part of Preliminary Discourse, which purported to give some account of this book which came to me in so wonderful a way, and which I have presented to the churches. And now I betake myself to the much higher object, of justifying from abuse that doctrine, whereof the orthodoxy is established beyond a doubt by my author; and now I become a fellow-labourer with him, which I feel to be a perilous copartnery; and yet one from which I must not shrink, as being the servant of God and of his church.

PART II

THE JUSTIFICATION OF THE VIEWS CONTAINED IN THIS TREATISE.

PART II

THE JUSTIFICATION OF THE VIEWS CONTAINED IN THIS TREATISE.

I FEEL that I have one other duty to fulfil in ushering this book into the presence and favour of the churches worshipping God in the English tongue, which is to meet and dispose of the question, What’s the good of these views which you preach to us, and publish to us, with so much zeal? In handling this I begin by a solemn protest against the place and time in which they are wont to put the question, as if it were the prelude and preliminary, and not the conclusion of every well-conducted inquiry. If we had not a law, and a testimony, and a body of divine doctrine, as old as the creation, and through all ages speaking forth the same great and solemn truth, infinitely diversified in form and expression, to suit the eye of the spirit of man, as it openeth and cleareth under its purifying influence; if we were like a council of revolutionary empirics, sat down to reconstitute the world anew, we might well begin every inquiry and submit every proposition to the preliminary test of “cui bono,” what is the good of it? But seeing that we are a church constituted under divine law and government, the first and the great question is, “What saith the statute?” “How read we it in the word of our God and King?” If it be so written in the counsels of his wisdom and goodness; that infinite wisdom and goodness is pledge enough to us that it is useful, yea, and of the utmost usefulness. Wherefore all venerable divines and writers of the best times, are ever wont to place the USES of any subject in the last part of their discourse; first, showing the doctrine out of the scripture, then cleaving it from all cavils and objections, then enforcing it by all grave considerations of the divine will, authority, wisdom, and goodness; and lastly, drawing forth the various uses of consolation, of terror, of reproof, &c. But this spring-tide of expediency, which hath filled all channels to the brim, doth so bear down the barriers of authority and law, human and divine, as to come sweeping in by every ancient gate you may chance to open. And we no sooner desire to restore a doctrine which the church in the best times of her existence clasped to her soul, and which was only shaken off from her embrace by the strong delusions and efforts of this worldly kingdom, that they cry out on all hands, What’s the use of trying to revive any such antiquated notion? And we no sooner enter upon a demonstration of it from the scriptures, than they cry out again, “But what’s the good of it, if it were demonstrated? Is it necessary to salvation? Then what matter how we think upon it?” This is the very height of human arrogancy, of intellectual apostacy. Thou worm man! What insight hast thou into the future, or what power of calculating the unseen applications of things, that thou shouldest try what God hath written in his redeeming, all redeeming word, by thy mouse-eyed vision? I wot you utilitarian Christians rail against prophesyings, and well may you, because ye are become prophets in your several spheres, trying all conclusions by your foresight of their future effects and fruitfulness of good; so that it were cutting you out of your own craft, and exposing your own craftiness, that God should take upon him to prophesy, or his servants take upon them to mediate and set forth his prophesies. Oh the infidelity, the deep and destructive infidelity, which is couched under this word, usefulness! Oh the mastery which it hath obtained over all the churches; and the fearful odds which any one has to stand against, who would contend for the simple word of revelation and the only authority, of God! Against which way of trying conclusions in this issue, I protest as solemnly as if, being upon my trial before a judge and jury of my country, they should, instead of attending to law and fact, proceed by considering whether it would be more useful and expedient that I should be condemned or not. “It is expedient that one man die for the nation, and that the nation perish not.” But forasmuch as I have a perverted church (a church perverted by usefulness), to plead this question before, which will neither, read nor hear a matter, till it hath first shown good cause why it should be heard and pleaded; (although I have always thought the reason, that it is so written in the word of God, to be the best, and indeed the only good cause, for pleading any matter before the church;) I do condescend to this infirmity, and in this preliminary place, shall first take an estimate of the comparative usefulness, and profit of the two systems; the more willingly as my good author, being a textuary and scripturist, and not writing for England, the cradle, and home, and bulwark of utilitarians, hath not touched this matter of usefulness at all, but contented himself with the authority of the holy word, that is, the orthodoxy of the question.

CHAPTER I.

THE COMPARATIVE USEFULNESS OF THE TWO SYSTEMS.

THE two views of the second advent which our author bringeth to the touchstone of the scriptures, to discern thereby the truth from the counterfeit of truth, agree in this, that there will be a personal re-appearance of the Lord at some future time, to judge all who have ever lived upon the earth, and to determine their everlasting condition of blessedness and misery. There is no question, nor ever hath been, nor ever can be, concerning Christ’s personal reappearance in human form upon the earth; although I perceive the faith of the Protestant churches to be so withered by absolute infidelity or by intellectual demonstration, which is the egg of infidelity, that they start when you say that Christ will appear again in personal and bodily presence upon the earth: and I am sure, for as often as I have heard the judgment discoursed of, in this age of moth-eaten and undervalued creeds; and for as often as I discoursed of it myself, before I had insight given me into this mystery, I have never found it treated as a personal act of Christ, or rightful attribute of his mediatorial office; but as a thing personal to us, a whip to scourge our lethargy, a spell to break our sleep, a thunder-note to awaken our terrors; treated as a metaphysical part of the metaphysical idea of moral responsibility, rather than as the grand demonstration of the and majesty of the humbled Son of God, the grand act of the justification of Christ’s injuries and the injuries of his suffering church upon those who had done them wrong. And I am sure the judgement hath become almost a dead letter in our creed and in our preaching, from being thus abstracted away from the personal act and bodily presence of Christ the judge.

In proof of the fact that it hath become so abstracted away from the personal act and bodily presence of the Lord, I need only to state, that I have hardly conversed with one minister or preacher of the gospel, who had thought at all upon the subject of the second advent, excepting that small number who have adopted these views of his kingdom; and I have hardly met with one private Christian of the thousands to whom I have preached it, who had ever heard it treated of as a great head of doctrine, or even had a conception that it was such. And at this moment, I believe, that of Protestants by far the greater number have not even a faith, or if they have a verbal faith, founded on the standards of their churches, have no actual faith in the personal advent of Christ at any time. And we may see into what indifference and contempt the whole subject has come, and how it hath passed into the domain of poetical imagery, and forms of the fancy, when it has become the theme for ribald poems and silly reviews. Whereas in scripture, in all the scripture, it is the grand object of faith and hope, ever present, ever felt, ever useful, to the holy apostles and prophets of the Lord. The doctrine of justification by faith in the first advent of Christ, lay not more lost in superstitious forms of the sense, when the Reformers cleared the buried column of its strength and majesty, than doth the doctrine of salvation and glory by the second advent of Christ lie lost and subtilized away into airy abstractions. But this, though a very great evil, which I call upon all ministers of the gospel to look to, concerneth not so much my present inquiry, which regardeth the comparative usefulness of the two systems of opinion upon the second advent; not the abuse into which either of them may at any time be fallen. We arc agreed therefore, I say, upon the personal advent of Christ to this earth, to judge the quick and the dead, and to apportion their eternal destinies.

And the points in which we differ are, whether that advent is to conclude the existence of the habitable earth, or to begin the period of its peace, and righteousness, and blessedness; whether he is to come to destroy, or to reign over the earth; whether his presence is to be brief, and as it were momentary, or abiding and everlasting. This draws with it another point of difference touching his people who, it is agreed, will be raised or changed at the moment of his coming, or rather the instant before, in order to come along with him: for if he is not to come till the consummation of this world’s existence, existence, and the general judgement of all both good and bad, it is manifest that there can be no first resurrection, but one common and general resurrection to judgment; whereas if he come to set on foot this world’s blessedness and continue it for evermore, and his saints do come along with him, we have a first resurrection of the righteous, and their reign upon the earth with the Lord, during the whole time of the millennial period at the least, or until the universal resurrection and judgement, without taking into consideration the ages beyond that event, which are but dimly revealed. Now the question is, whether doth this idea of the personal advent of Christ, with all his risen saints that sleep in him and are changed, to order the earth in righteousness; or the idea of his personal advent at the universal judgment, to destroy the earth, and remove all that have dwelt therein to heaven or to hell; serve the ends of Christian doctrine, spiritual living, and personal holiness the more? And I observe, First: That the commonly received opinion, as it hath abolished in these days, so must it always abolish, the use of the doctrine of the second advent, and render it altogether abortive of those great fruits of watchfulness, and consolation, and zeal, and perseverance, and holiness, and other fruits of the Spirit, for which it is used so constantly in all the Holy Scriptures, and especially in all the books of the New Testament. For why? For the reason that by setting it to such a far off distance, you wholly destroy its action in any way either upon the personal or the Common interests of the body of Christ. There is a universal belief in the church, that an age, a very long age of blessedness, of at least a thousand years duration, is to run, before the end of the world and consequently before the coming of Christ. And who will speak of the uncertainty or the nearness of the Lord’s coming, to men, who thus believe? It were to ask them to believe a contradiction; first, to believe that a thousand years at the least is certainly to intervene, and in direct contradiction thereto, to understand and have it ever present to their minds, that we ought to feel it as an uncertainty whether any time shall intervene at all. You must either give up the certainty of the millennium, or you must give up the uncertainty of the Lord’s coming. And because both are revealed in scripture by equally strong terms, they cleave to the former as being more pleasant to the infidel mind, and necessarily forsake the latter, instead of altering their system, and so reconciling both these great heads of divine revelation.

But would it reconcile them, would it enable us to hold the millennium, and be tremblingly alive to the uncertainty of the Lord’s coming, if we were to forego our system and adopt yours? Most certainly it would. But have not you also times determined, before which the Saviour is not to come? Yes; but these times and seasons the Father hath reserved in his own power. But are they not written in the scripture? They are written in the scripture, but hidden under such veils, as to have been completely shut up, until the time the Father shall be pleased by his Spirit to take off the veil which covereth them. But have you not sought to interpret them? We have sought, as Daniel did, to search into these prophetic numbers, but no one had ascertained the exact accomplishment of the great leading one, until the mighty events which fell out upon its accomplishment informed us that it was come to an end. So that these numbers did in no way, in past times, produce upon us the same effect which the millennium doth upon you, to cast forward, till after a fixed interval, our Lord’s coming, which we should look for daily. And now that the period of 1260 years is accomplished, and the period of 1290 also, are you not still expecting certain events prior to his appearing? Yes ever since we discovered the 1260 years to be accomplished, we have been observing the series of events which are to run, before our Lord’s coming, and we do expect certain events, such as the destruction of the Antichristian powers, and the spiritual vocation of Israel. Do not these then act upon you as the millennium doth upon us, to hinder and prevent that constant expectancy by which you set so much store, and which appeareth to have been the condition of the primitive church? No. They act upon us exactly as the forerunners of a king, the out-riders of his state, act upon the city which he is visiting. We are living amongst the signs of our Lord’s coming, we have seen six, and we are waiting for the seventh and last; we are lifting up our heads and stretching out our necks with expectation, we are all activity to get the house in order for the master whose avant-couriers have come in, we are all upon the way-side looking out for the Judge whose six precursors have arrived, we are all furnished with lamps, lest the bridegroom come in the night, and lo, though we be weighed down with slumber our loins are girt, and when the sound is heard, He cometh! lo, we are ready. And thus it cometh to pass, from the Lord’s not having broken the seal of those mysterious numbers until the years of omen were arrived, and the signs began to be given, that we were kept all the while of the mystery expecting his coming, and we were brought out of that state at once into the state of seeing the signs of his coming.

And what more natural, what more true, what more excellent way of proceeding, than this, so to construct the revelation as that we should be kept in continual watchfulness every hour, and then mercifully to give us signs, that we might have our selves and all our charges ready? But doth not Paul, in his Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, guard the church against this very notion, that “the day of Christ is at hand,” of which you make so much? The apostle guards them against “being shaken in mind or troubled” by the notion, not so much of its nearness, as of its coming without signs and premonitions; and proceeds to show them the great sign of “the falling away first and the revelation of the Man of Sin:” but lest they might abuse this gracious intimation, and in idea postpone the day of the Lord beyond their lifetime, and so lose the fruitfulness of it, he addeth, that he perceived “that mystery of iniquity to be already working;” and so the apostle John saw that “Antichrist was already in the world.” From whence I conclude, that those two apostles, who had most prophetic foresight given to them, lived themselves actually in the constant expectation of Christ, and preserved the church in the same expectation. Only, lest they might be come nervously sensitive, and fearful, and troubled, the apostle Paul gave them to wit, even as our Lord had done, that a sign of the Son of Man should come before he came in person, even as the Prophets had said continually, that a trumpet should be blown and a standard lifted up on the mountains. But it is utterly a misconstruction of the Apostle’s meaning and purpose, and of the drift of all his epistles, to suppose that he intended to put them out of the condition of expecting and longing for the Lord’s coming, which he presents every where as the steady pole-star of their hopes, the immediate, diligent, and constant object of their outlook and watchfulness.

The apostle could not say that any given period was to intervene, because he knew not so; neither he, nor all the church, nor the Son of Man himself, knew so much, as to say that the life-time of a man, or any life-time, should intervene. And now that we are living amongst the great and fearful procession of the signs of his coming, there is not one of those few amongst us, who study prophesy, the prophetic numbers and the prophetic signs, that can say how soon the whole procession may close and the great King appear. We are kept watchful, and we observe every event; we observe the deliberations of councils, we observe the progress of opinions, we feel the pulse of feeling beating beneath apparent quietness, we warn the church, we intercede for the world, we are filled with active expectation, and have abiding upon our souls an awful impression of the fearful times in which we live. While you are dreaming of smooth seas and a harmonious crew, and a haven hard at hand, we see the gathering of the clouds, and the curling of the waves, and a rebellious mutinous crew, and a fearful shipwreck from which a few, a very few, of the wise and prudent will escape. You are intoxicated the while with your great achievements, we are beat to the earth by the load of our enormities. You are full of self-adulations, and flatteries, and merry jokes and jests against the poor heavy-hearted wo-begone prophets of evil; we are full of sorrow and of intercession, on account of the delirious church, and praying God to grant us a little more space, and to send soundness of mind amongst you; while for ourselves, we hold up our heads, and are stout of heart, because we know that our redemption draweth nigh.

Secondly. When the great scriptural doctrine of Christ’s second advent is thus removed to an indefinite distance of future time, not only is its present influence in keeping alive and awake all the fruits of the spirit, wholly lost; but also most insufficient, and I may say, false views of the doctrine of a future state are introduced which are attended with the most prejudicial effects upon the soul. The resurrection being so far postponed, and a certainty of long continuance given to the intermediate state, the latter cometh to usurp the place of the former, and another great head of scriptural argument is lost derived from the faith of Christ’s resurrection, and therewith is lost the continual use that is made of the resurrection as the special and high reward of them which believe. Because, how can there be any speciality of reward in that whereof the wicked are partakers, as well as, and at the same time, with the just, and what use can we make of that as a principle of present hope, which is to be preceded by a long period of certain reality, in the intermediate state. The use made of the resurrection in scripture, being the same to the body which regeneration is to the soul, is evacuated; just as the use of the new-birth would be evacuated if you were to make it coeval and identical with the natural birth, whereof all are partakers. It is no answer to this to say that the resurrection includes the acquittal at the bar of judgment, and denoteth the whole blessedness of the righteous thereafter; for in scripture it is the resurrection, not the acquittal, which is continually presented to the righteous, so as to leave no doubt that the resurrection is itself the very act of acquittal, is in some way or other the distinction, the glorious distinction of the saints. Now this use of the resurrection is restored to us by that view of Christ’s advent which we maintain; and which includeth the coming of the saints in their risen bodies to be glorified in him and he in them. Their resurrection from the midst of the dead is their acquittal, is their liberation from the powers of death and the grave, is the speciality of their reward, is the certainty of their eternal blessedness, is to the present militant church what the last judgment is to all the world, according to that plain and distinct contrast of Paul’s, “And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after death the judgment; so Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time, without sin, unto salvation.” Heb. ix. 27, 28. The resurrection, I say, not the judgment, is the great revelation to the righteous; the judgment is the opposite revelation to the wicked, though it be presented also as a warning to the righteous, just as heaven and hell are presented to both in order to act upon the good and evil of both, though the former be proper to the righteous only, and the latter to the wicked. Whence it is that St. Paul makes such strivings of soul after the resurrection as the consummation of all atainments, and distinguisheth it from the power of Christ’s resurrection which is the regeneration of the soul by the Holy Spirit, saying, “That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death; if by any means I might attain the resurrection of the dead.” Phil. iii. 10,11. And to this effect I understand Rom. viii. 1. “There is no condemnation (κρισις i.e. judgement) to them which are in Christ Jesus.” But I do not tempt myself and my reader into minor discussions, but rest firmly upon this, that the common system having cast out the expectation of Christ’s coming, has cast out the special and peculiar reward of the resurrection. Which our enemies have been able to perceive, whether we will perceive it ourselves or not, maintaining that the great end of Christ’s death was to make known the resurrection. They understand not what they say, nor whereof they affirm, and yet in what they say they speak a sore rebuke to the orthodox church.

Now in consequence of the far off and indefinite distance to which they have postponed the coming of the Lord, and from the annulling of the first resurrection to those who sleep in Jesus, there has been introduced to fill up the void of doctrine and argument, a most exaggerated, and I think erroneous idea of the separate state of the soul; which is forced to bear the burden of that glory and blessedness, they have removed from the coming of the Lord, and the resurrection of his saints, and their glorious and everlasting kingdom. But do what they will they cannot find one single scripture to bear them out in this vain attempt. For in scripture the state of the separate soul, where it is mentioned, is set forth to be a state of imperfection, as it needs must, being without the body, a state of longing, as it needs must, waiting for the body. But the truth is that exceeding little is said concerning it, and for this simple reason, as I suppose, that nothing could be said which man can understand. For the actings and sufferings, the blessedness and the misery of a disembodied soul, is what no man can conceive of, let him imagine, and let him fancy till the day of doom. But if you will remove the minds of the people from the materialism of man as utterly contemptible, and if you will postpone the resurrection of the body indefinitely, and give us no material habitation afterwards, on earth or in heaven, what have you left but to dress up to the fancy of the people this intermediate state of blessedness, and that state beyond the resurrection, which they seem to me to make as ill-defined and as undefinable, as that which is on this side of it. In which attempt to reclaim this shadowy void, and turn to Christian uses, no one has laboured more than I did myself in my argument on judgment to come, perceiving that unless something could be made out of it, the whole revelation of the future must be as indistinct and profitless as a dream and vision of the night. But upon approaching the subject, I found that all which could be made of the intermediate state, was a guess or conjecture from what we behold upon the removal of this and that object of sense, as to what might be the case when they were all removed away.

When however I came to speak of that which follows the resurrection, or judgment, (for it was upon the judgment I laid the stress, perceiving nothing in the resurrection upon which any stress could honestly be laid) nothing could hinder me from protesting steadfastly against the exclusion of materialism, and material actions, and material sufferings, from the scenes of heaven and hell which are to follow. And this truly, which was so much laughed at by the sapient order of the critics, is to my mind the most solid and well-grounded part of the argument. And I am happy to understand, that in this view of the future world, I have the concurrence of my friend Dr. Chalmers, in his sermon upon the new heavens and the new earth. But such views of a material world after the resurrection of the body, whencesoever proceeding, are looked upon as fanciful though they be the only ones contained in scripture; while any speculation concerning the blessedness of the middle state is entertained as most orthodox and profitable, however unfounded in scripture it may be, or wild in imagination. But a still greater evil than this oblivion of the second advent and resurrection and exaggeration of the middle state, hath grown upon the church; which is the strange and unnatural use they make of death.

When you propose to pious people of this generation of the church, the coming of the Lord, as the apostles were wont to do, in order to stir their souls to diligent faith, earnest desire, and continual watchfulness, you are met with this most faithless and unprofitable answer; that it is enough for them to look to the day of their death, which will seal their condition, and either unite them to the Lord, or separate them from the Lord for ever. The frequency with which I have had this answer thrown in the teeth of all discourse concerning the glorious coming of my Lord, hath moved me with great anger against the artifice of Satan to blind so many souls; and I feel pleased to have a fair opportunity of trying conclusions with the arch enemy in this matter, and seeing whether the eyes of a few may not be opened to this delusion.

You say that it is all the same to you to look to the uncertainty of life and the certainty of death, and so you put extinction upon the great doctrine of the second advent, which was the brightest candle of the apostolic and primitive church. Now, first, let us look to the fact. Is it a fact that you Christians who say so, meditate your death, and the uncertainty of your life continually? Do you every morning think within yourselves, this day may he my last, therefore let me be watchful? Do you say every evening, I am one day nearer my death, now let us be thankful? I ask you, is the idea of death before your soul continually, darkening the brightness of worldly joys, unmasking worldly pleasures, encouraging you to nobler acts of self-denial, and service in the cause of Christ, comforting you under the oppressions of the world, strengthening you against the might of your spiritual enemies, and recompensing you for your worldly losses; the balm of the wounds of this life, and the food of the powers and faculties of the life to come. Doth the knowledge of your certain death work such a constant and blessed effect upon your life? Doth it? You answer it ought to do so. I did not ask the question, Ought it? but the question, doth it so? No, it doth not so. It is seldom present to the soul, and when its presence is forced upon us, it is painful. We shrink from it. It is so fearful, it is so painful, it is so weak, it is so humbling, it is so afflictive, it is so dark, it is so calamitous: there is no beauty, there is no comeliness why we should desire it. And let me add that it will always be so, because it is sin’s great conquest, and Satan’s chief work, the fulness of sorrow and affliction, the triumph of corruption, the fulfilment of the curse. Oh it is a strange delusion of Satan, thus to have made the capital curse of God eclipse the capital promise of God; Satan’s consummated kingdom over the body take that place in our thoughts, which Christ’s consummated kingdom in the body and spirit, even the resurrection, was meant to take.

Such is the matter of fact; but you say it ought not to be so; and I answer it ought to be so, and will be so unto the end. For let me tell you, that the spirit of man is not a creature to like and desire, and doat on every thing, but hath a rooted dislike to think, look upon, and encounter many things of which the chief is death. As light to the eye, such is life to the soul; as darkness to the eye, so is death to the soul. It cannot abide the thoughts of it. “Thou wilt not leave my soul in death, nor suffer thy holy one to see corruption;” this was a chief consolation of the soul of Christ. And a chief suffering was, “The sorrows of death compassed me, and the pains of hell gat hold upon me, I found trouble and sorrow.” He endured the cross for the joy that was set before him. He shrunk from the cup of deadly sorrow that was presented unto his lips. He did not desire it as he desired to eat the Passover with his disciples. And in like manner his apostle when looking to the dissolution of his earthy tabernacle, was comforted only by the building of God not made with hands, eternal in the heaven, which was reserved for him. And death is called the last enemy which shall be destroyed. Now I do not find that Christians are strengthened in their present pilgrimage by looking to their enemies, but by steadily looking to the captain of their salvation and his victory over their enemies.

The ministers of the gospel, as captains of the Lord’s host, do not present unto the people or seek to keep continually before them the terrors of Satan, the weakness of the flesh, the powerfulness of the world; but keep before them Christ the victorious, the Spirit the quickener, the Father Almighty, their election unto salvation, their adoption unto the communion of the blessed trinity, their fellowship with all the saints who have endured and overcome. How then be so foolish as to present before them death, or think to encourage them thereby; you should have showed them death conquered, that is, the resurrection, first of Christ, and then of all Christ’s people at his coming. You may make the Christian soldier quake, and tremble, and misgive, by presenting him the frequent aspect of bare and ghastly death, but you will never make him cheerful and bold but by preaching to him the victory over death, which is the resurrection of the just, which is the coming of the Lord. I say not, but that, as in all the trials and combats of the warfare, it is most necessary and profitable to set forth the enemy’s force and his wiles, and his violent rage, so also ought death, the strength of his right hand to be presented oft-times to the soul, for the same end of teaching her to have all her armour and weapons in use. But if you do not present the resurrection from the dead at Christ’s coming, you do not give her the weapon with which that strongest assault of the enemy is to be met and overcome. You teach the enemy’s force, but are silent concerning our force to meet him, which to say the least of it, is the part of a very unskilful officer. And let me tell the church, that, because the resurrection of the saints at Christ’s coming, and their reign with him, are so seldom set before the church, it cometh to pass that we have such shrinking from posts of danger, such fencing and fitting out of our missionaries, such shrieking out if any evil befall them, instead of that carelessness to answer the matter, that utter indifference to the fire, that rushing to martyrdom, and committing ourselves to all moral wilds and savage wildernesses, which characterised the first ages of the church.

So much for the very article of death; which, I assert, every one will shrink from till by the doctrine of the second advent and the first resurrection he has been taught to triumph over it. But: you say, We look to the paradise which is immediately beyond. And I ask you, what you know of that paradise? of that separate state of the soul? or what can the finest imaginations make you to know concerning it? Just nothing at all: it is airy, it is shadowy, it is fantastical. I have laboured myself to gather fruit in this field, but found it labour in vain. When I used to preach concerning it, all that I could do was, to study the soul’s appearances up to the point of death, but I could go no further. And, what is more, revelation will carry you no further. For though it be said, in the parable of Lazarus, that he was carried by angels to Abraham’s bosom, yet there is nothing thence to be inferred with respect to the separate state; and the parable may signify the condition after the resurrection, which seems more appropriate to the imagery, the rich man being spoken of in hell as with a body, lifting up his eyes, and crying for water to cool his tongue and with respect to the thief upon the cross, though it be conclusive as to the question of a paradise to the separate spirit, it gives us ho idea of that which it is. Moreover in the Apocalypse, the souls of the witnesses which had been slain for the testimony of Christ, are represented beneath the altar, as longing and crying out for a blessedness which was to arrive at the coming of the Lord. And those who surround the throne look forward likewise to the reigning with him on the earth at his coming. So that all which is revealed concerning this separate state betrays incompleteness, desire, and looking forward to that higher condition of things which we arc endeavouring to present unto an indifferent church (but the church in heaven is not indifferent to it). And therefore it is like casting a man back, to fix his hopes there, where he will still be hoping, instead of carrying them forward to that which here he may be permitted to hope, and which there he will also continue to hope. But in plain speech I ask, if so much use was intended to be made of this intermediate estate, why was not more revealed about it?

It could never have been intended of the Lord to be the great object of hope, else it would have been more defined. It cannot be the great object of hope, for hope cannot seize hold upon it. It is inert, it is shadowy, it unworldly. It hath no relation to the present world, that it should lift us above it. It seizeth not hold on the affections, to raise them above the earth; upon the understanding, to fill and possess it; upon the feelings, to ravish and refine them; upon the interests, to purify and enrich them. It is a mere negation of this evil and that suffering; it hath no positive compensation to any suffering, nor real satisfaction to any desire, nor occupation to any faculty, nor occasion for any function of man; seeing it is not man, but a part of man, concerning which in its severed state nothing can be predicated or understood, hoped or feared: and I boldly aver, that the continual turning of the church’s eye to this undefined and undefinable estate has paralyzed hope and quenched desire, crippled all the energies of the spiritual man, and impovershed every field of spiritual life.

In the present aspect of the church’s hope, turned chiefly to death and the shadowy existence beyond death, besides this joyless and ineffectual influence upon Christian life, this sepulchral gloom and pale moonlight, like that which shines upon the solitary churchyard, there is a separating and divisive influence, which I feel better than I can describe. Death is a parting, not a meeting; it is a sorrowful parting, not a joyful meeting; it is a parting in feebleness and helplessness to we know not whither, —into a being we know not what. There is our death, and my death, and the death of every one, in a different place, at a different time, and under different circumstances. And we are thus divided and cut off from one another in the great object of our hopes, instead of being thereby concentrated and united from all places, and all times, and all conditions. Now we ought to have one hope of our calling, as well as one redemption, and one baptism, and one communion of one body. It is an anomaly that the Christian religion, which by every other part procureth unity, in defiance of time, place, and all fallen conditions, should in the object of its hope present diversity, and produce separation. To this it is no answer to refer to the union at the day of judgement; for that is placed so remote, and the die is so completely cast before it, that in this system it becomes a dead letter, a formal assize to do over again in solemn form what hath already been done in substance. I desire for myself some object and event so glorious as shall carry my eye clean over and beyond this chasm and abyss of being: some joyful and powerful, some majestic and glorious act, to which I can look, and to which another Saint can look, and to which every saint from every quarter of the earth can look, and to which the saints of all generations can look, —which may join us in one hope and desire, make time and place and change wholly indifferent to us, our death but a change, and the state beyond death un-thought of and uncared for in our anxiety and assurance of this grand reunion with the Lord. For, as hath been said, I do find in the Apocalypse this middle state represented as a state of longing expectation, not a state of perfect blessedness, —a state of desire, not a state of rest, —a state of weakness and waiting for power. But all that is said in the Scripture concerning the intermediate state is only sufficient to show that the soul doth not become unconscious, or subject to decay, like the body, but abides under the altar whereat the everlasting Priest doth minister it is not sufficient to ground any ideas, or rest any conclusions upon much less is it sufficient to become the great object of hope for rallying the distressed mind of the militant church, for giving courage to her in the fearful warfare which she has to maintain against flesh and blood, principalities and powers, and spiritual wickedness in high places.

And therefore we observe in the last place, upon this part of our subject, that it doth traverse the whole Spirit of Scripture, and run counter to all the promises of God, thus to make the day of our death and the undefined state beyond, the great object of the church’s observation. The first promise was that the Serpent’s head should be bruised, that his power against men should be taken away by Christ, with all the evil consequences of sin and sorrow and death, which have thence flowed in upon us. But this finale of death and the middle state gives me, gives Christ’s people no sight nor experience nor expectation thereof, but carries me off the stage of this world by a final blow of Satan and triumph of his power.

Then there was promised to Abraham and to his seed for ever an inheritance upon the earth, a land which flowed with milk and honey: but I am a stranger, as he was and all the saints have been; and when or where are we to have this possession and inheritance, if we are taken for ever away by death, if at the resurrection, when we receive our bodies, the earth is to be burnt up, and we removed to some undefined and indefinable condition? And the Old Testament is not more full of this inheritance than the New Testament is full of a kingdom and a crown, which is to be given against a certain day to all those who love his appearing. And in every epistle, I find the apostles contemplating this as the great reaping time of reward, and directing thitherward the hopes of all the churches, comforting them thereby under every affliction, exalting them thereby to pure and heavenly aflection, encouraging them to patience, and yet preserving them evermore watchful. Now you advocates of death what say you? is it not a very daring abuse of Scripture to take the sense out of all this concurring testimony, to reject this method of exhorting and comforting the church, to let it pass wholly into oblivion, attempt no explanation of it, give it up as sybilline leaves were never given up, invent fictions and imaginations concerning the middle state, adopt heathen ideas concerning the judgment, and so wholly change the glorious object of the church’s hope. Which, seeing we are saved by hope, I hold to be no small enormity; hardly less than to change the object of our faith, and instead of trusting in the humility of Christ and his atonement, for each individual to trust in his own works, in the works of his own life, rather than in the one finished work of the life of Christ. As the former coming of Christ is to our faith, so is the future coming of Christ unto our hope, one, common and free to all his saints.

Now take into consideration the apostolic, and prophetical, and patriarchal, I may say the universal object of hope during the canonical and primitive ages of the church, viz. the coming of Christ in power and majesty, and the resurrection from the grave of every member of his mystical body, the casting of Satan out of the earth, and the reign of the saints for a thousand years; and I say that you have here an object worthy the hope of the church, to which the eye of hope turns with delight which is full of application to all the present infirmities of our condition, and is the proper recompense of all our sufferings. In the first place it presents to the expectation of the saint all that is to be loved and desired in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ, by whom he hath been redeemed, and upon whom he hath been nourished and sustained, not in his humility as heretofore, but travelling in the greatness of his strength; not as a servant, but as a sovereign, uniting in himself all the tender intercessions of the priest, and the powerful majesty of the king, a priest upon his throne for ever. We shall behold him whom not having seen we loved, we shall see him as he is, in whom while yet we saw him not we rejoiced with joy unspeakable and full of glory. We shall see all the glorious attributes of God made manifest in manhood, the Son of Mary glorified into the Son of God, and clothed with the all-sustaining power of the word of God. In the next place, we shall behold all enemies put under his feet, Satan the accuser of the brethren cast out of the earth, and with him all his evil angels which dwell in the natural man, and rule the world. And we shall see the prison doors of death unbarred, and the grave yield up her dead, and then shall come to pass that saying of the prophet, Death shall be swallowed up in victory. In the next place, we shall be gathered with all the saints of God since the world was, who shall all stand in their lot in the latter day, and in their flesh shall see God, the general assembly of the first born whose names are written in heaven, the church of the living God, the patriarchs, the prophets, the apostles, the glorious army of the martyrs, the whole host of the redeemed, whom he shall bring with him, and we who remain till his coming shall be caught up with him into the air, and shall be for ever with the Lord. This is not a cheerless parting, but a joyful meeting and eternal union of those who arc spiritually dear to one another: and as touching natural affections, let it be remembered that the natural than is then no more, the spiritual man alone is, and his affections alone remain.

Then our father and mother, and brother and sister, are they who have fulfilled the will of our heavenly Father. In the next place, this body of wickedness, this body of sin and death shall be exchanged for the likeness of Christ’s glorious body; for sinful flesh and blood shall not inhabit that kingdom, nor corruption incorruption; mortality shall be swallowed up of life; it is sown a natural, it is raised a spiritual body; it is sown in dishonour, it is raised in. honour; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power. So that all shall be strength, harmony, and union within us, the perfect man, the holy man, complete in all things, and wanting nothing. In the next place, we shall be for ever with the Lord, partakers of his throne, partakers of his crown, and partakers of his government; his assessors in judgment, his deputies in power, ruling over the cities of his dominion, and judging the tribes of the sojourners of the earth. For though I enquire not into the mode or manner of our being, yet this I am not ashamed to declare, that we shall be like the Lord who ascended up from the earth as easily as he descended, who, after his resurrection, and even before it, passed to and fro without let or impediment of matter, and governed the elements with a sovereign control. And so shall we in the exercise of that government and sovereignty which we shall then be permitted to hold of the earth, be as Adam, a king in his majesty, whom the elements of nature and all the living moving creatures upon the earth harmed not, but delighted to obey. Finally, we shall behold the earth and all the sojourners therein living in peace and blessedness, under the government of the Lord Jesus Christ: Nature repossessed of all her original beauty, and society of all its proper blessedness, peace, gentleness, and meekness restored on every hand, all men blessed in Jesus, and calling him blessed; nothing to corrupt or to destroy in my holy mountain, saith the Lord, for the earth shall be full of the righteousness of the Lord, as the waters cover the channels of the deep.

Such, in few words, is that which is comprehended under the term, “the Coming of the Lord,” to which we invite the hope of the church, instead of that which you desire them to look to, the certainty of death, and the uncertainty of life, and the uncertain intermediate state between death and judgement. And we do now submit it to all Christian minds, nay we are willing to submit it to men of natural understandings, whether is the more likely to be effectual in calling forth the noblest endeavours and most devoted endurances of the soul? In the first place, it is an object and an event full of all attractions to the soul, and whereto it must often turn with delight. For whether it be the perfection of its knowledge, which here is childish and dark, or whether it be the satisfaction of its sight, which here it hath not at all as a help, but as a hindrance; or whether it be the completion of its power, and the establishment of its everlasting blessedness; all is fully promised, and will at the Lord’s coming be fully possessed. It is an object in which conquest, victory, and triumph, and reward, and rest, do meet together, and it forms therefore the pole-star of this weary and sore-buffeted life. The soul that hath such a hope cannot help turning unto it. Do its troubles proceed from the flesh? then the flesh is no more, but a glorious body, the work of the Spirit, and worthy to be the dwelling place of the Spirit. Is it the oppression of the world which grieves us? what so natural and sweet as to turn to the event which shall possess us of power over the world, and enable us to govern it according to the rules and laws of righteousness. Is it the necessity of sacrificing our natural affections for Christ’s sake? then we shall be united to all Christ’s people, in closer union than husband to wife, in perfect unity as the angels of God, to Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, Moses and Elias, Daniel and Job, Paul and Peter, and all the apostles, and all the excellent ones which have lived upon the earth. Are we forced to separate from beloved saints, and from their sweet communion? but we shall be united in the day of the Lord, when he shall come with all his saints. Are we grieved to behold Satan’s marvellous spoliation of the earth, and perpetual destruction of the souls of men? then shall he be cast out with all his angels, and the world shall be vexed and deluded by him no longer. And so on through all the various aspects of Christian desire and Christian feeling, of Christian want and Christian suffering, we do find this great day of the Lord so represented, as to be unto the soul the full complement of its deficiencies, and the full consolation of its afflictions. And therefore I say it is natural, yea necessary, that the soul which believeth in it should turn to it very often, and peruse it diligently, and become familiar with its applications to all conditions, and feel it to be available in all emergencies. But this is not the case with the day of our death, from the sight of which the soul shrinketh; nor, with the void beyond it, which is so vacant and unintelligible as not to be available for any distinct end of faith, hope, edification, or comfort.

The next thing I would observe is, that not only is it framed as every object of hope ought to be, to draw the soul steadily unto it, but fitted also to give it great courage and steadfastness in the midst of its trials. Behold what an honour, what a reward, what a blessedness it brings to the elect and militant church, that they should be advanced, in consequence of their partaking of Christ’s sufferings, into the fellowship of his power and glory! There is no middle state, quietism, or vacuity in the delineations which Scripture giveth of these Christ’s honoured members; who come to share his kingdom, to take part in the judgment, to advance righteousness, to glorify God with every faculty, and command the earth with what noble vicegerency Adam heretofore commanded it. The expectation, and hope, and assurance of this, doth raise the soul to a compass and pitch of endurance and exertion which nothing else can, to the removal of which from before her eye, I make no doubt the lameness and inertness of the church in the latter times is to be ascribed. And when the church shall once more be invested with her privilege in this hope, and be filled with the gladness thereof, and have it continually portrayed by her ministers, as the primitive church had it set forth in the preaching and epistles of the apostles, then, and not till then, will she recover apostolic strength and primitive separation from the world; then, and not till then, will Christ’s account of the missionary come to be regarded as something better than a dream.

This subject, of the usefulness of these doctrines, I have but touched upon, in order to set it in contrast with the vague notion which Satan hath substituted in its stead. But it is not a question which resteth upon my demonstration, or any man’s demonstration: it resteth upon the word of God; Christ’s second coming being as much a revelation to hope, as his first coming is to faith; As there be no fruits of faith but from the spiritual reception of the divine testimony concerning the former, and as it is not permitted to alter or abridge, or in any way to modify or mix up with other matter, the atonement which was made for our sins by the life and death of our Lord Jesus Christ; so neither is it permitted us to mix up with any other matter, the redemption which is promised to us at the coming of the great deliverer the Lord from heaven. For the crown of glory is promised to those only who look for his appearing “and not to me only,” saith St. Paul, “but to all who look for his appearing.” He is promised to come without sin to those only who look for him: “and to those who look for him, he shall appear the second time without spot unto salvation.” Again, referring to this great emancipation, Paul saith, “We are saved by hope;” and in the same place, “We groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption; to wit, the redemption of the body.” And again, with reference to the same great event, it is said, that our house is broken into and plundered, because we watch not continually for his coming: “But know this, that if the good man of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and not suffered his house to be broken up. Therefore be ye also ready, for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh.” And again, in the same place, the Lord maketh this same forgetfulness of his coming to produce cruelty from one member of his house to another, saying, “But, and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming, and shall begin to smite his fellow-servant, and to eat and drink with the drunken; the lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of. And shall cut him asunder and appoint him his portion with the hypocrite; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”

Such are the true arguments, such the true demonstrations, even these passages of scripture, and this constant invocation of the word of God, to be in expectation of the coming of the Lord, and these to a believer, should be all-sufficient to stir up the soul to look daily for the coming of the Lord in power and glory, at the cock crowing, at the first watch, or at midday. For myself I can aver, that resting upon these Scriptures hath more availed to set me loose from worldly cares and attachments, to comfort me under worldly trials, to fill me with watchfulness and patience, than all things beside: and hath become to my hope exactly what the cross of Christ is to my faith —a constant peace and continual consolation, an assurance of life which hath swallowed up the thoughts and fears of death, a mighty power which hath strengthened my infirmity, a mighty fulness which filleth my soul with joy in the midst of all my emptiness. And finding it to be so written in the Word, and feeling it to be so efficacious in the Spirit, I do press it upon all, that they may experience the same victory, and far more abundantly, become full of the same watchfulness, and far more abundantly, that the Church of Christ may grow into great contentment, and cheerfulness, and joy, and be able to endure unto the uttermost whatever the Lord may permit Satan to bring against her. And so much in general for the comparative usefulness of these two opinions concerning the Lord’s advent.

But I feel it to be a great degradation of so very important a doctrine, and an undervaluing of so great a controversy to treat it thus loosely with a respect to whatever any one conceiveth usefulness to be: and therefore I am minded in this discourse to show the way to a right method of conducting the question, and, as far as my bounds will allow, to pursue it: which seems simply to be, by showing how the two opposite opinions affect the great heads of Christian doctrine; clearing them, or obscuring them; weakening them, or establishing them; how they harmonize with those points of Christian faith on which all are agreed; how they affect the great lineament of the gospel of salvation; and serve the glory of God, the cross of Christ, and the salvation of men. Now in following out this purpose, into which I shall enter the more willingly and the more largely, because my author hath not touched it at all, having contented himself with establishing the orthodoxy and Biblical truth of that system of opinions, upon which we are now to try conclusions with the opposite prevailing system, it will be necessary to line off a certain portion of the principal ground of theology, within which this weightiest dispute may be brought to issue. To this end I lay off, as the lists within which I purpose to keep myself, and with which all orthodox and spiritual Christians I am sure will be satisfied, the following ground: First, How the two systems affect the person and offices of Christ. Secondly, How they affect the doctrine and work of the Spirit. Thirdly, How they affect the church, the pillar and ground of the truth. And lastly, How they affect the spiritual life, and personal holiness of every man. And now may God appear at the side of the right, and help me, with all justice and impartiality, to bring this matter to a righteous decision.

CHAPTER II.

CONCERNING THE BEARING OF THE TWO OPPOSITE OPINIONS UPON THE DOCTRINE OF CHRIST’S PROPHETIC OFFICE.

THERE is no more ancient head of orthodox doctrine, nor pregnant form of spiritual truth, than the threefold office of Christ, as the Prophet, Priest, and King of his church, concerning which we are about to discourse, not at large, but in particular to examine how these two opposite systems bear upon and affect it; which will be found to be in a more remarkable way than many may at first imagine. By Christ’s prophetic office, concerning which I shall treat in this chapter, I understand, as it is defined in our Church Catechism, “his revealing to us, by his word and Spirit, the will of God for our salvation;” which divides itself into two parts: first, his revelation by his word; and, secondly, his revelation by his Spirit of the will of God. To the former of these I restrict myself at present; having to speak of the latter hereafter.

Now, of the revealed word of Christ it is to be observed, that it consists of these two essential points; the purpose, promise, or prophecy of God, with respect to our salvation; and the history of the execution of this purpose: the former the intimation of what is to be, the latter the fact of its having come and coming to pass. There is no period of God’s church, since the fall of Adam, which hath not had these two necessary parts of every revelation, —a prophecy, and a record, an object for memory, and an object for hope; and by this very thing, I judge the word of God to be distinguished from the word of man, that the former ever hath in it all element which the latter can never have. This is the prophetic, which taketh instruments upon future time, to man’s eye unsearchable, and to his wit undiscoverable. Man can be historical and antiquarian, he can be observant and speculative concerning the present; he can also disconnect himself from space and time, and become metaphysical, but he cannot by any means be prophetical: he cannot lay down a purpose concerning events far distant, and constrain all things to bring it to pass. For his own short lifetime, the intractable will of every other man, the profound darkness of the future, all things hinder him from knowing even, much less from causing, what a day or what au hour may bring forth. Herein therefore the word of God hath the upper hand of the word of man; the universal, and unbounded reason of the limited and individual reason.

These premises every sound doctrine and enlightened Christian will assent to; but if haply any one should think the position, that all God’s word is at one and the same time prophetic and historical, too broadly stated, and refer me to those parts thereof which are purely biographical and historical, as the books of Moses, and Samuel, and Kings, and to those parts which are purely moral, as Job, and Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes, &c. and to others which they say are purely doctrinal; I answer, that I believe every one of these books to be both the evidence of a prophecy in fulfilment, and a prophecy itself. For example, the books of Moses are full of prophecy, individual prophecies made to the patriarchs and to Moses; of which prophecies the lives of the patriarchs, and the deliverance of the children of Israel, and their establishment in Canaan, were but the accomplishment. I observe further, that not only is the whole of that history a fulfilment of the prophecy, but it is of itself prophetic. There is a prophetic history as well as a prophetic word, a prophetic providence as well as a prophetic writing. “These things,” saith Paul, were for types; and in his epistles he doth continually use them for such: and, though I cannot here go into the details, much study hath convinced me that the prophetic providence of God, in the lives of his elect saints and elect church, is as well worthy of study, and as definite an object of study, as the prophetic word. The word first, then the history of its accomplishment, and next that history itself prophetical of a future period in the history of the church.

For example, who doth not believe that the deliverance out of Egypt was prophetical of the deliverance of the present church from the bondage of Satan, the flesh, and the world; that the sojourning in the wilderness was prophetical of the present condition of the spiritual church, while without her king and without her promised possession; that the captivity of Babylon was prophetical of her captivity and imprisonment for so long, and dreary, and dark a period, under the present mystical Babylon which is just about to be destroyed; and her deliverance by Cyrus prophetical of our deliverance by the true Cyrus, our Lord; that the bringing of David from the shepherds crook to the royal sceptre, through numerous perils and weary warfare, was prophetical of the bringing of our Shepherd to the throne of David which is promised to him; and the peaceful reign of Solomon, who never drew the sword of war, but ever wielded the sword of wisdom to resolve all doubts and questions among the surrounding nations, and preserve their peace, was prophetical of our King who shall rule in wisdom, hasten righteousness, and spread abroad the blessedness of, universal peace. To this some may say, they were typical but not prophetical of these things, because a prophecy must have a visible object in which to be accomplished; whereas the objects of these are spiritual and invisible. In answer to which I observe, that it is a good canon of prophetic interpretation, that its accomplishment must be looked for in visible objects, not in invisible or spiritual states, which so far from contravening, I shall have to make use of before closing this discourse, and allowing it, this much will be yielded to me, that; before we can speak of spiritual states we must have a language derived from visible and sensible things in which to express them.

Now that former history of the church did afford language in which the conditions of the present spiritual dispensation might be expressed. It gave us a holy language for expressing the facts of the spiritual and invisible church, and so far forth it looked forward and has been applied in the sequel of the revelation of the divine purpose. But further, the church of the Gentiles is a great visible object, whereof the events in the history of the former church were prophetical, and are used for prophetic signs in the books of the New Testament, especially in the Apocalypse. And I observe still further, that the series of answering events is not completed, the spiritual church being still lost in the wilderness, not yet having become visible, but waiting for it till the day of the manifestation of the Son of God: also the Jewish dispersion hath to be gathered again into a church and a nation, and the throne of David to be established, his tabernacle to be set up, and the whole earth to be brought under his dominion; of which future visible events as I find the promise and prophecy to be always given in language derived from the history of the Jewish people, even as our present spiritual earnest of them is described by the help of the same language; so I conclude that when these events thus described in prophecy shall be accomplished, they will be found wonderfully to respond to, and to have been predicted in the events of the former dispensation. But enough of this, for I must not suffer myself to discuss things at large, or to be tempted into digressions.

Nor need we be particular upon this point, in the discourse preliminary to a work which is one great demonstration of the prophetic character of all scripture, deriving the proofs and illustrations of the great doctrine of the second advent, not from one or a few, but I may say from every book thereof.

And enough hath been said to make out what we believe no sound divine or enlightened believer will deny, that the peculiar and distinguishing characteristic of the word of God is not so much that it is truth, but that it is truth prophetical. That the prophetical quality is not an accidental but an essential part of it; not a circumstance which belongeth to a few books, but a substantial part of every revelation and record of the wisdom of the Most High.

In which respect I have found two similitudes whereby to represent this my idea of divine revelation; the one taken from the vegetable, the other from the human life. At first the word of God is as a seed, it may be of the oak or of any other plant, in which the whole majestic form and various parts of the future tree lie undisclosed, ready to reveal themselves when the times and seasons and other conditions which God hath appointed to determine its being shall have taken their course; and there is no break, nor leap, nor start in its growth, which proceedeth by a slow, and sweet, and beautiful progression, to perfect that purpose or word of God which said at the beginning, “And produce every tree yielding fruit whose seed is in itself.” So the first promise made in Eden contains in itself the whole of the revelation and prophecy of God in an embryo state; first, the enmity between the seed of the woman and the seed of the serpent, which hath produced all the persecutions endured by the church from the world since the time of righteous Abel until this hour, and which she shall endure until the resurrection: the second part of it, “Thou shalt bruise his heel,” hath been likewise developing during the whole of the same long period, in which the heel, or lowest part of the church’s body, that is our carnal natural life, hath been vexed and crucified of him during life, and lieth bruised into dust in the grave; but at the resurrection the church “shall bruise his head,” casting him out of his usurped domination, and reigning over him for ever and ever. Wherefore it is written, both of Christ and of his church, that they shall rule the nations with a rod of iron, and dash them in pieces like the potter’s vessel, and have all their enemies under their footstool. Now I have not room to trace the progress of this seed sown in paradise, as it is developed in the progress of revelation, and shoots its roots into the soil of the fallen world, and spreads its branches into the atmosphere of time, until it shall possess the whole earth with its roots, and purify the whole heaven with its boughs, and all nations shah find shadow, and repose, and blessedness, under its branches.

Yet in order to show how true the principle is, let me trace it out a little. We have the promise to Abraham still made of a seed, and now all nations are to inherit the blessing, in whose right his Father Abraham is enfeoffed in a country by the divine word; in the mouth of David, the promise is still of a seed to come, which hath now attained the high stature of a triumphant, and universal King, of Judah by pre-eminence, of all the earth by equal privilege: in this same character of a king, the child is made known to the immediate precursors of his birth, Zachiarias, Elizabeth, Mary, John: in the same character to Simeon, though now his sufferings and the calling of the Gentiles be hinted as first to happen, which he laboureth all his life long to render intelligible to Nicodemus, to his apostles, and all his disciples. In no other character doth Peter declare him after the day of Pentecost, and James in the council of Jerusalem, and the two shining ones on mount Olivet, and Paul and all the apostles, than as THE KING who ascended on high without seeing corruption, waiting and expecting, till the Father shall accomplish the times and the seasons, and bring in the days of refreshing spoken of by all the prophets, the restitution of all things waited for by the whole creation of God. In no other way doth John see him in the Apocalypse than as a child, the seed of the woman caught up to God and his throne, and there abiding until after certain sore warfares and persecutions of his church, he cometh again with many crowns upon his head, and followed by all the armies of heaven, in order to break the confederacy of Satan’s powers to bind the old serpent himself, and cast him into the bottomless pit, to keep him in subjection for a thousand years, and afterwards turn him into hell with all the nations that forget God. There is such a soft, sweet, and silent development of this one seed sown in paradise, and which in its growth doth change the world into paradise again, reproducing that kind of blessedness which the world was then deprived of, that this alone hath ever to thoughtful men marked revelation as a divine work, comprehending the restitution, regeneration, and complete blessedness of man and his habitation. Like the stately branching oak, which beginneth in an acorn, and of which the end and is to generate an acorn, while during the progress of its stately growth, it covereth every beast of the earth with its kindly shade, and nestleth every bird of heaven in its ample branches; so this promise was sown in the soil of a perfect and perfectly blessed state, while man still dwelt in paradise, and its end is to produce perfectly blessed men dwelling in paradise again, while during all the ages of its growth it should bless the immortal spirits of men with salvation and its leaves be for the healing of the nations.

The second and only other similitude which I have found worthy to express this wonderful character of the word of God is the growth of the life of immortal man, from childhood onwards to his perfection. For the word of God is not given merely for a demonstration of the divine perfections in harmonizing a great scheme of truth which should ever announce and ever fulfil itself, and in the fulfilment announce itself again, and so on unto the end; but it is for the support of a spiritual life upon the earth, in that body of chosen ones which is called the church. The word of God is as much the cause of the church, its constitution, its alteration, its perfection; as the word “Let there be light,” is the cause that light is, and that it is what it is; as the word “Let us breathe in to his nostrils the breath of life,” is the cause of human life unto this day; and the word spoken to the man and woman after the fall is the cause and definition of this present constitution of the niggard earth, of rugged wilful manhood, and of passionate affectionate womanhood, unto this day. And so forth as every word of the Lord hath given life, constitution, and preservation to that whereto it related, so the spiritual word and promise, made in paradise and propagated in the wonderful way which hath been said above, hath given being, constitution, and preservation to that spiritual church which will be manifested in the day of the Lord’s appearing. Wherefore that similitude of vegetable and unconscious life cannot represent it perfectly, and we are forced, in order to find its proper representation to meditate the conscious life of the human soul. Now, as every one knoweth who hath studied the growth of the immortal mind, there is in children an embryo of the future man, in their observations, their passions, their inferences from, and interpretations of signs, their affections, their faith; so that a child which did not display in some degree of life and strength these parts of man might be pronounced defective in mind, as you would pronounce it defective in body if it could not hear or see. Whoso studieth as I have done, and reflecteth as I have sought to reflect, upon the twelve first months of a child; whoso hath had such a child to look and reflect upon as the Lord for fifteen months did bless me withal, (whom I would not recall if a wish could recall him from the enjoyment and service of our dear Lord,) will rather marvel how the growth of that wonderful creature, which put forth such a glorious bud of being, should come be so cloaked by the flesh, cramped by the world, and cut short by Satan, as not to become a winged seraph; —will rather wonder that such a puny, heartless, feeble thing as manhood should be the abortive fruit of the rich bud of childhood, than think that childhood is an imperfect promise and opening of the future man. And therefore it is that I grudged not our noble, lovely child, but rather do delight that such a seed should blossom and bear in the kindly and kindred paradise of my God. And why should not I speak of thee, my Edward! seeing it was in the season of thy sickness and death, the Lord did reveal in me the knowledge and hope and desire of his Son from heaven? Glorious exchange! He took my son to his own more fatherly bosom, and revealed in my bosom the sure expectation and faith of his own eternal Son! Dear season of my life, ever to be remembered, when I knew the sweetness and fruitfulness of such joy and sorrow. How I have ever hated the sentiment of that mad Italian, who, in writing his life, speaks of the season of his infancy as the time of his vegetation, not of his life, and contemneth it. Such rude and passionate spirits, such resolute and urgent servants of Satan, may right well undervalue the season of their comparative inefficiency in lust, hatred and oppression and by such a confession rebuke their manhood: but to me it is certain, that from the earliest infancy there is to be observed the embryo of the future man and that there is a certain dim, prophetic consciousness of the future man, which you can discern and address almost from the first beginnings of intercourse, and which indeed formeth the ground and basis of an education.

For I am sure that no mother who doth not keep in her mind the lineaments of the perfect man or woman, shall ever train her children to become men or women: just as no artist, who doth not present before his young students the perfect works of antiquity, shall ever bring them to any stature in the art. Now I judge that such a growth as the mind experienceth from childhood to manhood, the church hath passed through from Abraham till now, and that the Spirit in the patriarchs was conscious of, and foreshewed the more perfect conditions of the church, as the child is conscious of the man, and puts forth the intention and prognostic of manhood. Such was the view which Abraham had of the day of the Lord; such was the view which David had of his kingdom; and such, also, the view which the prophets had of his sufferings. They felt they were but a part in a great life which was accomplishing, and at the accomplishment of which all the parts should he gathered together: as St. Paul says, “That in the dispensation of the fulness of time (of the times) he might gather together in one (recapitulate) all things in Christ, both which are in heaven and which are in earth.”

Now if any one ask me, why the Lord hath adopted this prophetic method in the revelation of his Word, and not the logical, or the dogmatical, or the predicative? I answer, that it is the only one proper to a spirit, which, like man’s, is subjected to the conditions of place and time, by being placed in a sentient body, and having a sensible world to rule. The method of intellection hath only to do with the pure reason, and therefore is imperfect to a being like man. Yet, forasmuch as the pure reason is the noblest part of man, the truth, in whatever way conveyed, must contain the food of pure reason, which my dear friend, my kind and honoured instructor, Mr. Coleridge, hath well proved it to contain, in his invaluable book entitled “Aids to Reflection;” from whom also I received the first idea of the prophetic growth of God’s word: as what have I not received from him? But when, besides the reason, the sense and understanding also are to be satisfied, it seems to me necessary that the truth conveyed should be surrounded with, and, as it were, embedded in, the conditions of space and succession; in order that through the avenues of the bodily sense and natural understanding the pure truth may pass into the soul, and, being there, redeem both soul and body from their fallen state. Whether it be an attribute of our fallen estate, to be under the conditions of space and time, I cannot say; but while we are so, I can perceive that, in order to satisfy them, the prophetic is the only proper method of a divine revelation. But questions of this depth I leave to those who have a higher faculty therein, being contented to find that undoubtedly the revelation which God hath given us is prophetic, from the beginning to the ending of it; and, being so, I can point out with certainty this important consequence which ariseth: —That the revelation becomes at any point its own evidence unto all to whom it is made known, in whatever period of the succession their lot may be cast: forasmuch as they perceive that their own condition, and the condition of the church, and the condition of the world hath been foreseen and foreshown from the beginning; and that which they see and live in, is but one aspect of a great procession of events, whereof the purpose and the issue are both declared; and that each individual is but as a speck in that changing aspect.

Than which nothing is more effectual to bring the intellect in subordination to the great pervading reason, and the will in subordination to the great pervading will. If, indeed, the mind were left under this overwhelming sense of littleness, it might chance to lose itself in contempt and indifference; but when it further perceives that every individual to whom this great revelation is made known, is solicited to submit him self to that Almighty prophet, and be taught of him and redeemed from every evil, that state of atheistical self-contempt is exchanged for the state of Christian faith and obedience. For example, I behold the children of Ham servants of servants unto this day; I behold the children of Japhet dwelling in the tents of Shem; I behold the Jews scattered and peeled unto this day, yet not suffered to be ground into annihilation, but multiplying more and more; I behold the Christian Church in bondage to the Apostolical Roman Empire, and I behold the spirit of infidelity fast dissolving and just about to destroy that foulest superstition; I behold Jerusalem still trodden under foot of the Gentiles, Babylon uninhabited and unvisited, the children of Ishmael un-vanquished, the sons of Jonadab not wanting a man to stand before the Lord: again, when I look at succession, I perceive the four great empires exactly foretold, and the character and conditions of each unto this day; and, without going into detail, I find, I may say, every remarkable feature of the world’s condition defined from of old by a decree which it cannot pass: and if I consider my own personal history, the changes and revolutions which have been effected upon my spirit by the communion of Satan in the world, and again by the communion of Christ in his church, I find all answereth as face to face; I find that the confessions and experiences of every believer, and, above all, of Christ himself, answer to my own; and thus perceiving, whichever way I look, that am prevented and circumscribed by a law, which is revealed in the word of God, I am fain to conclude, that the Creator of all, and the Ruler of all, is the same whose word is the law of all: and that this word which I possess is nothing else than the archives of creation, and the decrees of Providence, the certainty of all things past, present, and to come.

Now this is the great evidence of the word of God, and in proportion as this the intrinsical evidence of revelation is set forth, in that proportion will the faith of the people he established. By faith here I mean that to which infidelity is opposed, viz. the conviction of the understanding, and the belief of the fact. Moreover, it is the small interim mixture, or almost total absence of this kind of demonstration which hath let in the infidelity of these times. They have gone about to rest the evidence of our religion upon the miracles which attended the ministry of the Lord and his apostles, and so carried the question into the arcana of Christian antiquities, of classical writers, and the authority of the fathers, whither the great mass of the people cannot follow them: and while thus displaying their own ignorance of scepticism of that prophetic character of God’s word which we have laid down above; they have propagated their own ignorance and scepticism to a most alarming extent. All other causes of infidelity put together, are but as a feather in the scale compared with the evil effect of the books which have been written in defence of the Christian religion. The book we most want, as I have heard my sage friend referred to above oft remark, is, ‘Christianity defended from its defenders.’ For while they have removed the question into a dark corner of time, and narrowed to the events of one particular spot of the earth that evidence which resteth upon the events of all time and the ever changing aspect of the church and the world, they have withdrawn the mind of the church from looking forward to the future, and fixed it upon an unproductive inspection of far distant and long past events: and these not as the fulfilment of a series of purposes revealed from the beginning of the world, but as isolated events conveyed and brought down to us by means of extrinsical testimony. The fools have cut a brick out of the wall, and said, Look at this, and believe in the divine architecture of the palace from which it came: they have taken the main-spring out of the watch, and, presenting it to you, said, Go to, there’s a chronometer for you of exquisite workmanship. But I wander.

The infidelity of the present day is the fruit of our poverty in the knowledge and preaching of Christ’s prophetic office and the prophetic character of his word. And whence hath this come, and how shall it be cured? It hath proceeded from the want of an object in the future to carry the mind of the church forward, and to keep her eye looking forward. She hath been turned into the unnatural position of looking backward and accordingly hath not failed to observe and fully to justify the individual prophecies, or rather, I should say, parts of prophecy, which have received accomplishment. But because no prophecy of a private or limited application, so as to run out before the end, but every one, or almost every one, hath something in it yet unaccomplished, they make but bungling, blundering work in proving the accomplishment of any of them to be perfected: insomuch that in the great question of Messiah’s former advent, I should undertake to hold the Jewish side, against a goodly number of our Christian divines, interpreting the prophecies according to the canons of sound interpretation applicable to all other books. For if they spiritualized away a part, I should insist upon spiritualizing away the other part; in which case we would have and could have no real Messiah: and if they insist for the literal interpretation of a part, I would insist for the literal interpretation of the other part, which their Messiah hath not fulfilled, and which they do not expect him to fulfil; and in either case I would defeat them. I say this unnatural position of looking backward has deprived the church of the use even of those prophecies which have received a partial fulfilment, but still look forward to a perfect accomplishment; while of by far the greatest part of the prophecy it hath deprived her of the use and service altogether, and made them not only sealed and unprofitable, but really injurious and pernicious to the faith of her own children. For well do I remember (It is not so long) since I durst not trust myself to look narrowly into that corner of the house, and was content to observe merely the grand and sublime tones of divine feeling and utterance which were there found.

But if the church had an object in the future, to carry her eye forward with longing desire and diligent observation, every thing would come naturally into its true place again, and the lines of prophetic revelation would be observed all converging to a certain great event in the future history of the world, called The advent of the Lord, of which such glorious things have been spoken since the beginning of time. And the Spirit, whose office it is “to show us things to come,” would begin to ripen in the soul of the church those seeds of future things, which are buried under this rank growth of antiquarian evidence: and the ministers of the church would grow once more into the faculty of manifesting the glory of the latter day, from the types and figures and prophecies of the former day: and they would call upon the churches to be mindful of the things which had been spoken before by the prophets and the apostles of the Lord; to look unto the more sure word of prophecy, as to a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn and the day star arise on our hearts. Behold those seven letters of Christ to the churches in Asia, if they be not all built upon the great events which are about to come unto the earth. There is not a promise in one of them that doth not centre upon the earth. And our Lord’s coming, of which the apostles make such constant use, is always a coming to the earth, an earthly event, an event: the most grand in the history of this world, and the beginning of all its blessedness.

It is no answer to this to say that the eye of the church is kept in the attitude of looking forward to the millennium. It is not the millennium of the scripture, but the optimism of the philosophers which they are looking forward to; and the Spirit of the Lord will not sanctify or acknowledge an error; it is not a hope which leadeth them to search and know the prophetic scriptures, or to honour the prophetic office of the Lord, but to consult the proverbs of earthly wisdom, and the resources of worldly wealth. It endeth not in the glory of Christ, but in the glory of man; it maketh progress by policy and expediency, not by faith; it is the great staring error, the mother of the heretical hopes of the latter times, and may well lead away from the consideration of God’s word which contravenes it, but can never attract to the perusal of it.

These things will be enough to the considerate and the simple-minded, in order to explain how this great question of the second advent of the Lord, as a great and blessed event in the world’s history, would recover the prophetic office of Christ and the prophetic character of his word, from that oblivion and neglect to which it hath been brought by the opposite opinion, that; the advent is not an event in this world’s progress to redemption, but the destruction of the world for ever is not a material event to the personal holiness or blessedness of a saint, which will all have been determined long ere then.

On the Intellect

But that the infinite importance of this may be rendered still more distinct, let me further observe, that the three great offices under which the glorious person of Christ is set forth in Holy Scripture as our prophet, our priest, and our king, are made use of by the Holy Spirit for working out three very distinct parts in the redemption of the believer; the first being used to redeem his intellect, the second to redeem his conscience, and the third to redeem the active power or dominion of both body and mind over the creatures: and these effects in the subject are so necessarily dependant upon those several causes in the object, that it is vain to think they can be interchanged with one another, or that any one can be spared, as if the faith of his prophetic office would also redeem the conscience, or the faith of his priestly office do more than purify the conscience from dead works, and likewise redeem the body from the power of the creatures, which is the fruit of the kingly office: yet though none of the offices of Christ can be separated from its proper fruit and effect, I am very far from saying that there is not a natural tendency in the one to lead on to and prepare the way for the other, seeing the offices belong to the same person, and the operations are wrought upon the same person: but I assert that no more than the promise or buddings of the fruit will be put forth, unless there be applied to the soul that particular nourishment from the knowledge of Christ which is proper to the cultivation and maturity of each several kind.

Now, of these three, the office of Christ as our prophet is the means used by the Holy Spirit for working the redemption of the understanding of man; that faculty by which we acquire the knowledge on which proceed both our inward principles of conduct and our outward acts of power. Knowledge or reasonings upon knowledge are not the cause of natural conscience nor of outward power; these are as essential parts of a man as the intellect itself; which apprehendeth knowledge; but forasmuch as they do not act with any range or certainty but in the light of knowledge, and indeed do not act at all without a measure of knowledge, place the understanding first, as it cometh first into action, and assert that it is not to be reclaimed from its ignorance and errors otherwise than by receiving Christ as the prophet to instruct us, as the truth in which he instructeth us, the object seen, the light by which we see it, and the wisdom which is gotten by looking into his glorious face. This revelation of Christ, as the prophet includeth the whole word of God, which the Holy Spirit maketh to become unto us knowledge and wisdom, to which holy word the intellect of man is naturally averse, albeit if he displayed with all cunning adaptation to its highest taste, and set forth in the sublimest and most pathetic forms, with a constant respect to its natural desires and appetites. But by the very reason that man is so proud and selfish, and bent on calling that most excellent in which he findeth himself have made any progress, it cometh to pass that instead of relishing these the perfect forms which the universal reason and the eternal word hath put on, he turneth aside to feed on the garbage which he hath gathered from some corner of fallen nature; haply from his own reflections upon himself, haply from the imitation of another like himself, haply from the common sense of the multitude, haply from some barren field of inanimate nature.

And so it tareth to the intellect from its very degradation, and contentedness therewith, to be naturally averse from the sublime and perfect truth which is written in the word of God, that is, from the revelation of Christ as a prophet. Whence the fallen intellect becometh the most fertile parent of infidelity, setting itself up as a sufficient light, as a sufficient prophet to the whole man. What with its proverbs, and its expedients, and its mechanical resources, it deemeth itself to be the Lord of this visible creation; in which it frets itself in the despite of God, to the great satisfaction of Lucifer, the Son of the morning, who is the prototype and pattern of all these bastard and fruitless intellects: and it lays the foundation of the doctrine, that man is the prophet, the priest, and the king to himself, withstandeth Christ’s eternal Lordship, and requiteth as deceivers and blind leaders of the blind all those who would yield him reverence in his High and Holy Place. And the result is to destroy all bonds and obligations, to subvert all government: to obliterate the sweet traces of all relationship, and make each man an isolated tyrant to the extent of his power, breaking up all society, and treading under foot all things sacred and divine. Whereby it cometh to pass in the end, that the strongest intellect becomes the master tyrant, of discontented and dissatisfied tyrants, whom he is fain to keep in check by military government; of all which we have had a notable instance in the French revolution, that first great work of the spirit of the human intellect, which will soon be cast into the shade by other works still greater and more terrible. Now this is exactly the spirit that ruleth in all countries of Europe, that rageth most of all in Britain, because it hath here most to contend against, and especially in Scotland, whose ecclesiastical institutions are eminently fitted to cultivate intellect, and are at present wholly inefficient to overawe their own child, but do rather cajole it, and keep it quiet by presenting every divine doctrine at its bar, instead of submitting it steadfastly to the supreme and indefeasible jurisdiction of faith. Of which faith indeed my countrymen and churchmen have matured an intellectual theory, (that it is no more than the bare receiving of the written word or testimony,) a fictitious counterfeit, for the use of our intellectual land, and in homage to the intellect who ruleth the ascendant of this age. Oh how Satan hath enthralled us, and how resolved he is to hold us in his thraldom! for while he hath been pushing forward this empire of the human intellect upon all sides against the church; he hath at the same the begun destroying in the church the reverence of Christ as the prophet, which alone can withstand him.

What do you mean? I hear them say aloud around me. I mean that Christ is not received any more by the church as her prophet. I hear them answer, Is not his word honoured above all former time, circulated beyond all former example? still I answer, you contemn Christ as a prophet: you despise the prophetic character of his word ; you make light of those who esteem it, our take any account of it; and I say unto thee, thou backsliding intellectual demi-infidel church, thou knowest nothing of the prophetic office of Christ, or the prophetic character of his word. It is not against Christ the teacher, but Christ the prophet, that I arrest thee of high treason. This quality of every word of God to be prophetic as well as commemorative and instructive, hath been quite forgotten, and is utterly despised of thee. And, as I said, it is by this peculiar part or property alone that his word holdeth mastery over the intellect of man; the mind of God in this differing from the mind of man, and by this having authority over it; in that it is prophetic, and doth take instruments upon the dark future, as well as upon the past and the present. The human mind is historical, and it is observant of the present, and it is metaphysical, that is, independent of place and time, but it is not prophetical. I say not that in any kind It doth at all approach to the mind of God, but that in all other kinds it can ape it, and steal from it, and make a fashion of withstanding it, and doth withstand it, and suppose that it has triumphed over it; but in the dark arcana and mysteries of the future it can make neither pretence nor debate against the holy word. Now (observe the subtlety of Satan, and the deceivableness of man) this is the very attribute and characteristic of’ God’s word, which the visible church dcspiseth, holding it no unequivocal sign of folly or madness to give any heed to it, But they are the fools, they are the madmen, they are the traitors to the cause of God, who venture into the field of battle withouut a weapon, or think to cast out Beelzebub by Beelzebub. I do not mean to assert that the word of God hath not a sweet accommodation and a strong arguement to the intellect, which none in this age better understandeth or more ably wieldeth, than the ministers of my own church; but I say it hath no power nor mastery over it, no lordship nor sovereignty such as my Lord expecteth from his word, so long as it is submitted to the judgment of the intellect, and not presented in those overmastering forms which lay the intellect prostrate at its feet.

From the first promise made in Paradise, to the last scene in the Apocalypse with which this warfare will be accomplished, every thing that is said, and every thing that is done, and every thing that is instituted by God is a regular succession of prophetic history and developement, every part fulfilling something foregoing, and holding out something which remaineth to be fulfilled. Yea, and the providence of God to his church is also prophetic, containing more than met the observation or occupied the understanding of his servants then present and acting. It is truth continuous and in a state of growth; of which the world is as it were the soil, and the the clear heavens into which brancheth forth like the great mustard tree, and the who1e church is the changing forms of the fruit as it ripens to the maturity of a redeemed world, every individual member a sort of first fruits of the harvest which is to be reaped. And it is the demonstration of this truth in all its variety which constitutes preaching or prophesying, the showing of Christ in every type, person, and ordinance of God’s election, the showing the testimony of Jesus to be the Spirit of prophecy, the showing that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation, but hath respect to Him, being spoken by the Holy Ghost whose office it is to take of the things of Christ; not of his own, but of Christ’s, and show them unto our souls, and to show us also things to come.

It is Christ the prophet, it is not Christ the metaphysician, nor Christ the scholar, nor Christ the doer of miracles, but Christ the prophet, by which the Holy Spirit takes hold of the human intellect, to shake it out of its own vain self-sufficiency, and bring down its proud imaginations, and find admission for those infinite holy truths which are revealed in the word. Then when you have humbled the rebel intellect by mightier power, and tamed the cruel savage by greater wisdom, the Holy Spirit doth deal with him, and bring him into the subjection of faith, and so work upon him the image of Christ. But while the inferior reason yieldeth no awe of the superior, or pretendeth to try conclusions with it, while the rebel child holdeth his head proudly erect, in presence of his ill-used and much offended Father, it is vain to expect any dutifulness. There must be reverence first, and reverence cometh of superiority. And this is the great point of the superiority of the divine mind over the human mind, of the universal reason over the individual fallen reason, that it knoweth no bounds, dimensions, nor limitations, but dealeth with the past as with the present, and with the future as with both. Of which things being well convinced, whether thou, backsliding church, wilt hear or not, I will lift up my voice while I have a being, and declare that thou shalt never meet the sceptical, intellectual, and infidel character of those times, but by occupying the ground of prophecy; whereof, let me tell thy present ignorance, there is as much in the gospels as in the prophets, as much in the epistles as in the psalms, and abundance every where: as the perusal of this book which I have translated with show thee, and as the teaching of the Spirit who teacheth things to come will teach thee, when thou wilt acknowledge this his office, and give heed unto that by which he executeth it, viz. the prophetic character of God’s word. Which spoliation of the prophetic office of my Lord and Saviour, and neglect of the prophetic character of his word, hath arisen from losing sight of, or explaining away in the manner set forth above, the great future event of his coming, of the resurrection of the saints, of their reign upon the earth, and the earth’s complete and everlasting redemption. This consummation for which every thing that hath been done, and is now doing by God, is but the preparation, having fallen out of the expectation of the church, or been supplanted by an aerial etherial state of indefinite and undefinable blessedness, the church hath cast her eye from the future upon this earth, to a future away from this earth, and so ceased wholly from regarding the prophetic bearing of Scripture, as concerning matters of fact, and come to regard the prophecies as spiritual similitudes and emblems. Which she was in a manner forced to do by that system of future shadows she hath embraced for future facts, and she must continue to do so while she holdeth the system fast. For it is most manifest that if sayings such as these, “we shall reign upon the earth,” “I will give them power over the nations,” “I will make thee a pillar in the New Jerusalem which cometh down from my God out of heaven,” “thou shalt stand in thy lot in the end of the days,” “his feet shall stand upon mount Olivet,” &c. &c. with all the events therewith connected, are not to be fulfilled on the earth, what can one who receives the Scriptures do, but forget their prophetic character altogether, and spiritualize them as darkly and dimly shadowing forth something which is to be eleswhere?

How much better did the Jews occupy this part of their commission, than we Gentiles have done. They never doubted that the fact would be as it was written, and there where it was written, to take place. But we not only doubt, but disbelieve both. By which very disbelief, all the prophetic virtue of Scripture is lost to us, and we are open to every assault of the enemy. The Jews can throw stones at us, the infidel can deride us for want of evidence, the antiquarian can cast obscurity over our records, the metaphysician can reason us out of all the essential points of our faith; and the intellectual believer substitute his own demonstrations for the submission of faith. Whereas, if the expectations with which Christ for ever endowed his Church were again to become her belief; she would look forward to his second coming, and diligently inquire into and carefully guard every part of Scripture which beareth thereon: whence it would come to pass that the prophetic character of all Scripture would come to be recognized, for it all pointeth to that glorious event; and the prophetic office of Christ restored, and a barrier, the only effectual barrier, placed against the deluge of infidelity which hath swept over the church under the disguise of intellectual illumination and expedient usefulness. It was the expectation of Messiah which made the Jews to set such a value upon their prophecies; it is the absence of such an expectation or indifference to it, which hath made us to set so little value upon them. And this overawing restraint being removed, the intellect hath run riot in its own follies. Oh when will the foolishness of preaching reduce the rebel to subjection again; when again shall we have those Spirit-taught preachers, who did draw the substance of their discourses from the whole providence and word of God, presenting Christ every where, and labouring to show the glory of his person every where! I would not despair of the times, if I saw preaching beginning to resume the character which it had at the reformation, and adding whatever other weapons out of the armoury the Lord may give us for the fearful odds that are now against us. But I do despair when I behold ingenious reasonings, loose declamations, subtle school exercises, and other forms of man’s wayward mind, substituted in place of the royal ordinance of preaching, and the plentiful demonstration of Christ’s glorious person, and the discovery of his all-comprehending wisdom, and the fine relish and high delight of truth which is in all his words, and the masterly dignity which is in all his discourses.

On the Use of Emblems

Not only, however, is the right apprehension of the prophetical office of Christ, and the prophetical character of his word most necessary for enforcing the divine authority of it over the mind, and constituting for it a body of evidence wide and large and lasting as the events of the church and of the world thus foreshown; but also for obtaining an outward visible history, and emblematic imagery, a sacred language to express spiritual things withal, and in which the true spiritual church might read and know her own condition. Our great Prophet, foreseeing that the fulfilment of the priestly office which he properly took upon him at his death, and hath since exercised by the Holy Ghost in the souls of believers, would, during the ages which had to intervene between his two advents, be an administration purely spiritual and essentially invisible; and kindly considering that what cannot be seen cannot be described so as that a man may know whether he possesseth it or not, and those who possess it may communicate with one another, and preach it to the understanding of others, to the end they may take means to obtain it, did by the history and institutions of the earlier church, constitute a set of emblems, and make a language, which should be appropriate for setting forth the great spiritual acts of the Trinity in the salvation of a sinner, the progress of spiritual perfection in the souls of believers, and the conditions of spiritual life in the midst of a world lying in wickedness. This I take to be one of the great works of Christ our Prophet, preparing for the coming of Christ our Priest. To open this idea fully and completely will require a little patience, but it is most worthy of all which we can bestow upon it.

There are only three sets of terms which can be employed to communicate the work of our Great High Priest, in sanctifying the soul of a believer by the Holy Ghost. The first is by using the common and current language of life, in which men are wont to express the more ordinary appearances of the outward world, and of their own personal experience. The second is by using the more refined language of the polite and learned, of the philosopher, and the poet, and the moralist, which I call the language of the schools. The third is by using the language of the sanctuary, that is, the emblematical language furnished by the events and ordinances of God’s church, which are recorded in the Holy Scriptures. Let me open a little the peculiar character and effects of these three which may be called the popular, the philosophical, and the prophetical methods of setting forth Christ the Prophet, Priest, and King of his church.

The first deriveth its illustrations, and figures, and other forms of expression, from the objects of daily observation with which the people are familiar; and is almost the only popular preaching of this day. You have it in its most distinct form amongst the methodists; but it prevails less or more among that great body of ministers who are not prepared for the holy office of preaching, and take it upon them from a conceit of their faculty of speech, and their strong impressions of religion. Yet far am I from saying that the unlearned minister must necessarily adopt this method, to which we have a notable exception in John Bunyan, and William Huntingdon, two most able preachers, and, as it seems to me, two of the purest writers after the scriptural type; nor do I mean to say that the learning of the schools will protect from this vicious style of proclaiming the work of Christ in our salvation; for the schools can only perfect the second method, which hath perhaps as great though not such obvious faults as this popular method whereof I now treat, The evil of which consisteth, first, in connecting spiritual things too much with sensible images, whereby they are degraded and misunderstood, and the visible world too much honoured.

The topics of a discourse whose object is to exalt the life of faith over and above the life of sight, ought to he taken from the things of faith, from the revealed acts of God’s invisible power and glory, the manifestations of his favour and displeasure, of his salvation and his judgment: not from instances contained in this or that magazine, or remarkable events recorded in this or that newspaper, nor from the sermon of this or that man, nor from the storehouse of the preacher’s rough and ready rememberances. This is to look at things seen and temporal, not at things unseen and eternal. I say not but that there ought to be a happy intermixture of this kind, in order that the familiar scenes and current events of life may be sanctified by comparison with the holy scenes and recorded events of God’s revealed acts; but I do say that when those form the great fund for the language, reference and illustration of a discourse, the effect is to vulgarize, vilify, and degrade, to the level of the basest forms of human thought and discourse, those spiritual themes, which being aptly expressed and illustrated by the great prophetical emblems of the scriptures, would purify the heart, enlarge the soul, and exalt the discourse of the common people in a most wonderful degree: whereof we have such a striking proof and illustration in the Scottish peasantry, whose prayers are beyond comparison the most copious and worthy of the divine ear, that I have ever heard pronounced extempore.

The second evil of the popular method of discoursing is, to leave the people totally ignorant of the Scriptures, which they no longer realize as writings of no private interpretation, dictated by the Holy Ghost for the food of that spiritual life which is common and not peculiar, nor as the record of God’s great and wondrous acts, for setting forth to us his incommunicable and invisible being and attributes; while they hear them skimmed superficially, tortured violently, accommodated ingeniously, spiritualized wildly and left mainly unknown, hidden in the obscurity of profound disregard; one text in a chapter haply comprehended, and the rest not thought of; the scope, the facts, the allusions, the predictions, and all the other most essential ingredients of the divine record wholly unnoticed and disregarded. And this they call preaching simply, preaching to the heart, setting forth plain truths to simple people; as if the Lord had not given the people a mind, or would not be loved and served with all the mind; or had not revealed light for the understanding; or as if the mind could be rank and unweeded, and the heart be pure; the head unfurnished with the knowledge of truth, yet the heart filled with the love of it. Oh, such folly, oh, such wickedness, oh, such villany, oh, such treacherous dealing by thy Holy word! such poisoning and destruction of thy holy people! For this popular method of expressing spiritual things by visible and common imagery, instead of drawing the fact, and illustration, and doctrine and all from God’s word, is the very bane of the people; and is preparing them for superstition of some form or other, if it hath not already plunged them into it in many quarters.

The second method of discovering to others the mysteries of the divine being and his offices in the salvation of a sinner, of continuing the prophetic office of Christ and ministering to the sanctification of the church, is by using the more refined language of the learned classes, and drawing the subject matter of the discourse into the form of a disquisition, of an argument, of an embellished oration, of an essay of morals, of a pathetic piece of sentiment, or a poetical invention, or some other philosophical exercise proper to the closet, or some rhetorical performance proper to the platform or the stage, or some dry logical question proper to the schools. The effect of which method is to overlook the great body of the congregation, to entertain or astonish the rest; and to discharge the proper office of the ministry to none. It may serve the end of maintaining the reputation of a clergy for learned accomplishments, and of a church for orthodoxy; to propagate amongst a people the spirit of speculation, and build them up in the sufficiency of their intellect; to play a tune upon the feelings and dally with the fancy, and somewhat stir the surface-waters of the heart; but to convince of sin, and convey adequate apprehensions of its hatefulness, to teach the knowledge of God, and to convey a worthy idea of his holiness, to reveal the glorious person of Christ, and of the mystery of godliness contained in his threefold office, or to communicate the evidences of a work of grace, and the fruits of the Holy Spirit; it is as inadequate, it is as vile and worthless, as to expound the system of the heavens in the language of a magazine, or to describe the heaven of heavens with the vocabulary of a newspaper. This kind of discoursing in Tillotson and his school, brought forth the religious formality and ignorance of the last century in the Church of England in the writings of Blair and his school, (dilettante preachers and amateur divines, fair sportive creatures of the sunbeam, the genus of being farthest removed from that whereof preachers ought to hold who are the children of the quickening Spirit) it begat moderation in the church of Scotland, which style of it, being likened to things on earth, is the nova-Zemblia of preaching, in the air the limbo of vanity, and in the depth below a still lower deep than the lowest. Oh, but I perceive in my dearly-beloved land and mother church, a more subtle form of this insufficient preaching to have won its way among the orthodox and spiritual, (if I may dare to use that word in its popular use to signify the negation of down-right formality, not formal,) which is to reduce every point of doctrine to an argument or expostulation, and engage with it, as if it were an intellectual question to be demonstrated before the intellect of the people; or a question of natural feeling to be appealed to their natural sense of well being; or a question of advantage to be rendered to the common interest of men. Whereby they erect a judgment seat, and constitute a court within the person of the fallen sinner, and they do constitute into a judge the guilty arraigned criminal, whom God doth not plead before, but presenteth to him an accusation proved, a reprieve purchased, and if not accepted, a judgement and second death sure and everlasting as the word of him who spake it. Whereby they mangle the productive unity of divine truth, and present it in a dead state, cut into small pieces, to be served up to the taste of men. Whereby they propagate that idolatry of the human understanding which they aim to contend against; taking Satan’s damned weapons to fight against Satan, and contesting the battle with his gyves upon their feet, his shackles upon their hands, and his speech that needeth to be ashamed in their mouth. Oh my country! Oh my mother church! I am pained for thee. How surely thou art steering to the gulf of infidelity, unless the Lord send a strong one to turn thy head against the stream!

From which two evils of prophesying to the sense or to the understanding it seemeth to me there is no deliverance now, nor defence at an time, but by betaking ourselves to that prophetic character of the word of God, to which we have made so much reference. Christ’s priestly Office cannot now be preached by us but through the knowledge of his prophetical office. The things written aforetime for our learning must he known; the things written for types must be used as types of spiritual things; the foreshowing providence of God to his servants and to his church must be opened; the shadows of the priestly office of Christ contained in the Levitical institution, which Paul calleth the perfection of Christian doctrine, must be known and interpreted; the experience of the national church of Israel must be brought forward for the instruction of the holy nation, which is the spiritual church; the fasts and solemn feasts, the offices of the temple, the temple itself, and all its service which was only the mystery of Christ’s holy humanity; the sacrifices daily and annual, the offerings voluntary and required, the ablutions, and every other appointed method of remission, which is only the mystery of Christ’s sacrifice for our sins; the announcements of the prophets, who were but his embassadors and forerunners, to warn the world of his coming; all the various furniture of the church of God; all the emblematical imagery and language of the sanctuary ought to be the materials with which the preacher declareth the mystery of the work of redemption, and the mystery of its application to the souls of believers. This is the preaching of faith, this is simple preaching, and preaching to the simple, this is enlightened preaching, this is practical preaching, this is the prophesying which the Holy Ghost will bless. Take up any writer of the age of the reformation, take up any writer of the puritan age, take up any writer of the non-conformist age, take up our properest models, the discourses of our Lord and his apostles, the epistles to particular churches, the seven epistles to the angels of the churches, the Apocalyptic prophecy, that epistle general to the Gentile church, and see whether they are not all redolent with the incense of the former covenant; whether they are not all living with the imagery of the former dispensation; whether their language is not thence derived, their illustrations, their instances, in short the whole body of their discourse, be it argumentative, doctrinal or practical. Can any Christian who is unskilled in these things sing the Psalms of David which are all expressed in this holy and emblematical language? those Psalms heretofore the treasury of the church, now set aside by compositions of men, or accommodated to the language of the country and times in which we live.

I cannot go into this subject at that length which my convictions of its importance to this present time requireth; and therefore to illustrate and convey the force of what I mean, I shall take one or two examples. And I begin with the history of the Jewish nation, which, past, present and to come, I believe to be a great type and emblem of the history of the spiritual and elect church which hath been from the beginning of the world; the manifestation of a spiritual object by means of a visible and conspicuous object emblematical thereof; the invisible object being the holy generation of the sons of God, the nation of true kings and priests; the emblematical object being the children and nation of Israel. Seeing that the spiritual church was to continue invisible until the second advent of the Lord yet future, and could not therefore become the object of history, observation, or experience, it was necessary in order to preserve its unity, and enable it to know its own spiritual conditions which are also invisible, to choose out a people, to distinguish them and preserve them distinct from all peoples, to give them a history and character of their own, outward, visible, remarkable, and faithfully recorded, which might abide for an emblem of the history and conditions of that true church over whose preservation the Lord watcheth night and day, and whose preservation till he come again is no less a constituent part of the redemption than his incarnation; and for whose sakes, even for the sake of the elect, all the revelations and acts of God to the earth have hitherto been confined; hereafter, no doubt, to be manifested to the whole world of mankind, and for the profit also of the animal and elemental creatures. That which could not be written in the reality, the Lord hath thus written in the emblem, which great emblem and prophecy it is the office of the Spirit, and under Him of the Christian ministry to explain unto the church; not confounding the emblem with the reality, but carefully preserving both. For to obscure, to curtail, or to explain away the emblem, is to do the same evil offices by the spiritual thing signified therein.

In illustration of this I go not into Abraham’s life, which is wholly emblematical, nor into Joseph’s preservation of the chosen family, emblematical of the elect church saved by their outcast prophet; nor do I speak of Egypt preserved by him, which is the world preserved of God out of respect unto Christ’s eternal offering of himself; but, I begin from the Egyptian captivity, which denotes the bondage of the sense and of the powerful Prince of darkness, out of which the spiritual church is delivered by Christ our Passover sacrificed for us. Pharaoh is oft in scripture denominated the dragon and the leviathan, which are proper in their true sense to Satan the piercing serpent. The passing through the Red Sea has been by the apostles declared to be the emblem of baptism, which puts a division between us and the house of our former bondage. From the time that the true spiritual church of Christ hath received that seal of their redemption, they are in the wilderness of this world, and are nourished with the manna of the body of Christ, which is the sacrament of the supper of the Lord, and with the water which follows their footsteps, which is the Holy Spirit following us from our baptism, until we come to the border of the land of promise. So much of our spiritual history is explained by this emblem. I pass the intervening events until the kingly office was constituted in Saul, and afterwards reft from him to be given unto David and Solomon: which I shall hereafter interpret as the great type of the future regal office of Christ and his spiritual church. Then comes the captivity of the Jewish people, which abideth till now, and of which Babylon was but as it were the first month. This, as an emblem, the Spirit of God in the Apocalypse hath applied to the city of Rome, and the kings of the earth confederate with her, who brought the spiritual church into a bondage which she endureth in some degree until this day. The city of Babylon, which was the centre of the captivity, becomes, in its downfall and perpetual destruction, the emblem of that papal city (not Rome, as I judge, but the ten kingdoms with Rome as their centre of unity) which will be destroyed in like manner, immediately before the liberation of the captives by the coming of our Cyrus (Κυρος) with his sanctified ones.

But this long enduring captivity of the Jews, and their scattered and peeled condition, like dried and bleached bones, doth most commonly stand for the emblem of that long captivity of death which the spiritual church is enduring, their bones being scattered about the grave’s mouth. And hence it is that the prophets, foreshowing the restoration of the Jewish nation, do always mix it up with the resurrection of the dead. (Isa. xxv. Hos. xiii.) The scattering of the Jews among all people, without home or property, denoteth the pilgrim state in which the spiritual are waiting for the inheiritance to be revealed in the last times. The gathering of the Jews into their Jerusalem upon the earth denoteth the gathering of the spiritual church out of the captivity of the grave and of αδης, or the separate state (if I might dare to call that a captivity, which certainly is a forcible divorce or separation into the new Jerusalem which cometh down from heaven. And the metropolitan character of the Jewish people among the nations of the earth, is the emblem of the government of the saints under their King. All which I might show with a greater degree of minuteness.

Now so far is this from being fancy, that I am bold to assert it is the pillar and ground of the truth of Holy Scripture. The prophets were taught the future by means of these emblems, as a blind man is taught arithmetic by means of counters. They never speak in the spiritual mood, because they never saw in that mood. Everything which the Spirit manifested to them was by these emblems: and is expressed in these the great historical events and epochs of their nation. True, the matter is too much for the vessel into which it is pressed, and is continually pressing it out of dimension, but still it is the vessel which appeareth. Or, to use the figure of scripture, the womb is big and heaving; but the child was not born to them. And whosoever will not attend to this the language of the prophets in respect to the future, must fall into one or other of these great errors; either despise them wholly as of no profit to truth spiritual, which is to sail in the teeth of the testimony of Jesus and his apostles; or to spiritualize them altogether, which is to be lost; in a shoreless sea of conjecture, speculation, and outrageous extravagance. But understand the character, (and it is very simple to one who is not preoccupied and prejudiced,) and you shall understand the thing which is written therein, and find it like all scripture to be profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction in righteousness.

All that I can say is, that by attending to these simple elements which I learned from St. Paul, the whole of the Old Testament hath become to me like a globe of light, instead of being darkness that might be felt. Keep the pitcher whole, and the waters arc safe; break the pitcher, and the waters are spilt upon the ground, and cannot be gathered up again, and your pitcher also is become a broken vessel, the most useless of all things. At the same time, while I thus give forth these the providences of the Jewish nation as the shafted window and coloured glass, which cast the Mosaic church into a twilight gloom, I know that the light is still the same light of life which is in Christ Jesus; and that it served the ends of the ministry of that house given to the keeping of Moses and his successors. Likewise I believe that their own history is to the Jewish people typical of that which is to come to them, when they shall become a Christian and spiritual people; may I believe that after it hath served all the purposes of the present Gentile church for spiritual guidance, it will begin to serve anew all the purposes of the Jewish nation, in respect to their promised future deliverance out of all nations, the drying of the river of Egypt and the river of Assyria, the sojourning in the wilderness the falling of the walls of Jericho at the last of the seven blasts of the seventh trumpet, which is now about to be blown. This I believe, because I find the prophecy of the future restoration of the Jews to be written very much in the language of the former redemption out of Egypt. And if the language which words the one, borrows intelligence, and illustration, and typography from the language which words the other, I believe the providential acts which shall fulfil the one, will stand in a similar relation to the providential acts which fulfilled the other. For why should not two stalks shoot out from the same seed? In the same way it is, that I suspect the Christian prophecy of the Apocalypse may come into a second service in these times of Israel’s redemption, as my author believes.

Now while I surely believe that the history of the Jewish people, while it was a great fact and lesson unto the world of God’s righteous acts, was also a typography with which he might write the mystical history of his invisible church until the time that it shall become manifest in the day of our blessed Lord’s appearing, I believe, at the same time, that the very same spiritual truths are written a hundred different ways in the history of individuals and of particular periods, line upon line, and precept upon precept; of all which the harmony in diversity the oneness in variety, gives such a demonstration of the divine Spirit as I can hardly express, it doth so pass every other form of conviction.

Of all these views Concerning the prophetic office of Christ and the prophetic character of his word, I regard his discourse to Nicodemus to be a most remarkable confirmation, wherein he not only showeth the instance of the cross under the emblem of the brazen serpent, and the work of the Spirit under the water-purifications of the law, but asserteth generally that the new birth of the Spirit and the whole spiritual life thence flowing, and our present spiritual dispensation and church, are but a part of the earthly things. The honest yet blinded Israelite came to inquire of our Lord concerning his glorious kingdom, who postponed the subject for one more immediate and more important, opening to him the spiritual meaning and spiritual promise of the earthly dispensation, which had begun with Moses, and was now arrived at the second stage of its growth, for which the word of the prophets and the dispensations of divine providence had been diligently preparing the way; against which the spiritual pride and carnal security of the Jewish rulers had been as diligently blocking up the way: wherefore it came not unto them, but passed by on the other side, and went unto the Gentiles, leaving them outcast of heaven and earth. By this high authority we are informed that our present spiritual dispensation which is wont to be interpreted as complete in itself, without any bud or promise of another, is as much preparatory to another, as was the Mosaic, which the Jews also thought perfect in itself: or rather, to speak more exactly, the dispensation from Abraham to the present time is one dispensation, which is incomplete and inexplicable but by the belief of another dispensation of glory about to follow. Our Lord here expressly declareth to Nicodemus, that all which he taught him, concerning the regeneration of the Spirit, and his own lifting up, and the light unto the Gentiles, was a part of the earthly things, and no part of the heavenly things; or in other words, that the spiritual dispensation under which we live is but the unfolding and completing of the ritual and prophetic dispensation, and can no more be separated from it, than the exposition can be separated from the text, or the resolution from the perplexed riddle.

It is manifest from our Lord’s discourse, that the spiritual dispensation to which he introduced the Jewish ruler, pertaining to the earthly things which were to be seen and known at that time in the Jewish dispensation, as the living countenance and form are to be seen through the veil which covers them. For there can be no doubt that Moses was but Christ under the veil, and the law was but the holiness of the Spirit written upon stones. The veil was taken off the face of Moses by the Prophet like unto Moses, and the gospel was discovered to be beneath it. By the coming of the Spirit the tables of stone were broken, and the writing was transferred to the fleshly tables of the heart. Christ’s incarnation completed the prophetic part of the dispensation, and sealed up the vision and the prophecy; his life fulfilled the law; and as by one man’s transgression the curse came upon us, so by one man’s obedience the curse was taken off; his death finished and accomplished the sacrifice for iniquity, and brought in an universal righteousness. By his resurrection he spoiled death, and the grave, and corruption; and by his ascension up on high, he became the High-Priest of his church to procure the forgiveness of their sins, and to shed down abundantly the gifts of righteousness and peace, to become the providence of the world, and the true King in Jeshurun. These things were all contained in the former half of the dispensation, the semblance of them appeared through the covering of the ceremonial law, the spirit of them, like the child in the womb, struggled for liberty, and the prophets, through great oppression and fainting of soul, were able to articulate the very words of it. The gospel liveth and moveth everywhere in the former dispensation, and is not to be separated from it. They are parts of one life, the former the elements of childhood, the latter the discoveries of manhood. It is one revelation from the beginning even until now, and is properly called the earthly things, in contradistinction to the heavenly things, which shall have place, when Messiah shall come in majesty and glory.

To see this thing completely, we need to ascend yet a little higher. The coming of the Son of God in flesh to offer himself for our sins, was only the manifestation or revelation of that which he had done from all eternity. The act of his intercession and mediation, yea, of his suffering and death are presupposed in the words of the first promise made to our first parents in Paradise: and from that time until now, every word of divine revelation, and every institution of divine worship, are so many manifestations of the eternal act of self-devotion for the salvation of the world, —are but the wording, or the preaching of it, the prophecy and the manifestation of its eternal reality. The gift of the law from Sinai, and the gift of the Spirit in Zion, the tabernacle in the wilderness, the temple built of stones in Jerusalem, and the spiritual temple of the Christian Church built of lively stones, are great bequests of God, purchased by the death of Christ, which was accomplished in heaven, where it was first purposed and declared by the Son, and accepted by the Father, though not accomplished upon earth till he was crucified on Mount Calvary. This is the view held forth in the Old Testament scriptures, especially in the Psalms and the Prophets, taught by our Lord in this discourse of Nicodemus, and in all his divine discourses recorded by John, and of most of the epistles of Paul it forms the introduction. I open these epistles at a venture, and I find it written in the beginning of Titus, “In hope of eternal life, which God that cannot lie, promised before the world began; but hath in due times manifested his word through preaching.” If you inquire the reason why the revelation of the whole truth was not made from the beginning, I answer that it is the prophetic method of God, which seemed best to the wisdom of God; and I doubt not, when the work is finished, will so seem to all his saints who take pleasure to inquire into the wonderful works of God. But for us, who stand midway in the work, and see but one half of it, who are of small comprehension, and very un-spiritual, it is a vain attempt to comprehend the infinite scheme of grace; and it doth better beseem us, with the Gentile apostle, to adore its infinite dimensions, than to attempt the measurement and comprehension of the whole. And yet this much I can discern, and feel free to declare, that when sin had once entered into the finished and blessed work of God’s creation, it was needful that it should run its course, and untold all its poisonous fruits, and do its worst to mar the beauty and murder the life of the goodly creatures of God, in order that its malignity, unmercifulness, hideousness, and horrid misery might be revealed and made manifest unto all the intelligent creatures of God, that they might stand amazed and aghast at the terror, and be confirmed in their hatred of the exceeding hateful thing which God hateth. This, I take it, is the cause why the manifestation of life and righteousness took such a long while to complete itself, in order that the manifestation of death and sin might complete itself. But through all the doublings of the cruel enemy the Son of God did follow him, and unto the darkest chambers he made his light to be seen, and at no time suffered this earth to be without a hope and a promise, and a holy symbol of faith. And herein lay the infinite wisdom of our prophet, in being able to preserve alive upon the earth in despite of the gates of hell, an inward life of godliness and an outward monument of mercy, a spiritual and a visible church, to make the devils to believe and tremble, the wrath of man to praise him, and the remainder of his wrath to restrain. The difficulty of such an undertaking is known only to God; and I doubt not it will be manifest hereafter unto his saints, that in this, far more than in the creation of the earth, and the stretching out of the heavens, is his almighty power revealed. It would be a long discourse, and not proper to our present aim, to show the marvellous accommodation of the divine promise to the evil plights and narrow necessities into which sin hath at different times brought the world. How the wisdom of the Saviour doth baffle the subtlety of the destroyer, and pluck the prey out of his hands. Which things I have found much cleared up in the study of the Psalms. But to return to the point in hand.

We cannot separate the ministry of our Lord, from the former dispensation which it was intended to accomplish, and we cannot separate it from the present dispensation of the Spirit, which is the disseminating abroad of the doctrine which he taught, and of the gifts which he purchased, that is of his priestly gifts by his prophetic word. Nor can we separate the dispensation of the spirit from the dispensation of the law, or the church of the Gentiles from the church of the Jews, that they should not be parts of the same redemption, parts of the same warfare, parts of the same humility and suffering, parts of the same earthly oppression of the church, with nothing of that heavenly glory and royal power, which is about to be revealed. The Jewish dispensation wanted to be uncovered of its veil, and our spiritual dispensation wanteth and longeth to be covered with an outward power and visible glory, instead of being oppressed with this body of sin and death, and trodden under foot by the powers of the present evil world. This much I draw from our Lord’s discourse with Nichodemus, that we are still conversant with the earthly things and have still the heavenly things to expect; that as much as the Jews, ought we to look forward to the glory which is to be revealed, and that it is an utter error fraught with evil consequence, to consider the incarnation of Christ as the ultimate end of the prophecies, and the utmost satisfaction of the wants of the world, All that hath yet been revealed in the Providence of God to his church, is the least half of what is promised in the word of God, and what his church should hold fast with assured faith.

Moreover, she should look upon the incarnation only as another form which the revelation took; another method of manifesting the everlasting love, and showing the eternal sacrifice which the second person of the blessed Trinity made of his honour and dignity upon our account. And she should give heed in the study of the Scriptures, to regard them as one truth in various ways manifested, one glorious person by many emblems made known, according to the word which the angel in the Apocalypse spake unto St. John, “The testimony of Jesus is the Spirit of prophecy.” Whereby is signified that as in creation all things were not only made by him but for him, so in revelation all things were not only spoken by him in the mouth of the prophet, but for him in order to show some excellent feature of his glorious person, to declare some act of his most righteous government or make known some point of his infinite wisdom, unto the children of men. Because however it may be to the unfallen and blessed Spirits, to us it is most certainly ordained that we shall neither be able to know the secret councils of the Father, nor to receive the blessed operations of the Holy Ghost, but through the mediation of the Son, in the knowledge, and honour, and worship of whom standeth the knowledge, and honour, and worship of the Godhead. So that nothing is derogated from the Father or the Spirit, but on the contrary their true being and blessed offices are all rightly secured to them, when we say that all things were created for Christ, and that the spirit of prophecy is but the testimony of Christ.

If, then, it be true, as the revealing angel declared unto John, that the Spirit of prophecy is but the testimony of Jesus, the church should be prepared to expect, (making due allowance for the different ages in the progress of revelation,) and she should seek to find in the prophets to whom the word of the Lord came, a like Spirit, and a like manner of expressing it, to that which is found in the blessed Lord himself, and in the holy apostles. For they spoke by the same Spirit which dwelt, in him, and they brought their messages to the same fallen sinners, and for the same end of restoring them to the lost favour of God, and obedience of holiness, and future kingdom of the saints. Therefore it is to he expected they will speak the same truths though with different clearness, and make use of the same natural figures with which to illustrate it. And we ought to look carefully for that harmony and consent between the teaching of the Lord and the prophets which came before to prepare his way. And he who doth so shall not be disappointed, but will find that every parable spoken by our Lord is but the beautiful unfolding of some great truth which lay folded in the bud, until the light and life should come to perfect the beauty of its manifestation and prepare it for bearing fruit under the influences of the waters of the Holy Spirit. And thus we have the evidence of his being the word of God, and the Messiah promised to the Fathers, not only by his fulfilment of the prophecies which respect place and time, the outward actions of his life, his death and resurrection, but also by his appropriation of all the names and designations which had been given of him, and his ready use of all those words of wisdom and forms of discourse, which are to be found in the Old Testament.

Because nature did not furnish emblems enow whereby to show forth the varieties of heavenly truth which in the person of Jesus Christ were to meet together; art, divine art was called to aid, and by the constitution of the Jewish state, and the ceremonial religion, a new language was invented, which should have no meaning nor possible interpretation but in him who was to come. And a long and various history of a particular family was preserved through thousands of years, during which they were placed in all possible conditions of wanderers, captives, warriors, conquerors, as a family, as tribes, as a nation under judges, under kings, and under priests, all which history was so ordered as, in every or almost every part to be an emblem and allegory of the history of Him who was to come. So that to the stores of natural language and similitude, might be added the stores furnished by the artificial institutions of an intricate church and state, and by the various events of a most remarkable providence. Which makes the interpretation of the gospel a work of much study in the former dispensations of God, and of much satisfaction, being rightly performed. Therefore ought the interpreters of the gospel and epistles to be well skilled in all emblems and prophecies of the Old Testament, and be delivered from the narrowness and prejudices of the natural man, and enlarged by the Spirit of God into a great capacity to receive the beginning, and middle, and end, and whole progress of the scheme of the testimony of Jesus which is the Spirit of all the prophecy. And the members of the church of Christ should for themselves learn to inquire carefully into the things of the Spirit, in the midst of which they live and move and breathe and have their being, praying always that God would fill them with the knowledge of his will, in all wisdom and spiritual understanding. For let me tell my brethren in Christ Jesus, that in proportion as the work of the Spirit proceedeth in our souls, and we feel the oppression of the flesh and of the world, we will groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, viz. the redemption of the body. And we will perceive how all the creation around groaneth and is in bondage, waiting for the manifestation of the sons of God.

Then it will come to pass that the kingdom of Christ will not be a speculation with any of us, but a desire, a longing, a prayer, an assured faith, yea, a very instinct of the renewed man. Purified of all sensuality, yea, the sense crying out for purity; the flesh and heart crying out for the living God; crying, O Lord, how long, holy and true, dost thou not deliver me from this body of sin and death, dost thou not destroy these worldly powers of which my brethren and dear friends are taken captive, dost thou not make manifest thy captivity of all captivities, thy spoilation of the principalities and powers of this dark and cruel world, and enable us to sing, Oh enemy, thy destructions are come to a perpetual end! Oh death, where is thy sting? Oh grave, where is thy victory?

CHAPTER III

§ 2. How the two opposite Systems affect the PRIESTLY Office of CHRIST.

THE priestly office of Christ hath the same relation to the conscience of man which concerneth righteousness, that the prophetical office hath to the intellect which concerneth knowledge. For there is in the nature of man a desire of righteousness of which proceedeth all discernrnent of right and wrong, with every ordinance of law and government; and of these two this seemeth to be the higher function of the soul, and there is but one higher still, the desire to live and exercise all our powers according to the light of knowledge, and by the just dictates of conscience, to which third and highest function of man the kingly office of Christ bringeth its gracious control. Now in considering the second of these, the natural conscience, I perceive that naturally it is a law unto itself, as the intellect is a light unto itself, having naturally no apprehension nor acknowledgment of the eternal, essential, and perfect holiness of God. I say not that it is not capable of education or culture, nor that it is in all men of a like force and clearness, but that it doth never of itself rise above itself, to perceive its own essential impurity and unrighteousness even in its best and purest moods. Nor by this do I mean merely that it falleth short in the execution, but that it falleth short in the idea and in the purpose, enlighten it as you will, and convince it as you will. Or in other words, the justest code which hath ever been devised in the idea of’ philosophers, or embodied in the codes of legislators, neither runs parallel with, nor ascendeth into the region of that justice or righteousness which ever proceedeth in the presence of the eternal God. And this is what the divines mean by the original sinfulness of human nature, the native deceitfulness and wickedness of the human heart.

Yet while I believe and assert that there is in the conscience no natural perception of the true character of sin, as an original and unstaunched fountain in the soul of man, I perceive that there is a great desire after that idea of righteousness which it doth perceive, below which it never falleth without a great sense of pain and trouble, which we call remorse. This is best perceived in the beginning of life, before evil becomes habitual, and to follow wickedness hath become to us like a second nature. But it never dies, and I have oft seen it the strongest in the wickedest, when you touch them upon a part of their nature which hath not grown callous by many wounds. As if they still kept a Goshen-spot of light within the bounds of their darkened consciousness, whither they might betake themselves for consolation. Speaking of men in general, it seemeth to me that they cannot live without such a spot, either in the present possession, or in the future prospects of their soul. And when conscience hath no light at all left within her quarters, nor dawn, nor hopeful star of a morning yet to come, the man then becomes desperate, and careth not for his life any more, but desireth to die.

The ignorance of a universal and common sinfulness con-joined with this desire after righteousness of some kind or other, doth bring all men into the condition, and even into the necessity of imagining a rule of righteousness or standard of holiness, which the conscience may take pleasure in contemplating, and do her endeavour to attain. And this I hold to be as universal an attribute of man, as the desire of knowledge or the desire of power, one of those fundamental laws which define our fallen being. Now this ideal rule of righteousness which the conscience of every man by its best endeavour frameth to itself, is what the scriptures denominate self-righteousness, and the works which proceed from it are called dead works, and the conscience while in this state, is said to be defiled with dead works; from which it must be purged in order to serve the living God: now this is the office of Christ considered as the Priest, to purge the conscience from dead works that we may serve the living God. At present I do not speak so much of the sacrifice of himself by which he atoneth for our sins, as of the application of the blood of this sacrifice to cleanse away the pollution of the conscience, or to convince the soul of its native and original sinfulness.

But this is not the whole account of the priestly office of Christ, although it be almost the whole of what is ordinarily by the church regardeth as such. For as the office of Christ the Prophet knows no bounds nor limitations, save the complete expulsion of darkness and error from the mind of man, so the priestly office of Christ knows no bounds nor limitations, save the complete expulsion of sin from the being and habitation of man, and the restoration of all things, to that spotless purity and sinless perfection which they had at their first creation, with whatever accession of power and glory they may have acquired in the work of regeneration and restitution. Of this restitution we have the first stage, in the gift of the Holy Ghost, by which we are born, anew and prepared for the kingdom of heaven. This is commonly regarded, with what justice we shall hereafter observe, as done upon the soul, and not in any respect upon the body; which all agree to defer until the resurrection. And as the resurrection is supposed to concern the body only, so it is inferred, that the regeneration concerns the soul only; a distinction, as we conceive, more simple than true, and repugnant both to reason and experience, as it is inconsistent with all the scriptures. But whether the account given of the exact effect and operation of the regeneration and resurrection be true or not, it is never to be doubted that these are two great, successive acts in the Holy Priesthood of Christ, which ought to be considered apart. And it seems to me that, besides these two, there is but another, which is, the purging and cleansing of the earth, and all the creatures which were made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him that subjected them; in hope that the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. And when this hath been accomplished by our purifying Priest, then, it seemeth to me, that his priestly office is concluded and completed, and the kingdom in a fit state to be given up to the Father. These three acts of the priestly office of Christ we shall now touch a little in order; showing how each of them is delivered from a cloud, and illustrated beautifully by the views of his second advent and kingdom, which we uphold.

Now, forasmuch as the church, labouring under her present dimness concerning the future advent of Christ and his glorious kingdom, hath been much taken up with the former advent, and led greatly to exaggerate the importance of the out-pouring of the Spirit at Pentecost, that first act of the priestly office of Christ, under which we now live; it is hardly to be expected that much should be found needing here to be reformed by the views which we now offer. But as no important error in the system can long exist without being every where felt, I shall be able to show, in respect to the giving of the Holy Spirit, some very important changes which the scripture view of that subject hath undergone, through the hiding of the light of the glory of his second advent and kingdom.

I. To a fallen creature, like man, whose conscience hath become darkened and defiled, as hath been set forth above, a necessary accompaniment of the priesthood is the revelation of a law. If the pure and perfect type of righteousness, according to which the Priest is to restore all things, live no longer in the conscience, nor be realized in the will, then is it necessary to give it an outward existence in a written revelation, or living personification, or both. Now in respect to the revelation of the law, it properly belongeth to his prophetical office, and consisteth of all those parts of the word of God, which being wholly independent of space and time, apply themselves to the pure reason; while by being presented imbedded in the circumstances of space and time, they give demonstration and satisfaction to the lower faculties of our nature as they pass inward to the reason. This law is perfect righteousness, defining the condition of a perfectly holy man; the pure and unfallen reason, in the light of which, our conscience perceiveth its own fallen condition, its defilement, its death, “The law revived and I died.” But the pure and perfect law serveth at the best no higher end than to slay the self-righteousness of man, and can never be used for a higher end. If you try to bring life out of it, or hope, or consolation, you utterly mistake its power, and miscalculate its effects; and will end in corrupting and debasing it down to the level of the apprehension, or even of the performance of men; buttressing that very self-sufficiency which it was given to overthrow, and sanctifying that vile stable which it was given to cleanse.

To have given such a law of righteousness, without giving at the same time power to keep it, would have been to reveal to the conscience her death, without revealing any hope of her resurrection from death; to have left her plunged in the blackness and darkness of despair, with which, we observed above, the conscience of no man can dwell. And here it is that the character of the Priest properly begins in redeeming us from that guilt, to the existence of which he hath in the office of our prophet brought us to be conscious. Now this office of Redeemer consists of two parts, first, in redeeming us from the guilt, and, secondly, from the power of sin; the one to justify, the other to sanctify; the former proceeding from the virtue of his death, the latter from the power of his resurrection. Of the former I have nothing to say; being fully satisfied with the thorough riddance and clearance which our reformers made of it, out of the hands of Roman crafts men, and out of the midst of Roman rubbish. But of the second part, I have to observe, that, as under the law it pertained to the High Priest, first to offer the sacrifice of atonement for the whole congregation, and likewise to proceed with the blood of the sacrifice into the Holy of Holies, in order to make intercession before the Lord: so to our High Priest it appertaineth not only to have offered his own body as the one sacrifice which hath for ever perfected all them that are sanctified; thereby opening the closed and barred gates of the divine favour to all who believe on his name; but also, besides this, to be continually employed within the veil of the heavens, interceding on their account, and presenting the incense of their prayers, and the odours of their faith, and hope, and charity. Now it is very evident that before any such odours of good works can ascend unto the divine intercessor for presentation in the Most Holy Presence, it is necessary that there should be afforded unto the believer, power to perform the same; for as much as it hath been said, that in us dwelleth naturally no power to perform, nor even in our conscience any power to discern such righteousness as the most righteous God may accept. Here then is an intermediate function of the priestly office intervening between the atonement and the intercession, or rather I should say the first part of the intercessory office, which is to put into his censer the incense of his own merits, and in virtue thereof to obtain not only the forgiveness of our sins which appertaineth to his death, but likewise the gift of the Holy Ghost which appertaineth to the power of his resurrection. Wherefore it is not only written “that he ascended up on high leading captivity captive, but that he received gifts for men, even the rebellious, that God might dwell in the midst of them.” It belongeth not to this but to another place to speak of the Holy Ghost; yet was it necessary to say so much in order to express a most important part of the priestly office of Christ which is not sufficiently attended to, but which is, I think, in scripture the most frequently insisted upon under this form of expression, “He baptizeth with the Holy Ghost.” And accordingly we find the fact to have been, that the disciples were forbidden to commence their active ministry until they should receive power from on high; which power was given to them on the day of Pentecost.

Now this is the first defect which I have observed both in the circulating and in the written theology of our churches, the omission, I mean, of Christ’s office in baptising with the Holy Ghost; whose influences I think are rather regarded to come of his own intention and motive, than as proceeding from the Father and the Son, and virtually since the resurrection, under the administration of the Son, to whom “all power is given in heaven and in earth.” An omission which, if, as I judge, it do actually exist, is of great loss to the church; to whom it could be no mean encouragement to know, that the bestowal of the Spirit is in the same hands which were pierced for her, and upon the palms of which is engraven the love of Zion. This omission, it appeareth to me, proceedeth from our not bearing always in mind that Jesus is a Priest after the order of Melchisedek; that is, at once a Priest and a King, in every act a Priest and a King, not only Christ but also Lord. Insomuch that Peter in one of his sermons held at Jerusalem in the days of Pentecost, declareth that “God hath exalted Him a Prince and a Saviour to give repentance and remission of sins unto Israel.” This kingly office having received from God at his ascension, he doth even now exert in granting these two things, repentance and remission of sins to all who believe; and moreover, in bestowing the Holy Spirit to regenerate and build up the new man after the image of God in righteousness and true holiness. And it is very sweet to me to know, and feel, that my Saviour is become King, and is presently exercising kingly sovereignty over the spiritual world, being able, and being willing to grant the blessings of his priesthood to all who believe on his incarnation, and desire the righteousness which cometh of that faith. It is for every one to judge of this matter for himself; but I return to declare my conviction, that this great and capital head of spiritual doctrine “that Christ baptizeth with the Holy Ghost,” is a good deal overshadowed by a much lower and less worthy notion, that the Holy Ghost, as it were of his own will, and without any respect to that divine relationship, doth by means of the written word work the fruits of holiness in our own souls. From whence it hath naturally come to pass that the written word which is the means in the hand of the Spirit, hath come to stand in the room of the living Word and Mediator, who is to the Holy Spirit, what his Father was to Him, the dispenser, the sovereign dispenser of his power. And whence it hath proceeded that the kingly office should have been thus obscured in the priestly, I have no way of accounting, otherwise than by this, that his kingly office hath been altogether much obscured, by the neglecting or explaining away of those passages in the Old and New Testaments which have main respect unto his second advent when he shall be revealed as a King.

That same retrospective attitude of the church, of which we have seen the evil effects, upon the prophetical office, that exclusive study of the incarnation of Christ to become the sacrifice, hath brought it to pass, that the part of the priestly office which regardeth the sacrifice hath been magnified over and above the part of the priestly office which regardeth the King, and looketh forward for its manifestation to the day of his second advent. And the only way which suggesteth itself to me of joining the kingly into indissoluble union with the priestly office, in the great matter of our present spiritual life, is to bring forward into their proper prominency those passages of holy writ which respect the priestly and kingly advent, without casting into the shade those which respect the prophetic and priestly advent.

And here I may go back a step and make a similar remark upon the divorcement of the law from the lawgiver, and of both from Christ. This inquiry in which I am engaged, needeth a sagacious spirit, a single eye, and a delicate hand, requiring me to make a continual estimate of the current theology, and bringing me into the midst of the prejudices of living men, and present times; the more may the Lord deliver me from all malice and unighteousness, and enable me to discern truly between His word and His people, between His church as it ought to be, and His church as it actually is. Well then; I do certainly feel persuaded that Moses is some way regarded as our law-giver, and Christ as our Saviour from the law; or rather that the law under which we are placed holdeth of the former dispensation, and the gospel of the latter dispensation. Which not only contradicteth Paul’s express declaration, “For the priesthood being changed, there is made of necessity a change also of the law.” Heb. vii. 12. and his argument in the eighth and ninth chapters of the same epistle, where he sets himself to prove the faultiness of the former testament and its need of being set right or reformed by another testament, which was made unalterable by the death of the testator: but from whence ariseth an antagonist feeling between law and gospel which confuseth many people, and in Satan’s hands is made an open door to antinomianism. Now, however necessary it was for the apostles when showing the impossibility of justification by the works of the law, to rest their argument upon the mosaic law in which the party with whom they reasoned, did repose their trust, I think, for us Christian divines, who have not the same form of antagonist, to do the same, is greatly to weaken our own argument, and to prejudice the cause of godliness which is committed to our trust. Because no one will say that the law written upon the two tables of stone, though sufficient in its kind, and perfect in its end, as all God’s revelations must be, is at all to be compared in respect to the force of its precepts and the spirituality of ith application, with those laws delivered by our Lord to his disciples in the days of his flesh, or to those which the Holy Spirit spake by the mouth of his servants the apostles.

The moral law of the old dispensation, is to the moral law of the new dispensation, what the gospel under the former, is to the gospel under the latter; a writing of the same for a younger period, even the infancy of the church. Now, no one would return to their rudiments of knowledge and conscience received in infancy, but press forward to a higher, and a purer, and more comprehensive, and more manly form of the same. Yet this is exactly what we do when we rest our laws upon that form which was given by Moses, instead of resting them upon that form which was given by Christ in the days of his flesh, or rather I should say at Pentecost, when in his character of Lord, he shed down the Spirit, and the power, and the law of holiness upon his church. Christ is my law-giver, and the words written by the Holy Spirit in the books of the New Testament are my written law; but my living law is the Holy Spirit in my soul bearing testimony to every case as it ariseth. We have a law-giver, and a written law, and we have an interpreter of it, and there needeth no casuistry nor casuists. The Holy Ghost serveth us in that capacity. To convince the natural conscience of a sinner therefore, of its sinfulness, I would not be for going to the ten commandments, whereof he may have kept the very letter, and be a greater sinner than he who hath kept none of them (as the Pharisee was a greater sinner and further from the kingdom of heaven than the publican); but I would take him to the words of Christ and his apostles which express it spiritually, and directly address the conscience and say, Brother, feelest thou thus to thine enemy, dost thou thus to thine enemy; feelest thou thus to him that hateth thee? &c. And I would take him to the life of Christ and say, Brother, livest thou thus? thus communest thou with God? thus bearest thou a world’s indignity? thus art thou in agony for a world’s salvation? thus bemoanest thou the hidings of thy Father’s countenance? And so would I find law and life, precept and example combined together, and come down with all the power of a personal case upon the person with whom I treated.

This divorcement of the law-giver from the law, and both from the person of the Saviour, whence many consequences that I have not time to follow out do arise, proceedeth from the same cause mentioned above, as having produced the like divorcement of the King from the Priest, in the bestowal of power to perceive the purity of the law and observe its commandments; that is, from forgetting, or in a great degree overlooking his office as the Judge, and explaining away the passages which relate thereto. The common system cannot afford sufficient prominency to the judgment, conceiving it to be the work of a very brief instant, at most a day; and as hath been remarked, doth not connect the events of that day so much with the Judge as with the judged, to whom it is a most important and decisive act, to Him as it were but the occupation of an hour or a day. And, because there is a very great portion of scripture which speaketh of that judgment in a state of long continuance, and of that holy law in a state of exact fulfilment, and of the blessedness thence resulting to the earth, under the judge and law-giver and king, the abetters of the present system are fain to hide that large portion of Scripture from their observation, silently to pass it over, or diligently to explain it away in some other than the literal sense. But the system whereof our author sheweth the orthodoxy puts this whole subject in a worthier point of light, and gives body and substance to the whole, by presenting us the royal Judge coming to execute judgment by visible acts upon the earth, and after having consumed those who will not return from their rebellion, proceeding to judge the world in righteousness and the people with equity; establishing that law of holiness triumphant which is now trampled under foot, and by its sweet influences, producing all love, and unity, and blessedness amongst men. This gives an end and an honour to the law of righteousness, and to the law-giver, which cannot otherwise in any way be obtained. It giveth manifestation to the judgment and to the fruits of the judgment. It condemneth the sinfulness of the nations, it glorifieth the justice of God, and over all it glorifieth his mercy. And it establisheth the righteousness which is by faith, and realizeth the law and constitution of God by an actual object, by a long-enduring condition of things which the earth in those long ages shall witness. And thus here again the remedy is the same as before, in turning the attention of the church to the future advent of Christ as the judge and king of the quick, instead of restricting their attention to his former advent as a judged and condemned criminal. For these two we shall see as we advance, are the two pivots upon which the gate of sound doctrine and holy living will turn sweetly and safely; though it will neither turn sweetly nor safely upon one only.

Though in opening up these two observations I have touched upon the evils which flow unto the church from this obscuration of our High Priest’s authority and power, I deem it advisable to open them a little more fully. By those only who know how an error or omission in these, the great foundations of Christian doctrine, comes to be felt in the superstructure of Christian life, and to affect the condition of the church, will the importance and truth of these two observations be justified.

The right understanding of the person and offices of Christ is, the right understanding of the person and offices of the Father and of the Holy Spirit; and it is, moreover, the right understanding of our own person and offices, as men renewed after his image, and members of his Holy Church From the forgetfulness of the former great relationship between Him and the Spirit, and that he is a King in bestowing the benefits of his Priesthood, I make no doubt that two errors, in the common feeling of the Church, if not in her current system of doctrine, have originated; of which the first is, that the gift of the Holy Spirit is an uncertainty, is something which hath to come, and is not yet come, and into the coming of which we have no insight, nor ground of certain hope, or assurance. In support of which opinion they quote that text of our Lord, spoken to Nicodemus, “The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.” John iii. 8. Now if by this uncertainty they mean that the Spirit is not to be calculated upon according to any rule of human wisdom, nor obtained in any course of nature, nor drawn down by any work of man, nor with the use of any outward means of grace necessarily connected, I agree with them; and hold that, as the gift of the Son was wholly of the will of the Father, with the due obedience and consent of the Son, so is the gift of the Spirit wholly of the will of the Son, raised unto that royal prerogative by the satisfaction of the Father, yet with the due obedience and consent of the Holy Spirit, who speaketh nothing of himself, but taketh of the things of Christ, as Christ spake nothing of himself, but in all things bare testimony of the Father.

But if by this uncertainty they mean that we are wholly in the dark, and, without a ground of hope, must wait on till the time of his coming, as, I think, is commonly believed by the spiritual, they err grievously, and do exceedingly dishonour both the Son and to the Spirit, and, above all, occasion great perplexity to the Church, and throw a great stumbling-block in the way of the impenitent. For the Spirit is in his hands who loved us to the death; the Spirit is in his hands who died for us; the Spirit is in his hands who intercedeth for us; who hath constituted the Church for a dwelling place to the Spirit; and who, in admitting any member to his Church, doth signify and seal to him, not only all the benefits of his death, but also all the benefits of his resurrection; amongst which one of the principal is, the gift of the Holy Ghost. So that, in the same sense in which the written word doth represent to us the freedom which we have unto the Living Word, and press upon us by all means to be joined unto him, I believe the Sacrament of Baptism doth represent to us the freedom which we have unto the Holy Spirit, and cordially entreat us to accept of all the blessings of the regenerated Church. And so we are left, in looking for the Holy Spirit, not in the state of an uncertainty, or dark mystery, but have a clear revelation, and are given as great an assurance, and applied to with as powerful means, as are consistent with the freedom of our will. It is a very great matter indeed to know that what we need, our elder brother hath to bestow, and hath a desire to bestow upon us. And it is a very different matter, to know not where that which we need is to be found, or whether we may presume to expect it at all. Let no one suppose by this that I take the gift of the Holy Spirit out of the hands of our King to give it into the hands of a priesthood, or embody it in a visible symbol. I do place it in the hands of our King, to be given, at his pleasure, to those who believe upon his name, and are obedient to his ordinances and commandments. But who is that King? who but our Saviour, who but our Redeemer, who but Jesus the most bountiful, the most gracious to man! And where would man have it, with so much safety, with so much wisdom, with so much advantage to the world, reposed, as in his hands who died to redeem the world.

It is a poor compensation, either to the injured prerogative of Christ, or to the disappointed condition of his Church, to direct her attention to the written word, as the appointed means by which the Spirit worketh the regeneration and edification of the body of Christ. A means is at the will and posterior to the will of him that useth it; and, unless we know something of the gracious disposition of that will, it availeth little to know the means with which it serveth itself. That which they say concerning the written word is true, while the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son, and the power given unto the Son, in virtue of Mediator, to baptize with the Holy Ghost, is also a truth; but the one of these truths is not the same with the other, neither will the former serve the ends of the latter, or stand for both. The prerogative pertaining to the LIVING WORD, of sending forth the Spirit, is greater than, and includeth in it, the power of the written Word to feed and nourish the Spirit; but the latter includeth not the former. Now I am strongly convinced, that, through the eclipse of this royal prerogative in the priestly office of Christ, the written Word hath come to be exaggerated into an importance which it can never bear, and that the progress of spiritual life is made dependant upon a certain intercourse of the natural faculties of the mind with the knowledge which is therein revealed: and to this source I attribute that notion of faith which is taking such deep root in our church of Scotland, as if it were no more than the assent of the mind unto the testimony of the Word. From whence it hath come to pass, by necessary consequence, that preaching is fast becoming an exercise of the natural faculties of the preacher, to make manifest to the natural faculties of the hearers, good grounds upon which he should give his assent unto the testimony: instead of being the voice of Christ, the Prophet, Priest, and King of his Church, speaking by the authority of his minister, to the faith, love, and reverence of his people: the Holy Spirit in the minister taking of the things of Christ, and showing them unto the same Spirit in the hearer. Preaching, especially in our Church, has become an offspring of the understanding exercising itself about the revelations of the Gospel; instead of being the offspring of the Spirit, bestowed by our King and Priest, from faith to faith: and the consequence hath been, the upbuilding of the understanding, instead of the upbuilding of the believing Church; and the end will be, an intellectual apostacy, instead of a house all prepared to receive its Lord and Master.

I am not ignorant that spiritual religion hath a demonstration to the natural man, and can present a stronger pleading to his mind, and to his heart, and to his social affections, and to his political well-being, than any other system of truth; in which belief I allow that our preachers have laboured well, and won to themselves much renown over the infidelity of these days: so hath it a demonstration to the very sense, in the health, and comeliness, and tranquillity, and strength, and other fruits of that temperance and wholesome discipline which it imposeth upon the body: but neither the one nor the other of these demonstrations have any power to regenerate and quicken the soul, which cometh only by the preaching of the righteousness, which is by faith upon a crucified and risen Redeemer, to whom every knee must bow, and every tongue confess, ere we can be visited with any fruit of his mediation. This gradual declension into the region of the natural intellect hath come about, I conceive, from our forgetting that prerogative of Christ to be in every act of his priesthood also a King; which being borne in mind, no one would for a moment dream of obtaining the Holy Spirit by merely conning the pages of a book, or hearing a man’s speculations, critical, or intellectual, or sentimental, thereupon; but we would look for Him in the exercise of faith upon the Prophet, speaking in his word and by his faithful ministers; in the crucified and risen Priest, dispensing the gifts of the Holy Ghost to those who believe in his name and do his commandments: and the Holy Spirit, instead of being connected in no relationship with any other person of the Trinity, or bound to the pages of a book, would be restored to that proper relationship to the Son, to that witness of the Son, in which he hath been revealed as delighting to exercise himself. I could, in like manner, open the evils which are flowing into the Church by the disseveration of the law giver from the law, and of both from the Saviour and Author of eternal righteousness; but that I perceive I have much ground to travel over. And yet I know not what to do; for there is such a subtle mimickry of the truth about the intellectualism of the times, that unless you be at great pains to distinguish and explain things, one half of the Church holdeth you to be a traducer, and another half holdeth you to be a fool. But, Wisdom is justified of her children.

So much and much more if space permitted, have I to say upon the prejudice which the priestly office of Christ hath undergone, through that oblivion of his kingly and judicial office which hath come over the church, by reason of her neglect, unbelief, and spiritual annihilation of those large portions of scripture which make known his second advent and set him forth as a Priest, not upon his cross, but upon his throne, not humbled and rejected of men, but ruling in righteousness from sea to sea, and from the river to the ends of the earth. In all that I have said, I have confined my self to that first province of his priestly power which concerneth the regeneration and sanctification of the soul; and I have now to treat and enlarge upon the two other provinces thereof, which our modern theology, though making such a parade of the written word, and the written word only, hath almost suffered to drop out of the mind and memory of the church. I mean the redemption of the body, and the redemption of the earth on which we dwell.

II. When the eternal Son of God came to be the sacrifice for the sins of his church and of the world, he took unto himself not only a reasonable soul, but a human body, passive flesh, the whole nature of the seed of Abraham; and the Holy Spirit, by whose power he was conceived in the Virgin’s womb, and exercised all the offices of his earthly ministry, and offered himself without spot unto the holiness of God, did preserve in perfect purity and separation from sin, both his body and his spirit, that is, his whole humanity. Now because Christ in the days of his flesh was the type of all his people, the captain of their salvation, the author and finisher of their faith, I do most certainly conclude, that the, same Holy Spirit, when by our King he is commissioned to beget in any of his elect people, the child of Christ, the new man created in righteousness and true holiness, doth not take effect upon our spirit only, but upon our body also, upon our whole fallen humanity, to restrain it, and to sanctify it, and to prepare it for eternal glory. It is one of the evil fruits of our spiritualizing whatever will spiritualize, and neglecting the rest, to have spread abroad the notion that the Spirit operateth upon the soul primarily and upon the body only in a very inferior degree; and that while the soul is purified in some sort, and changed, the body lags far behind in an obstinate love of the fallen creature which death only can dissolve. Whereas I believe it to be according to the scripture, that the whole humanity is operated upon by the new law and life of the Holy Spirit, which Christ planteth in all them who believe. The law of the flesh, or of the animal, or natural man, which the apostle Paul so oft declareth to be opposed to the law of the Spirit, and enmity to God, is alas! not confined to the bodily instincts and senses, but extendeth to the desires of the mind and to the inclinations of the heart, and to the will of man in his fallen and unrenewed state. Whence we find our Lord referring all abominable lusts to their origin in the heart, and Paul enumerating the desires of the mind along with the desires of the flesh, and pronouncing upon them the same sentence of condemnation. And the law of the Spirit to which they are in continual opposition, is not any power or principle inherent in the invisible part of man, but the disposition of the Holy Ghost within us, the motions of that eternal life which cometh by faith in the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, into whose name, that is, into whose spiritual power we were baptized. Whence we find that Paul speaks of the body of the baptized as married unto the body of Christ by his resurrection from the dead, and again of our bodily members as the members of Christ, and again of our conscience purged from dead works, and our bodies washed with pure water, and again he intreateth them to present themselves, “body, soul, and spirit, a living sacrifice unto God.” I hold it therefore, to be a point of sound theology, that our royal High Priest when he baptizeth with the Holy Ghost, hath a respect to the body as well as to the soul, to the whole undivided humanity of man, and that their purification proceedeth pari passu, and not separately, —the spirit now, the body hereafter. So that the life of the Son of man, and his experience of agony, both inward and outward, —horrors of darkness and clouds of grief within, as well as pains and afflictions and torments without, is the pattern to his children of the sufferings both of soul and body, in the spirit and in the flesh, which they have to endure in following his steps. Between him and his people there is no difference in respect to that which is observable; while there is the utmost difference in respect to the principle and cause; in the Son of man the cause was the imputation of the sins of the people, in our case it is indwelling sin, and the sin which is around us. But the same Spirit that enabled him to suffer, enableth us to suffer; and to suffer for the same hatred of sin and continual contention against its power in us and in others. In our humanity we have the first fruits of the Spirit; but the Spirit within us groans, being straitened, vexed, and almost quenched, by the vileness of the habitation; and these groanings are his intercession for us. “We who have the first fruits of the Spirit do groan within our selves, waiting for the adoption, that is, the redemption of the body.” And the Spirit is therefore called “the earnest (or earnest-penny) of the promised inheritance,” “the seal with which we are sealed till the day of redemption.” And herein consisteth our humility in being burdened with this tabernacle, and with all the evil associations, confederacies, and temptations of the world and Satan, with which it bringeth us to be acquainted and familiar. Wherefore if these things be so, it is clear that the priestly office of Christ to sanctify whom as King he pleaseth to sanctify, regardeth the body no less than the soul of his people; and must be studied with as diligent a reference to the one as to the other.

Let us now proceed in our observation of that Life which is the great ensample of the life and history of every saint, and of the whole church, in order that we may observe the consummation and completion of the priestly work, whose beginnings and first fruits we have thus explained. Our Mediator having endured the living ordeal of the Prophet, offered himself as a sacrifice upon the cross without spot; and his body was laid in the grave but saw no corruption, because he had set the Lord continually before him; and whither went his soul? to paradise, according to his own word unto the thief; to hell, according to the creed; and according to the common interpretation of both by the Catholic church, to the place of separate spirits, whither also went the thief along with him. Here then, as I judge, is the first point at which a good theologian or true believer in revelation will contemplate any separation in the humanity of our Lord, between the reasonable soul and the human body; and consequently in the humanity of any of those who by faith are brought into the conformity of his death. At which stage I will allow that the work of the Spirit to the soul and to the body of man, may, and ought to be considered apart; in the separate consideration of which nothing will so effectually serve us, as the meditation of our Lord’s state during this same interval of separation between his body and soul. And in this meditation I can assert, first, negatively, that his separate reasonable soul not ascend unto his Father, because he said to Mary Magdalene after the resurrection, “I am not yet ascended to my Father.” Which express declaration of his own lips is amply confirmed by that large and various discourse which he held with his disciples in the interval between the going forth of Judas, and the act of his betrayal. In which discourse, “the little time” that he was to be absent from them “because he went unto the Father,” can by no means refer to the hours between his death and resurrection, but to this present time of the Comforter’s ministry, during which his church should be waiting, and longing, and pained for his appearance, as a travailing woman is for the appearance of her child. “A little time” he thought it was to be, and a little time his disciples expected it to be, and a little time it is twice called in the Apocalypse; but for our faithlessness have we been kept so long wandering in this wilderness, and because of the long-suffering of God, “not willing that any should perish but that all should come unto him and live.” During all this time I reckon that the souls of the righteous have been in that separate state, call it paradise, or call it hell, whither our Lord’s soul descended, while his body lay in the tomb; and in like manner the body of his church lieth scattered like bones about the grave’s mouth, under the power and dominion of corruption. In the sixteenth Psalm, on which this article of faith chiefly resteth, it is acknowledged as a great act of divine recompense unto his righteousness, that his soul was not left in hell; and the same of his body’s not seeing corruption. And as the latter boon hath not been yielded to any of mortals save to Enoch and Elias (what the Catholic church asserteth about the Virgin Mary, being, as I conceive, no better than a legend) all the rest of men being permitted to lie under the power of corruption unto this day, save those who arose with the Lord; so do I reckon that, because their souls are detained in that place of separate spirits, apart from their bodies and from the human presence of their Lord and King, whose humanity is at the right hand of the Father, there is occasioned thereby a diminution of their blessedness, which causeth them continually, from beneath the altar of his mediation, to pray for the Lord’s coming, and to rejoice so mightily when the seventh trumpet of his appearance and his reign is blown upon the earth. This however, I say, without for a moment doubting their blessedness in that separate estate, according to the kind of blessedness which they are able to contain and be filled withal. But, upon the grounds just stated, and because the uniform tenour of the hope of all saints in Holy Scripture terminateth in the coming of the Lord, and the resurrection of the body, I have the boldness to assert, that the separation of the soul from the body, the abode of the former in paradise, and of the latter under the dominion of corruption, is not a completion of blessedness, but containeth a let and barrier of Satan unbroken down, and which shall not be broken down until the Lord cast him out of the earth and the air into the bottomless pit, and so retrieve from the dust the bodies of his chosen, and call their spirits from that place whither he descended, and which the ancient fathers thought to be in the heart of the earth, and so also in some sort, within Satan’s dominion, who is the ruler of the darkness of this world.

Forasmnuch then, as the sanctification of the body is a benefit of our Lord’s priesthood no less than the sanctification of the Spirit, and that the whole work is not completed at death, but in the resurrection of the righteous; I hold, that an integrant part, yea, the very chief work of his priesthood, and the consummation of it, is done by the resurrection of the body from the dust of the earth, and by the enlargement of the soul from that state of incomplete blessedness in which it is presently detained. Whence we find the redemption of the body assigned as the time of the adoption; “And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the first-fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body,” Rom. viii. 23; that we have received at present only the “spirit of adoption,” verse 15. To the same effect is it written, that not until “the coming of the Lord Jesus with all his saints,” are we presented “unblamable in holiness before God, even our Father,” Thess. iii. 13; that till then also the inheritance is reserved in heaven, and we kept for it by the power of God, till it be revealed in the last times, at the appearing of Jesus Christ, 1 Pet. i. 3-8; that this also is the condition to which we are elected and predestinated, Eph. i. 4, 5, 10. And in truth I may say, there is not such a thing in Scripture, as the termination of our hopes, or the sealing of our sanctification as complete, until the resurrection from the dead and the inheritance of the kingdom. And of Christ even (to recur to the great prototype of the Church’s condition), we find it not only said, that he offered himself by the Eternal Spirit a sacrifice, but, “that he was declared to be the Son of God with power (that is, adopted as to his manhood), according to the Spirit of Holiness, by his resurrection from the dead.” And, in like manner, we believe that the present sealing and earnest of the Spirit is but the first fruits of that gift of the Spirit, whereof the residue is in the hands of our King, to pour it out without measure in the day in which the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live.

From the same constant respect which the office of our Priest hath to this its final consummation, we find that in his office of Prophet he directs so much of the attention of the Church to the great act of his resurrection; insomuch that it was to the resurrection of Christ the apostles gave testimony after the day of Pentecost, and it was Christ and the resurrection which Paul preached at Athens. And hence it is, that the power of the resurrection is placed generally higher than the power of his death, and necessary to enter into the fellowship thereof; “that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death, if by any means I might attain unto the resurrection (εξανασασις, the resurrection out from amongst) of the dead;” Phil. iii. 10,11. where the attainment of the resurrection is made the climax and consummation of all attainments. And, in like manner, a much higher grade of blessings is made by Paul dependant on the life of Christ than on his death; “For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.” Rom. v. 10. Now, that the whole mystery of the resurrection of Christ, with all the varied uses in the spiritual life to which it is made available by the holy apostles, is departed and lost at present from the current preaching of the church. I have no doubt. And I believe the reason to be, that the common system, which embraces the resurrection of the righteous and the wicked in one act, and for one end, of judgment, has had the evil effect of turning the minds of men away from those manifold parts of scripture which speak of the resurrection as the great reward of faith, and peculiar privilege of Christ’s elect church; being for quite another object and end than the general resurrection of the rest of the dead, whereof exceeding little indeed is written in scripture. Not that I have any doubt of the latter, or would disparage its awful dignity, for the end of judging the wicked and the great multitude of the righteous who shall have lived during the millennium, and constituting the eternal and unchangeable destinies of the righteous and the wicked, of beautifying and glorifying the place of the latter, and making miserable and abominable the place of the former, and for many other great ends and mysteries of God’s providence, whereof I cannot now speak more particularly. Nevertheless, I think it a great and essential error, to have confounded this with the first resurrection, that special privilege and prerogative of the ransomed and redeemed church, to be raised triumphant over death, and the grave, and the power of hell, and to have dominion over them for a great season in the sight of God and of all the intelligent host of heaven. And this is the second province of the priestly office of Christ, which the present system of opinions concerning his second advent hideth, and which the more orthodox and ancient opinions maintained by our author would restore, to the glory of his mediatorial office. And there is yet a third.

III. The third subject of the priestly office of our Lord is, the redemption and purification of the earth whereon we dwell, and which, with all that it contains, was originally put under the dominion of Adam, as it is written in the eighth Psalm: “When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers; the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained; What is man, that thou art mindful of him? or the son of man, that thou visitest him? For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour. Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands: thou hast put all things under his feet: all sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field; the fowl of the air, and the fish of the Sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas. O Lord our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth!” Psalm viii. 3-9. This is but an expansion of the original act of man’s investiture, as it is written amongst the archives of creation: “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.” Gen. i. 26. Now, as Christ came forth to redeem from the power of Satan that which Satan had usurped, and wholly to destroy the works of the devil, and to reinstate man in his lost estate, we surely conclude that his work will not cease and determine until this world whereon we dwell shall have been delivered from the defilement and the oppression of sin. And to this agreeth the reasoning of the apostle, in the second chapter of the Hebrews, where he takes hold of that very portion of the eighth Psalm, and thereby proves that, in the world, or age, to come, Christ will actually be seen invested with that very sovereignty, of which the first man was dispossessed by the subtlety of the tempter. And the apostle in that place argues that, because they did not then see all things put under him, it was certain that it would be so seen in that future age which was put in subjection to Messiah. And I now argue, in like manner, that, because we still behold not that complete subjection, it is yet outstanding, as a part of the great completion: and that all which hath yet been manifested of his power in the church is but the first fruits of that harvest which he is yet to reap from his humiliation unto the death. In which place the apostle immediately proceeds further to argue, that his brethren shall be sharers, or fellow-heirs, with him therein, deriving this blessed conclusion from the mystery of his incarnation, and from the identity of our spiritual life with his. And, the more to confirm this, as a great end of his mediatorial work, he represents, in another place, the whole creation as groaning and travailing in bondage until the day of the manifestation of the sons of God: “For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God. For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope, because (in hope that) the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now.” Rom. viii. 19-22. And that this is spoken of some mystery very different from the first resurrection, which we have set down as the second province of his priestly office, he maketh clear, by the verse which follows, wherein he makes the distinction in express terms; “And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.” Rom. viii. 23.

For I set this down also as a part of his priestly rather than of his kingly office, because if any separation can be made betwixt these two, it is this, that the one is virtually the preparation for the other, righteousness for power, purity for peace, although actually they are ever seen conjoined; for he is a Priest after the order of Melchisedek (Psalm cx.) a Priest upon his throne (Zech. vi. 13.); or, in other words, it may be said, that by the sacrifice of the priest he entereth into the combined office of priest and king. It is in virtue of that sacrifice, because he humbled himself to the death, that he hath been so greatly exalted as our mediatorial king. And it is by his having overcome sin in the flesh and upon the earth, that he hath acquired the right to expel sin out of the flesh and out of the earth. It is to the act of expelling them by a greater outpouring of the regenerating Spirit, than that of Pentecost, that I now refer. Up to which point the kingly office is seen in the priestly; from that time forth the priestly shall be seen in the kingly.

Now with respect to this great work of our High Priest in purifying the earth, I see it to have been a constituent part of the mystery from the very beginning. The first sacrifice consisted not only of blood, in token of our holding present life and receiving future life, by virtue of the sacrifice offered before the foundation of the world; but it consisted of the fruits of the earth also, in token that the vegetable life which the earth held, and the prospective purification which it was to receive, were both in virtue of the same great sacrifice. Abraham had not only the promise of a seed, but also of a land for them to inherit. To the Son was promised not only the heathen for his inheritance, but the uttermost parts of the earth for his possession. And to the righteous are continually promised the inheritance of the earth. Moreover, under the law, the first fruits of beasts and the first fruits of the ground were holy, as well as the first fruits of man. Meichisedek, the great type of Christ, presented to Abraham, the great type of the elect church, when returning from the destruction of the kings, bread and wine the fruits of the earth, and received from him tithes of all which he had, in token of homage. And I may add, that Christ in the sacrament of the supper doth the same by all the Gentile church. And while the mystery of the purification and liberation of the creation was thus interwoven in all the Levitical ordinances which foreshowed the redemption of man, it was continually in express words declared by the prophets as about to be coeval with the same. Thus, in the 102nd Psalm, after the “Lord ariseth, and hath mercy on Zion,” and “the heathen do fear the name of the Lord, and all the kings of the earth his glory,” it is said that “the earth and the heavens shall wax old as doth a garment, and as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed;…but the children of thy servants shall continue, and their seed shall be established before thee.” In like manner, in the 65th and 66th chapters of Isaiah, we find new heavens and new earth are created, in which Jerusalem is to be made a glory and her people a praise, and the glory of the Gentiles to flow unto her like a running stream. And when the rod out of the stem of Jesse judgeth the poor with righteousness, and reproveth with equity, for the meek of the earth, we have it added, “The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf, and the young lion, and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.” Isa. xi. 6. And again, “ The wilderness, and the solitary place, shall be glad for them; and the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose. It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and singing; the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, the excellency of Carmel and Sharon; they shall see the glory of the Lord, and the excellency of our God.” Isa. xxxv. 1,2. And in an infinite number of passages is this mystery of the renovation of all things set forth by the prophets of the Lord. And that it is a great object of hope and desire to the saints, Paul doth sufficiently testify, when quoting the kindred prophecy of Haggai he thus applieth it: “And this word, Yet once more, signifleth the removing of those things that are shaken, as of things that are made, that those things which cannot be shaken may remain. Wherefore we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear: for our God is a consuming fire.” Heb. xii. 27-29. In the three last words of this text we have the manner of that purification glanced at, which Peter doth enlarge upon in both his epistles, setting forth the deluge to be to the earth what baptism is to man, the assurance of a complete purification by the baptism of fire, of which he giveth the particular account in the third chapter of his second epistle, into which things we need not enter particularly, as they are contained in many parts of this book.

And who that reflecteth for a moment, upon the ends of Christ’s humiliation and sacrifice, will not at once admit that all those things are necessary to be fulfilled to the very letter, in order to defeat the malice of Satan, and display the triumphs of redeeming grace. Whence came these hostilities among the unconscious creatures? or how came they to be possessed with the guile and destructiveness of Satan? Whence came those bowling deserts of which the earth is full, those wastes of thorns and thistles, those poisonous plants and noxious weeds, and that stout rebelliousness of mother earth, always hasting back to rank and unweeded un-profitableness? And whence those cloudy and inclement skies? And whence the forked lightning and smiting thunderbolt, the hurricane, the volcano, and the wild tornado? And whence the breath of the desert wind, the nipping frost, with all the vicissitudes of the harmful seasons? And whence pestilence, which the invisible air doth bear abroad, and noxious damps and exhalations? Are not the elements possessed with Satan’s malice, and the animals, and the dust of the ground, and every thing within the sphere of man’s evil influence? All, all, one fallen system of things, from the invisible and immaterial soul through the regions of animal life and vegetable life, and through the inanimate creation; down to the centre and outward to the utmost verge of the bounds of the earth. All constituting one fallen system, made subject to bondage, not from any will of their own, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope. And as the fall of man’s spirit from the allegiance which he owed to his creator’s word, brought along with it the sense of shameful nakedness, and the degradation of the body to constant toil, the disturbance of the creature’s peace, and the present warfare of elemental nature, with all the evils in which the world is drowned; ought not the recovery of man’s soul to the faith and allegiance of the divine word, which became incarnate, to draw with it the hope of the body’s royal dominion, and of the creature’s dutiful allegiance, the earth’s blessed fruitfulness, and the peace and harmony and innocency and purity of all things? Otherwise the work of redemption were wholly incomplete, if it contained not within itself the assurance of all this; and the name of Second Adam were not proper to Christ, nor that of “the Father of the age to come,” (Everlasting Father) which was given to him when first he was promised of the Virgin’s seed. And further, I see all this pledged and assured to me in the entombing of Christ in the bowels of the rock, which yet was not able to retain him, but yielded him up. Then not only was the dead flesh, but then also was the wall of rock, both of these at the moment of his resurrection when he was quickened in the Spirit, were yielded to his almighty power.

Now this third province of our High Priest’s work I find to be thus written in the Scripture. That at the coming of the Lord there will be such a purification of the earth by fire, and amelioration of its condition by other means, known perhaps to God only, though our author hath well, yea, magnificently speculated thereon, as shall realize the blessedness of that millennial kingdom, whereof some part of the delineation is set down above. This will take place by the casting out of Satan, that prince of the power of the air, and of spiritual wickednesses from their high places, with all the inferior rulers of the darkness of this world; and by the subjugation of all things to the Prince of Peace, and to the saints who shall be raised to be partakers of his government and kingdom. But forasmuch as death, generation and corruption, and growth and decay, shall still have a place in that new earth, (Isa. lxv.) it cannot yet have received its entire purification at the hands of the Great High Priest, but looketh forward still with expectation to the end, when death the last enemy shall be destroyed. But in the mean time the earth, and all the inhabitants of it, shall possess the bright assurance of this future consummation, by the presence of the heavenly Jerusalem, into which nothing entereth that defileth, or maketh a lie, which flesh and blood cannot inherit, which is incorruptible and unchangeable in its beauty, the habitation of the risen saints and elect church of our Priest. This material city, I say, in which the saints shall dwell, and from which they shall go forth on their errands terrestrial or celestial, shall bring to the matter of the earth that same assurance of an unchangeable beauty and perfection yet to be, as the pure body of Christ that, rose to the eternal throne, doth bring at this moment to my body and to the body of the church now living or mouldering in the grave. Oh! I rejoice to meditate on the mysteries of the new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from our God, and abideth in the sight of the earth during the reign of Christ, the city of the great king: what a pledge to the mute earth and to the dwellers upon it that matter also may be constituted without change, and without corruption, and without death! How very beautiful, and pure, and spiritual in that renovated condition Thus, in present peace and brighter hope, shall the earth dwell and endure for the long season of the millennium, and thus shall Christ and his saints reign over it, having their enemies under their feet, but not destroyed.

And meet, very meet it is, there should be such a time of triumph over them, and treading them under, before the time of their utter destruction come. For they have had a long day of triumph over righteousness, and they once triumphed over the body of the righteous one, and do now triumph over the bodies of his church, propagating a generation of vipers, to blaspheme God and honour Satan. All this triumph have they had in the sight of the intelligent heavens, and in the permission of God, albeit his Son was slain in the reality of the divine purpose before the foundation of the world: and now that he has been slain in the manifestation for these eighteen hundred years, they still maintain their dominion over his humbled church, trampling under their feet the most holy blood of the covenant, and doing despite unto the spirit of grace. And for the honour of the Lamb, and for the honour of the children of the Lamb, and for the glory of God’s justice to his own Son, and of his faithfulness to his saints; yea, and for the justification of his great scheme of grace, and for the punishment, the condign punishment of the fell avenger, ought it not, ought it not thus to be, that in this very place where they have triumphed, they should be put under, and held under, kept growling in their chains, gnashing their teeth yet perishing not, while the Priestly king and his saints do bless and govern the earth, judging it with righteousness and equity, and making it to be full of the glory of God, as the waters cover the seas? Then when the fulness of the time shall come for wholly redeeming the earth, and all upon the earth, from the curse of death, and making it to consist in that indefeasible glory with which the city of the saints shineth resplendent, it shall undergo its final purification, and become fit for presentation in the presence of the Father. The evil dust of the wicked shall be taken out from it, and cast into the, lake of fire, so also shall death, and hell the place of separate spirits, and the devil, and “the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolators, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.” Rev. xxi. 8. Concerning the condition of the earth thereafter, we have no information, if it be not in that word of St. Paul; “Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith, All things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him. And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the. Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.” 1 Cor. xv. 24-28.

Now concerning the presentation of the kingdom thus purified and subjected unto the Father, I have somewhat to speak more particularly, which affordeth me a proper opportunity of presenting in one point of view the priestly office of Christ, as it is brought out by these views of the kingdom which we maintain. The purity, the inexpressible holiness of God, in whose sight the heavens are not clean, and who chargeth his angels with folly, could not, would not endure the presence of this earth any longer, or of any spirit upon it, after Adam had committed one transgression. So fatal, so unchangeably fatal is the stain of sin, so extensive, so abiding. And from thenceforth until now no fallen spirit hath approached unto the Father, hath known him, neither can approach to him, or know him. Every thing connected with the administration of this world, connected even with its existence, (for it should have been by right in the state of the second death,) hath been conducted under the covert of mediation. It hath been permitted to abide, and we to abide upon it, only by virtue of that great sacrifice of Christ for its redemption, consummated before the world was, and made manifest in these latter times. Every thing of a religious kind instituted by God was prospective of him, and accepted for his righteousness sake. And the rest of the earth not included in the covenant, was imprisoned in hope. Oh! and what a value there must be in that offering which could shield such a world from the consuming wrath of a Holy God! When I think, what a weight of iniquity this round earth is now oppressed with, even now at this dead hour of night, when even wickedness should go to rest, when I think what an outcry of wickedness is ascending into the ears of the Lord God of Sabaoth; what blasphemy, what riot, what revelry, what oppression, what murder, what sighing of the poor and needy, what ungodly mirth and feasting, what wantonness, what lust, what dishonesty and theft, are now proceeding under the eye of heaven, upon the round of this earth, and when I further think that this hath been, that this ever hath been so; it would stagger me in my faith that there is a Holy God in heaven above, did I not know and believe in the infinite preciousness of that sacrifice, of that most holy sacrifice of Christ, which was offered and accepted from the foundation of the world. And what a thought, that this deluge of sin shall be baled out, that the long long covered hills and valleys of holiness shall again present themselves; that the slimy path of the serpent shall be cleansed out of all nations, and the alloy of hell with fervent heat be burned out of the elements of the solid globe; that the kingdom peopled with the souls and bodies of the redeemed, shall become meet to be presented in the presence of God, shall be given up to the Father as a pure and a holy oblation, and remain for ever the most glorious monument of his almighty power to save ; —this, this is indeed a consummation worthy that the eternal Son of God, should withdraw from the bosom of the Father: and none but he were worthy, as no one but he were able to travail in such a mighty work. I praise God who hath enabled me to comprehend something of the depth of this mystery of sanctification, and God enable me to disclose it a little, that the office of Christ may be magnified.

The word of God took flesh of the Virgin Mary, passive humanity he took, obnoxious to every temptation, and begirt with every sinless infirmity. And that holy thing which was born of her was the seed of the regenerate world. The world’s regeneration and eternal glory lay infolded in the fate of that child which was born in Bethlehem. For if flesh can abide the proof, and come off sinless; then shall all the matter of the world which was formed for flesh, and of which flesh was formed, be also redeemed. And the humanity of Christ, though tried with every extremity which flesh can possibly encounter, though forsaken by God, and left alone to make the perilous stand for a lost world, which God could no longer favour, no, nor favour his own Son, when he put himself within the conditions of the cursed region; that humanity (such was the holiness and mighty power of the Son of God, though in the weakness of flesh) prevailed against all the powers of hell, and was found blameless. But he had to descend into the still lower depth of the grave, and wrestle against Satan in his strongest hold. And there with my Lord the hopes of a world were entombed. Then was the hour and power of darkness; and the earth seemed lost forever. But the Captain of our Salvation arose; the Son of the Virgin Mary arose. And shall he carry flesh into the presence of the ever-holy God? —flesh that had accumulated such a load of guilt since it first came out of his creating hand. Behold, he doth bear flesh into the presence of the Holy Father. And the Father counts not the divinity of his Son dishonoured by flesh, but rather clothed with new honour, and he sits down at the right hand of the majesty on high. Now then there is hope, now the work is begun, and how is it to be completed?

Furthermore, it pleased the wisdom of the Father that the Son of God and Son of man should be withdrawn from the earth for a season, for a little while, till his purposes should proceed; but he permitteth him to bestow a first-fruits of that quickening Spirit which shall yet quicken every living thing upon the earth. He is pleased to bring many sons unto glory by the same path of humility and suffering. He is pleased that the great demonstration of the power of his Son should be showed forth upon sinners while Satan and his angels are possessed of all their strength, and spite, and hatred; and that the Son of: God by virtue of his new power, should beget sons unto God out of the very stones. This is the mystery of the elect church which doth demonstrate the greatness of the victory which Christ had achieved. There will, no doubt, be a terrible strife and struggle when Satan is bound and cast out, but the Son of God shall then be in the field. But while he is absent from the field, and Satan hath it wholly to himself, that a poor and sinful man who seeth him not, who never hath seen him, should be able by the power of his quickening Spirit to prevail; —this is the great triumph over Satan which hath been going on since our Lord ascended up on high. Oh! but I, as one of that church, do feel it to be the greatest proof of the power of God, that I should be thus made conqueror over the devil, the world, and the flesh. And I can have no doubt after what hath passed upon myself, that my Lord’s power should prevail when the time cometh to bind Satan, and to redeem the whole earth.

The elect church is the whole extent to which, for the present, the application of his righteousness is extended; and why no further? because so the order of God’s wisdom willed it. But will it go farther? Yes it will. And how far? To the whole world. When? When so the order of God’s wisdom shall will it. Every one in his order, Christ the first fruits, then they that are Christ’s at his coming, then cometh the end of all, and the presentation of the kingdom, when he shall have put down all authority and rule, &c. And hath any soul, or any body of men, save the Virgin’s Son, had presentation to the Father? I trow not. And hath any of them dared to present a prayer to the Father direct? I trow not. When shall they be presented unto the Father? When their bodies are delivered from the power of the grave, for while there, they are underlying his curse. And when shall that be? At his coming. And then he shall present unto his Father a glorious church, “without spot or wrinkle, or any such thing.” And then another stage of the redemption is complete, the presenting of the church unto the Father; at which time shall take place those holy espousals of the second Adam to the second Eve, who was taken out of his bleeding side: when I may say, they are also in the mystery, commanded to multiply and replenish the earth; for then will the multitude of children begin to be born unto Christ. And now endeth the mystery of election which then hath its accomplishment, “accomplish the number of the elect and hasten thy kingdom.” And now the hastings of unfaithful Arminianism (“he that believeth doth not make haste.”) the blinding hopes of our present Millenarians (but their proper name is Optimists) will begin to be harmless, which now are ruinous; for as yet their time is not come. The dispensation of election is ended; and the dispensation of universality is begun. And then I will myself become a Wesleyan Methodist, and preach Christ the Saviour of all. And then I will proclaim the merit of his blood, and the benefits of his death to all. For why to all? Because so the order of the wisdom of the dispensation will have it. But is the Father dwelling amongst them yet? I trow not; he cannot dwell where death is. In the new Jerusalem indeed, because there is nothing to offend, will the Father dwell. “In that day ye shall know that the Father is in me, and I in him.” And do the sojourners on the earth present their prayers directly to the Father? I trow not; not without a Mediator; for the subjects of death are still under the curse, and cannot at the same time be under the favour of God.

There must therefore be a third stage, when after all the sojourners have paid the forfeit of death, and death himself hath paid the forfeit of the second death, and the wicked dust of the wicked hath been cast out; and all opposing will hath been expelled from the earth; and the righteous have been separated in the last judgment; and the kingdom completely purified; then, but not till then, may the High Priest present the kingdom unto God even the Father as a pure offering, the end of all offerings, the purchase of the offering of himself. With respect to the condition of the earth thereafter, it is not my part to discourse, and my author hath discoursed most worthily thereon. But so much I have thought it good to set forth, that all men may know whether our doctrines concerning the second advent and the kingdom of our Lord, do or do not, give more worthy views of his priestly office, than those which are commonly held.

CHAPTER IV.

How the two Systems bear upon the KINGLY office of CHRIST.

THESE three offices of Prophet, Priest, and King, under which the work of our Redeemer is contemplated in the Holy Scriptures, and by all orthodox divines, have respect, not to his essential divinity as Son in the bosom of the Father from all eternity, nor yet to his first procession as the creator of all things, but to his second procession as Mediator between God and his sinful creatures. They respect him not as the eternal Son of God, but as the Son of man; not as the Word, but as the Word made flesh; and are descriptive of the perfect completeness of the man, taken into eternal union with the second person of the Godhead. It is not therefore, an arbitrary division of divines, but the essential form of perfect humanity, as it first came from the hands of its Creator, and as it became in the person of the Redeemer, and shall become hereafter in the person of all the redeemed. And it is no speculation of the divines, but a great fundamental truth of theology, that the first man Adam was created a prophet, a priest, and a king: —a prophet, in the knowledge and foresight of all the properties of the creation into which he had been introduced as head; wherefore God brought all the creatures to him to be named, according to their qualities: —a priest, in all that pertained to the worship of his Creator: —and a king over the animal, the vegetable, and the elemental kingdoms, whereof he was constituted the lord. To the knowledge of good and evil he was indeed a stranger, perceiving only the good of every thing, for every creature of God is good in its constitution, and the distinction of evil was introduced only by the fall. This same constitution I can perceive even in the fallen children of Adam, though broken and powerless, yet ever endeavouring to recover itself. All science I hold to be but an attempt at prophecy, to know the result or outcome of certain combinations of matter or proceedings of man. The only perfect science is astronomy, and its perfection consisteth in this, that there is no appearance in the heavens which it cannot account for according to a law, and predict according to the set and appointed period of its law. Indeed what are the laws of nature, after which they seek, but those ordinances of the Creator to his several creatures, which Adam demonstrated himself to be possessed of by prophetic intuition, when he gave to every creature its proper name? So that all science is but the groping after that knowledge and power, which the body of Adam possessed by intuition and instinct, in virtue of that sovereignty which God gave it, over every thing that he had created and made. This hunting after the knowledge of natural science and political economy, I hold to be nothing else than the instinct of man putting forth its prophetic gift within its bounded sphere, moving over the ruins of his great ness, and putting forth desperate but ineffectual struggles to recover the first and lowest of his birthrights.

In like manner, I do perceive man struggling hard in his present thraldom, to repossess himself of his office of a priest, which properly pertaineth to the conscience and concerneth itself with righteousness. Justice, which it is the first object of men in some way or other to establish among themselves, is an essential part of religion; and testifies this her high relationship in her continual appeals unto God by the sanction of an oath: morality also, which is the inward form of justice, holdeth of the same high original: as also do the gropings of the spirit after God, if haply she might find him, with all the traditions of a primitive religion, institutions of temples, sacrifices, and religious rites. Man is every where characterized by something of this kind, which is a continual effort to regain the primeval dignity of the priest. And I may say that the superstitions of all ages and tribes of men bring to me the same evidence of the priestly office being still remembered and sought by him, which the erroneous systems of knowledge do bring of his appetite and desire after the prophetic office. A nation of atheists would be to me as great a wonder as a nation of idiots.

And surely every one hath the desire of power implanted in his constitution, and doth ever exercise it, alas I with how much hunger, and thirst, and hasty indiscretion! My own, is the dearest word of all languages, and one chief end of all restraints and punishments is to prevent it from being the only word. This noble instinct of power testifies the king, as the former instincts of knowledge and righteousness do testify the prophet and the priest in man. And it is the highest and noblest of all the three, to which the other two serve but as guides and stewards. For no sooner hath man discovered any piece of knowledge, than he straightway proceedeth to achieve a point of mastery and power. And no sooner doth he attain an office of righteousness, than his spirit riseth into a new degree of dignity, undervaluing in conscience the multitudes who have not yet effected their escape from the bondage of the sin. The great philosopher’s aphorism, that “knowledge is power,” and the poet’s much-applauded sentiment, that “an honest man’s the noblest work of God,” express what I mean by the inward and the outward advancement in power and dignity, which are given by knowledge and by righteousness; or the subserviency of the prophetical and priestly to the regal office in the nature of man.

Now the redemption of man from the threefold degradation of ignorance, unrighteousness, and oppression, and the establishment of knowledge, righteousness, and liberty over all the earth, is the end which the Son of God proposed to accomplish by the second perilous procession from the bosom of his Father’s love. He purposed to restore man to his primitive birthright, and the world to its primeval blessedness. I say not that this is all, but do rather believe that it is but a very small part of all which shall come out of this great demonstration of the divine love, to his own infinite glory and to the wonderful exaltation of man for ever and ever. It is, however, distinctly contained in the mediatorial undertaking, and completely accomplished when the kingdom is given up to the Father. But what may be the condition of humanity thereafter, taken as it hath been into eternal union with the divinity, and what the office of those kingly priests and prophetic spirits through eternity, and what the destiny of this glorious earth, I know not, neither stay I here to speculate; choosing at present to confine myself to the accomplishment and consummation of the mediatorial dispensation.

When the Son of God had proceeded forth upon this errand of mercy, and began to put forth the presentiments and precursors of his coming to the earth, we find him investing his chosen ones with prophetic, priestly, and royal dignity combined in one. Such was Noah, when he offered sacrifice unto God, and divided the earth to his three sons, foretelling also their various destiny. Such was Abraham, a prophet, a priest to offer his own son, and greater than a king. Such was Melchisedek, a priest, and a king, and he was a prophet, also by the very act of bringing out bread and wine, with which to give the patriarch possession of the land that had been promised to him. And the prophet Moses was a king in Jeshurun, and the institutor of his brother Aaron in the priestly office. But from this time forward the offices were divided by the levitical institution, which was meant to be only for a time. Yet the Lord promised to make the whole people a nation of kings and priests, and likewise prophets, that they should all, from the least to the greatest, know him, see visions and dream dreams. And when he came in person, he came in the fulness of all the three offices in which he bad been foretold, the prophet like unto Moses, the priest after the order of Melchisedek, to make an end of sin, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, the king, of David’s loins, to sit upon the holy hill of Zion, and to have the heathen for his inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for his possession.

But, though born to the plenitude of all these offices, and, as such, announced in the angelic messages to Zacharias, to the blessed Virgin, and by the revelations of prophecy to Zacharias, to Simeon, and to the Baptist; as such, saluted and worshipped by the shepherds and the wise men; and as such persecuted by wicked powers; he did not at once act in them all, but with a due order, according to the signification of the divine counsel, and, doubtless, according to the perfection of the divine wisdom. He laboured, first, as the Prophet, and instructed his church in all things which were written in Moses, and the Prophets, and the Psalms, adding thereto whatever to the fulness of his wisdom it seemed good to add. By his death, by the offering of his own body as the sacrifice upon the accursed tree, he prepared the way for his entering into the office of High Priest, but did not enter into it yet, having some important work, into which we inquire not, to discharge in the separate state of his soul: nor did he enter into it when he had fulfilled that mysterious ministry, but still abode after his resurrection for forty days, perfecting the prophetic work which the unbelief of his disciples had prevented from being completed before. Yet, by breathing upon them the Holy Spirit, he showed that he was already in possession of the holy office of the Priestly King; even as, during his whole life time, he showed the same, in his forgiving sin, and exercising all kingly power over the creatures and the elements of nature. Still, as in the type, no one did enter into the fulness of the High Priest’s office, or clothe himself with his priestly, regal vestments, till he had presented the blood of the sacrifice in the Holy of Holies before the face of God; so, St. Paul reasoneth, Christ did not enter into his office of our High Priest, until he had passed within the veil of the heavens, to appear in the presence of God for us. And even yet, I may say, he is not the vested and manifest Priest, because he hath not yet come forth from within the veil, but is there still making atonement for the sins of the nation, the chosen nation, the royal priesthood, and the chosen generation of the elect church, whose number is not yet completed: and I may say, also, for the sins of the Jewish nation, who, while the High Priest was absent from their sight within the veil, making the yearly atonement, were wont to be filled with lamentations, and supplication, and mournful cries unto God, that he would accept it, and wash away the nation’s sins. Even so hath that nation been kept in an agony of doleful suffering, during all the disappearance of their High Priest; nor will hold their joyful jubilee, the feast of tabernacles, until he come forth again from within the veil of the heavens, which he will yet do without sin, unto salvation to all those who are waiting and looking, looking and waiting for his appearance.

Meanwhile, by the gift of the Holy Spirit, which he sendeth forth to those without the veil who believe on him, he is sealing as many as his Father willeth to give unto him; and proving to the world by their means, that his offering of righteousness hath been accepted, — that his is the only acceptable righteousness, by the acceptance of which it is the will of the Father that men should be saved, and by the rejection of which it is the will of the Father that they should be condemned against the day of his appearing. And we, who have received the first fruits of the Spirit, have a foretaste of the prophetic, and priestly, and kingly offices, — are said to know all things by this holy unction, and are called a royal priest hood, to show forth the honour (the virtues, or powers) of him “who hath called us out of darkness into his marvellous light,” “kings and priests unto our God,” and we shall reign with him on the earth. But we are so, only in part, according to the measure of the Spirit and according to the measure of faith unto every one. The office of the church is prophetic, inasmuch as it is given unto her by the Spirit, to understand and explain the prophetic word of God and show the fulfilment of his purposes in the work of providence. This, I say, is the office, not of the priesthood, or rather it should be called, not of the ministry only, but of the church; the ministry being for the church, as the church is for the world, appointed to witness the truth of Christ’s prophetic word, of Christ’s priestly righteousness imputed unto us, of Christ’s royal promise about to be revealed in us. And it is the next office of the church to intercede as a priest for the world before the mercy-seat of Christ, by her prayers and by her sufferings, and by her labours, and by her agonies of soul; a duty little thought of now, when it is the most fearfully needed. And the church fulfilleth the office of king also in the same spiritual sense in which Christ presently fulfilleth it; that is, by dispensations of forgiveness and exconimunication, of binding and of loosing. For, though she may little think of this her high prerogative, and leave it in the hands of the Papists to be made a profane idolatry of, it was part of the church’s investiture from the mouth of her Lord, before he left the earth. And, I believe, to this day, that all his dispensations to the earth, of good and of ill, are made in consideration of the church, and in answer to the prayers which his Holy Spirit moveth in the breast of his church.

But though in this spiritual way the church doth shadow forth all these three offices, yet, in none of them is she completely invested. She doth but see as through a glass dimly; she hath forgotten that she was purged from her old sins; and she exerciseth no kingly discipline over her members, but is under bondage to every low and crafty influence. She hath been so from the first, and will be so unto the last, growing worse and worse, until utterly wearied out, and casting away all hope of her amendment, her King shall come and judge her. Yet, all sunk and degraded as the church of Christ hath become; she is the only visible Prophet, Priest, and King of the earth. For if that be the Prophet of the earth, which rebukes it of’ its sin, and teaches it of righteousness and warneth it of judgment to come, then is the Christian Church that Prophet; for she only hath any knowledge, or giveth forth any lessons of these divine things; —science being apostate, and philosophy vain, and all the world besides lost in the pitchy darkness of idolatry. And if that be the Priest of the earth, whose offerings of prayer, and praise, and thanksgiving, and holiness, and painful intercession, fasting, weeping, and lamentation, do restrain the anger of the Lord from bursting forth upon the horrid wickedness with which the earth is full, then is the Christian Church that Priest; for she alone hath any humanity or mortification of spirit, or acknowledgment of God’s mercies, or fear of his judgments. And if that be the King of the earth, who from his ample storehouse serveth out to the needy nations the gifts of God’s almighty goodness, and for whose worthy petitions the Lord sendeth rain, or withholdeth it, dispenseth the heat of the sun in genial supplies, or now with scorching heat, and now with cold and cloudy faintness, for whom also he overthroweth kings and setteth them up, and bindeth princes in fetters of iron, or enlargeth them to wider conquest and dominion, blesseth the cottage with plenty and contentment, or, as now, sendeth every where niggard famine, and puny, miserable wretchedness; then such a royal Mother is the Church; for surely it is for the sake of the elect Church, to cherish her, or to avenge her, to chastise her, or to gratify her, to vex her, or to bless her, according to the order of a right-holy and all-wise discipline, that the Lord bringeth these vicissitudes, and alterations, and changes upon the face of all the earth.

From these premises it clearly appeareth, that the work of human redemption, whether regarded in its types, or in the person of the Redeemer, or in the operation of the Spirit upon the church, aimeth at and tendeth to the reproduction in human nature of that threefold dignity of prophet, priest, and king, in which it was created all entire at the first; and which it ever ineffectually attempteth to recover for itself. That this however is still but an aim or a tendency, and hath not yet been realized upon the earth, will appear no less manifestly from the slightest observation and reflection. We are yet in the state of the embryo, having the rudiments of that perfection, and hasting to the birth. Even Christ, while he was seen, did only show these offices in the mystery, or at most in the humiliation; not in the manifestation and the glory. A prophet indeed he was, and greater than a prophet; but hidden by surrounding darkness, and waiting still for the manifestation of his fulness: a priest also and a king, but holier than any priest, and more powerful than any king; yet withheld and restrained by the sufferings and afflictions which be must first undergo. The promise of them there and then was demonstrative of their true existence; waiting for their glorious and powerful manifestation, until the times and the seasons which the Father hath put in his own power should be fulfilled. And so also it is with his church, which deriveth from his Spirit no more power than is sufficient to follow his foot steps: prophesying in part, and in part fulfilling both the office of kings and priests, but only in part. The Holy Spirit given at Pentecost doth set us in the way of our Lord’s suffering, and enable us to be conformed to his death; but He doth no more. And behold how exactly it is so fulfilled in her experience. For though the church fulfilleth to the world by the ministry of the Holy Spirit, from the hands of our priestly King now within the veil, the offices which have been mentioned above; the world doth requite her only with contempt, and persecution, and death, even as it requited Christ himself during the days of his flesh. And according to the activity, and purity, and plenty of these her gracious ministries, the world is but stirred up to entreat her the more cruelly; insomuch that the church for her own ease and safety is continually tempted to fatal accommodations. From which arrayed opposition it clearly appeareth, that not Christ, but Satan the enemy of Christ still ruleth over the powers of this world, whose kingdoms are not yet become the kingdoms of our Lord. In no sense can Christ therefore be said to have been invested with the kingdoms of this world, otherwise he would not surely trouble and afflict his own church which be hath purchased with his own blood. The times and seasons which were to elapse before the kingdom should be restored to Israel, the times of the Gentiles during which Jerusalem was to be trodden under foot, have not yet run their appointed course. Our Priest is still detained in expectation, at the right hand of his Father, and waiting while the Lord hideth his face from the house of Jacob. Giving all weight to the kingly style with which he was born, and with which the superscription was written over his cross, and to the present kingly office of his church, as I have stated it above, I cannot see how with any propriety he can be said, either during, or since the days of his flesh, to exercise the office of a King, save in that initial and partial sense which hath been already explained. The office and function of a King is that of exaltation, but Christ’s life, and the life of his church, are of the lowest humiliation. No one is greater than a king in that dominion over which he ruleth; and yet Christ was lower than all. He was “a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief,” smitten, stricken, and afflicted. He was not in the form of a king, but in the form of a servant. He was the heir of the throne, and making his way to it by the cross, but he was not crowned, he was not enthroned, he had not assumed the power. Satan in his hearing said, These the kingdoms of the earth, and all the glory of them, are mine; and Christ did not challenge the usurpation; if indeed it may be called usurpation, for Satan had achieved them by his potent subtlety. He held them in virtue of the curse of God: and he must hold them till that curse can be removed consistently with the holiness of God. Immediately before Christ was taken up, he was asked if he would then restore the kingdom to Israel, by which it was manifest that he had not yet fulfilled that great object of his mission. Paul bears his testimony to the same truth, that the rule and government of the world are still in the hands of Satan, in these words, “Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:” Eph. ii. 2. And the Apocalypse, in chap. xx, declareth that it shall continue so until the beast and the false prophet, that is, the personal Antichrist and the papal power, with all that follow them shall have been destroyed in the battle of Armageddon. And this we do not yet perceive, for the personal Antichrist is not yet made manifest, and the false prophet still sitteth as God in the temple of God. On every ground, therefore, I hold it to be a contradiction of all language, and a confounding of all distinctions, to say that Christ hath begun to exercise his office of a King. With as much propriety might he have been said to exercise the office of a Priest during the days of his flesh, while he forgave sins, which the apostle in the Hebrews testifieth that he did not. His being so in the mystery, is a very different thing from his being so in the manifestation. In the mystery he was Prophet, Priest, and King, from all eternity. But in the manifestation he became not a Prophet until the days of his flesh; albeit it was he and no other who spoke in all the prophets; and he became not a Priest until he ascended up on high, to present his wounded and slain body in the Holy presence. And he shall be King in the manifestation, when he cometh forth in his robes of state, or in his glorified body, to destroy his enemies and take possession of the earth. Accordingly you do not find him crowned in the vision of his person made to the apostle John in the first chapter of the Apocalypse, nor in that given in the fourth and fifth; but in that of the eleventh when he comes forth to take possession of the kingdom.

These views will become more apparent if we take into consideration one of the most famous prophecies which respect the person of Christ; that of Emmanuel, contained in the seventh, eighth, and ninth chapters of Isaiah. I prefer this prophecy to any other, because it is by peculiar preference the prophecy of the incarnation: and when the announcement of the incarnation was given to the blessed Virgin, it was given in the very words with which this prophecy is summed up and concluded. It is moreover distinguished from every other prophecy, by giving to the Virgin’s child not only the name Emmanuel, expressive of his divinity abiding amongst men, but also that descriptive or titular name, which contains in it the progression and fulness of his dignity and office. And from which will appear not only the completeness, but the unfolding of the completeness of his person. Though the substance of the personal prophecy be in the 6th and 7th verses of the ninth chapter, it will be necessary that I run hastily over the two preceding chapters, which are all concerning Emmanuel, the Son of the Virgin.

The Lord had promised and sworn unto David, that of the fruit of his body, a king should sit upon his throne for ever; and so it had continued to be exactly accomplished till the days of Ahaz, when the revolted and insurrectionary kingdom of Israel, and the kingdom of Syria, confederated against the word of the Lord, “to set up a king in the midst of Jerusalem even the son of Tabeal.” Wherefore “the heart of the house of David, and the heart of his people being moved as the trees of the wood are moved with the wind,” the Lord revealed for his consolation at this juncture the famous prophecy of Emmanuel, and sent forth Isaiah to declare it unto the king for his consolation and assurance: “Behold, a Virgin shall conceive, and bring forth a son, and shall call his name Immanuel,” and to connect this child with deliverance, and give a sure sign of the distant event, he adds, that before Shear-jashub, the child whom he had in his hand, should know to avoid the evil, and choose the good, the land which he feared should be forsaken of both her kings. And then he describeth the calamities which the Assyrians and Egyptians should inflict upon Judah. This first revelation of Emmanuel is very enigmatical, but to one versed in the prophetic style would easily convey that his birth was to be the great sign of the deliverance of Judah out of the hands of her enemies; yet not till after a very fearful desolation of their land. But the prophecy of the eighth chapter, “He shall pass through Judah, he shall over flow and go over; he shall reach even to the neck: and the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel,” Isa. viii. 8; shows us Emmanuel as a King, the child born of the Virgin as the king of the land, which the Assyrians should overflow, even to the neck. The two verses which follow, “Associate yourselves, O ye people, and ye shall be broken in pieces; and give ear, all ye of far countries: gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces; gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces. Take counsel together, and it shall come to nought; speak the word, and it shall not stand: for God is with us; (Or, for Immanuel);” Isa. viii. 9, 10; carry our views forward to a great confederacy of all nations, which should be broken by this same child which was to be born of the Virgin. Then the prophet presenteth him as the sanctuary of those that trust in him, but as a snare to both the houses of Israel, “Sanctify the Lord of hosts himself; and let him be your fear, and let him be your dread. And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling, and for a rock of offence, to both the houses of Israel; for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. And many among them shall stumble, and fall, and be broken, and be snared, and be taken.” Isa. viii. 13-15. After this calamity, of which, though intended for a deliverer, he is to be the occasion, this wonderful prophecy represents a season of separation to his disciples, “Bind up the testimony, seal the law among my disciples.” Isa. viii. 16; which is, as I take it, descriptive of our exact condition since his rejection of the houses of Israel; —a separate people, in whom is bound and sealed up the testimony and witness of Jesus. During this while, Messiah represents himself as waiting upon the Lord till the end of that calamity, “And I will wait upon the Lord, that hideth his face from the house of Jacob, and I will look for him. Behold, I, and the children whom the Lord hath given me, are for signs and for wonders in Israel, from the Lord of hosts, which dwelleth in mount Zion.” Isa. viii. 17, 18. Then he instructeth them in the cause of that fearful darkness which was to overwhelm them, and the only safeguard against it, “And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards that peep and that mutter; should not a people seek unto their God? for the living to the dead? To the law and to the testimony:” Isa. viii. 19, 20. Then comes the description of the desolate condition and maddened misery of those who had rejected this counsel, “If they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them (literally “that no morning to them,” i.e. say, that there shall be no morning to them). And they shall pass through it (the darkness) hardly bestead and hungry: and it shall come to pass, that, when they shall be hungry, they shall fret themselves, and curse their king and their God, and look upward. And they shall look upon the earth; and behold trouble and darkness, dimness of anguish; and they shall be driven to darkness. Nevertheless, the dimness shall not be such as was in her vexation;” or, (as the Vulgate and Mede render this first part of the ninth chapter, which they connect with the preceding description, of the darkness) “and to cleaving darkness, and from their straits they shall not be able to escape.” Isa. viii. 20-22; and ix. 1.

When these the fatal effects of rejecting his person, and his testimony, and his law, ministered by the Holy Spirit through the apostles, have been fully declared, this wonderful prophesy proceedeth to open the dawning of the light upon that long and wintry night. And the prophet perceiveth it breaking upon the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, in recompense, as it were, for the darkness of conquest and captivity, which first set in upon that side of the land in the time of Hoshea, king of Israel. And here I must follow the Vulgate and Joseph Mede, in translating the latter part of verse 1, as I did in translating the former part; for in our version it is utterly unintelligible, and mars one of the most beautiful and perfect prophecies in scripture “In the first time the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali were undervalued, but in the last time shall the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the nations be honoured; the people that walked in darkness have seen a great light: they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined.” Isa. ix. 2. Whether this was wholly accomplished in his first coming, to which it is applied in the gospel by Matthew, I leave every one to judge for himself; but to me it seems manifest that it was not, both because they profited little by the light then afforded to them, which can therefore hardly be said to have much exalted or recompensed them, but rather, as our Lord argues, aggravated their condemnation. But inasmuch as it points to the place where the great light was to burst forth, there can be no doubt, that it is a very remarkable prophecy, though, in respect to the complete fulfilment, I have my suspicion that it remains yet to be shown, against that time when the light of the Gentiles shall begin to become the glory of his people Israel, and “the Sun of righteousness shall arise with healing in his wings,” Mal. iv. 2. On this subject, however, I do no more than express my own conviction, while I feel assured that no one can doubt that of what immediately follows no part hath been fulfilled: and now we must begin to be more minute.

“Thou hast multiplied the nation.” That this is a characteristic feature of the restoration of the Jewish people at the future advent of Messiah, is manifest from almost all scripture which hath reference thereto; as from Isa. xxvi. 15. “Thou hast increased the nation, O Lord, thou hast increased the nation: thou art glorified: thou hadst removed it far unto all the ends of the earth.” From Isa. xxvii. “He shall cause them that come of Jacob to take root: Israel shall blossom and bud, and fill the face of the world with fruit.” From Isa. xlix. 19,20. “For thy waste and thy desolate places, and the land of thy destruction, shall even now be too narrow by reason of the inhabitants, and they that swallowed thee up shall be far away. The children which thou shalt have, after thou hast lost the other, shalt say again in thine ears, The place is too strait for me: give place to me that I may dwell.” Next comes the joy of Messiah and the nation, at the breaking of their bondage and the destruction of all their oppressors, “And to him (margin) increased the joy: they joy before thee according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice when they divide the spoil. For thou hast broken the yoke of his burden, and the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, as in the day of Midian.” Isa. ix. 3, 4. Then comes the manner of this great overthrow of the enemies of Messiah and his people, so extraordinary and so extraordinarily typified in the destruction of the host of Midian, by the sound of the trumpets and by the fire of the lamps of Gideon, with his three hundred chosen men. It is needless to add that fire is a constant instrument of this destruction in all the scriptures. “For every battle of the warrior is with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire.” Isa. ix. 5. And to crown all, we have all these glorious events referred back to the birth of that child, with whose announcement the prophecy began; whereby the whole, from vii. 14. to ix. 7. is as it were clasped together, and presented to us as the achievements of this child, who was promised to king Ahaz in that desperate strait. “For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The ever lasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even forever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this.” Isa. ix. 6, 7.

From these two last verses, which are worthy the elucidation of many volumes, I shall deduce the progression and fulness of Christ’s regal office, which includeth and draweth up into itself both the prophetic and the priestly. The office of the child is government, “the government shall be upon his shoulder.” What government this was to be is explained after his name, “of the increase of his government and dominion there shall be no end;” that it shall include all bounds, at least all the bounds of the earth, and fill all time, that is, be eternal, according to what is foretold in Daniel vii. 13, 14. “I saw in the night visions, and behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.”

But our prophecy is more particular than that famous prophecy of Daniel, adding the royal seat and metropolis of this universal and eternal empire. “Upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this.” Isa. ix. 7. This is the last and also the main part of the prophecy, which, be it always remembered, was given as an assurance to the wavering heart of the house of David; and to that end doth declare and signify that this vast dominion was to acknowledge the throne of David, and him that sat thereon, to acknowledge the supremacy of the house of Jacob, and him that ruled over the same. Which ought to have been consolation and sustenance to the wicked king in his present strait and agitation, for it was more than had been ever declared by the mouth of prophet or of seer. And so important did the Lord esteem it, and for such instant use did he intend it, that he confirmed it by two great signs; the one that Syria and Samaria should be divested of both their kings, before the elder of Isaiah’s sons should know to refuse the evil and choose the good: the other that the rulers of Damascus and the spoil of Syria should be carried away by the king of Assyria, before the younger of his sons could say, My father and my mother. A prophecy which was thus sealed with two of the greatest events of those days might well claim the belief of the wicked king, and retain the belief of all posterity. It appears therefore from this great prophecy of the incarnation, that the idea which, was given of the Man-God, or Emmanuel, was that of a deliverer and rightful inheritor of the land, the destroyer of all its oppressors, the remover of all its bondage, the multiplier of the nation, the increaser of its joy, the occupant of its throne, and the governor of its people for ever, yea, and the monarch of an universal and eternal dominion upon the earth. These predictions concerning the Child are in this prophecy, and no others are in it. If it mean not this it meaneth nothing. If a child was ever born of a virgin it was for these ends he was born. And if he have not fulfilled these ends, then he is yet to fulfil them, nor would such a delay weaken but rather confirm the prophecy; for there is mentioned a mysterious waiting on his part, and rejection of him on their part, and a woful visitation of darkness in consequence thereof. And accordingly they are so found till this day, rejecting his aid in miserable woful darkness, nothing of all the glory having been accomplished, but the very reverse; because the season of his waiting is not yet expired. The prophecy therefore waits still for its great accomplishment in the Son of the Virgin, by the act and power of the Son of the Virgin. If any one say, No; Jesus of Nazareth shall never sit upon David’s throne, nor rule over the house of Jacob. Then I say, Jesus of Nazareth is not the person here prophesied of, but some other. If they say, Yea, but he is the Emmanuel born of the Virgin, who now is spiritually filling the spiritual throne of David, and spiritually reigning over the spiritual house of Jacob, and spiritually holding universal spiritual empire. Then all I have to say is, I do not know what the spiritual throne of David means. It is the throne of a believer’s heart. Where learned you to call a believer’s heart the throne of David? It is the throne of the Majesty on high. How dare you blaspheme, and call the throne of God the throne of David? And what use was there to tell Ahaz in his present straits that a Son should be born and a Child given, who should reign in the hearts of men, and be exalted to the throne of God? And what signs of such an event were those two which were granted? Besides these spiritualists know not where they lead themselves. If they will have all the substance of Emmanuel’s work to be invisible and spiritual, then I will have his birth also to be spiritual and invisible upon the earth. If they will annihilate the greater part to please themselves, I will annihilate the lesser part to vex them. And then what have they left of all this bright and glorious prophecy but the shadow of a dream. But forsaking such quibbles, I desire to pursue my exposition of this prophecy by a short meditation of the manifold name which is given to this Child.

This name of the Child, which was to be born of the Virgin and given unto the Jewish nation, is “Wonderful, Counsellor, the mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of peace;” not five names, but one name comprehensive of the being and office of Emmanuel; of which the first characteristic, the Wonderful, referreth to the miraculous nature of all his works and ways. Beginning with his conception, and ending with the accomplishment and presentation of the mediatorial kingdom; yea, and going back to the announcements which were made of him from the days of old, what do we find but that it is all out of, above, and against the course of nature, and intended to deliver man from the present thraldorn of the natural life into the freedom of the life spiritual and divine? In the ancient times, when he delivered the church from Egyptian bondage, they sung him “Wonderful in his praises.” When he appeared to Manoah, he did wonderfully, and prayed them not to ask his name, for it was wonderful; and so was his conception, and his birth, and his life, and his resurrection, and his ascension, and his gift of the Spirit from his present unseen abode; which yet are all but a prelude and faint signification of that wonderfulness with which he shall show himself the second time unto the world, and avenge his elect, and deliver his own people with a mighty hand and an out-stretched arm, and plant them in their own land, and rule the world in peace and righteousness. The wonders of this second appearance shall so utterly transcend all that hath been seen heretofore of the working of this wonderful one, that it is said by Jeremiah, “Therefore, behold the days come, saith the Lord, that they shall no more say, the Lord liveth, which brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt. But, the Lord liveth, which brought up and which led the seed of the house of Israel out of the north country, and from all countries whither I had driven them; and they shall dwell in their own land.” Jer. xiii. 7, 8. The law of the natural man and of the natural course of things being opposed to the law of the Spirit of God, and that being wonderful or miraculous which opposeth the former, and establisheth the latter, every act of Christ in his progress to the redemption of the world must necessarily be supernatural, and that of all others the most so which consisteth in the casting out of Satan from his usurped dominion, and the restoring of the earth to the government of righteousness. This I judge to be the import of Wonderful, the first letter or syllable, if I may so speak, in the Lord’s name.

For the second, Counsellor, I regard it as expressing and being the fittest word to express his prophetic office in all its amplitude, whether as exercised before his coming in his servants the prophets, or by himself in the days of his flesh, or by the Holy Spirit since his ascension into glory. And its second place in the great name teacheth that his wonderful and mighty workings are all accompanied with and done on purpose to sustain, righteous and holy counsels; that he is the Saviour of the earth by that which he shall teach them. It pointeth moreover to the ordinance of preaching by which it hath pleased God to save them that believe. The power of this word, however, is not yet completely told, but hath, I make no doubt, a chief reference to that future coming in power, and glory, that reign, and righteousness, of which it is thus written in the prophet, “And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots: And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord.” Isa. xi. 1, 2. And not only shall these attributes of the prophet shine resplendent in him on that day, but also in all his people, concerning whom it is prophesied, “And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, know the Lord: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the Lord: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.” Jer. xxxi. 34. And to the same effect by Paul it is said, “For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then I shall know even as also I am known.” 1 Cor. xiii. 12. It is the redemption of the mind of man, and the completion of his knowledge to which this part of the Redeemer’s office, this letter in his name hath respect. Even as the former hath respect to that command over nature, and sweet subordination of it to the law of the Spirit and the will of God, which shall be afforded to every one who shall in that day be found in his likeness. The one redemption from the tyranny of nature, the other redemption from the darkness of ignorance.

The next letter in this name, “El-gebor the mighty God,” consisteth of two parts, the one essentially divine, the other essentially human; being according to the original, “God mighty,” the word mighty being commonly used of a hero or mighty conqueror, as we would say “God the heroic one.” Its first half hath reference, no doubt, to his name Emmanuel, which also hath in it the same name of God, with the addition of his local habitation with us; while its second half hath reference to those heroic acts and achievements of war for Israel’s redemption, which had just been predicted of him in the preceding verses. In this prophet we have the same combination of words in the 21st verse of the tenth chapter, and used in like manner of his great and powerful demonstration in behalf of Israel, when, as I judge, he shall begin to be their Emmanuel. “The remnant shall return, even the remnant of Jacob, unto the mighty God,” El-gebor. Isa. x. 21. Where by perusing the context it will be perceived that it is introduced in the train and sequel of that great exploit with which he shall reveal himself to his people, by breaking the Assyrian upon the mountains, This gives him a right to the title of, Gebor, the mighty one. And this mightiness maketh the people “to take hold upon his strength, and to make peace with him, and they shall make peace with him.” It is by the same title of Gebor, the mighty one, that he is described in the forty-fifth Psalm as coming to conquer the love of his Spouse, and to marry her forever. And there also he introduceth himself to her by great exploits of war and conquest, wrought on her behalf. Now whatever may be said of the two former letters of his name, I do say of this one, God the heroic one, that it hath not been accomplished, and that it is yet future: for as the man of war, the Virgin’s Son, hath not revealed himself; as the Lord of hosts accomplishing whatever was foreshown in a figure by the victories of his people Israel, when he marched at their head in the pillar of fire, the Son of Mary hath not yet appeared. We wait for him in this character, and he waiteth until the time shall come, when as it is written in all the prophets, he shall awake and come in his strength, and accomplish that of which old things were but the emblem and prelude, as it is written a hundred times in this prophet. “Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the Lord; awake, as in the ancient days, in the generations of old. Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab, and wounded the dragon? Art thou not it which hath dried the sea, the waters of the great deep, that hath made the depths of the sea a way for the ransomed to pass over? Therefore the redeemed of the Lord shall return, and come with singing unto Zion, and everlasting joy shall be upon their head: they shall, obtain gladness and joy; and sorrow and mourning shall flee away.” Isa. ii. 9-11 Then his people shall call him not only, Emmanuel God, with us, but El-gebor, God the mighty one.

The next letter, in this comprehensive name, is, “the everlasting Father,” or as it is, being truly rendered, “the Father of eternity, or of the eternal age.” Time by the Jews was divided into two great portions, the age that is, and the age that is to come; meaning by the former the duration of their captivity, affliction, and waiting for Messiah; and by the latter, the eternity of their triumph and rejoicing, and kingdom, in the presence of Messiah. The eternal age of which the child is here called the Father, is the latter of these two, according to the word of St. Paul, “For unto the angels hath be not put in subjection the world (age) to come; whereof we speak.” Heb. ii. 5. The character of that age is thus described by the Lord, “And Jesus answering said unto them, The children of this world (age) marry, and are given in marriage: But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world (age), and the resurrection front the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage: Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection;” Luke xx. 34-36. which is spoken, not of the sojourners who shall then be upon the earth, but of the raised, in answer to the question of the Sadducees, concerning those of this present age who shall be thought worthy of the resurrection, and the eternal life of that age to come. For it was a universal opinion among the Jews, that at the commencement of the future age the dead should be raised who had lived and died in the fear of God, and in the hope of Messiah: who, they believed, would not disappoint their faithful expectations, but bring them along with him. Of this age it is here said that he is to be the Father, even as Satan is the father of this age, and all save those begotten unto Christ are his children. “Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do.” “According to the prince of the power of the air, the Spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience.” This the third syllable of Emmanuel’s name conveyeth to my ear the sweet and blessed intelligence, that when in his character of the mighty God, he shall have cast out all his and our enemies, and the chief of them, that piercing serpent, as is set forth in due order in the nineteenth and twentieth chapters of the Apocalypse, he will rule the earth as a father doth his children, in righteousness and peace, and they will obey him as children in all love and obedience. His power, his counsel his divine might shall pervade every thing and make it blessed even as Satan’s power and counsel, and devilish might do now pervade every thing and make it cursed. In which age to come there shall be a first period, during which his enemies are under his feet, trampled upon but not destroyed, imprisoned but not executed, in order that his royal clemency may be displayed; and a latter period during which they are utterly cast out and overwhelmed with the passive horrors, and inactivity of the second death. The child shall be with them all the while the Father of the age, for his name is Emmanuel God with us. He is not now with us, but absent “for a little while,” and therefore the age is still under Satan’s fatherhood; but he shall be with us again, and for eternity, then shall be acknowledged as the Father of all the earth. And we who are now begotten to him by the Spirit are his children, the first fruits, the honoured heirs of his sufferings, that we may also become the heirs of his glory. Finally, He is the Prince of Peace.

This is the last syllable of his name, and ariseth to the highest pitch of honour and dignity. It addeth the awful attribute of sovereignty; the singular majesty of royal power, to the wonderfulness of working, the wisdom of counsel, the almightiness of power, the graciousness and propriety of Father. It invests him with the sovereignty of the world, and crowns him Lord of all; and by adding thereto the epithet, ‘of Peace,’ it takes out of sovereignty those attributes for which it is dreaded; and invests it with those for which it is constituted and upheld of God as most necessary to human well-being. And as the final consummation of every scheme is that for which it is undertaken, and towards which it struggles through every impediment, this last characteristic of Emmanuel to become the Prince of Peace doth show us, that the great end and purpose for which he became incarnate of the virgin, and hath travailed in such humility, and is to come again in such fearful and terrible acts of war and destruction upon all the earth, is to bring about peace, against which Satan is so determined, and the devilish nature of wicked men so determined, that before it will give place to the power of our king, it will writhe the whole world and bring it to an agony like that of death itself. But as the devils, though they struggled to the last and almost destroyed the frame of their wretched victims before they would come forth, were yet fain to come forth at the powerful word of Emmanuel, while he was yet with us; so when he shall come to be with us again, at the same powerful word, shall they be forced to surrender the heavens and the earth, and the whole orb of humanity which they have usurped, though they shall make it shudder and be agonized, and sweat forth its blood as if ready to give up the Ghost for ever. After which there will be peace. After which there will be peace, but till then never. For till then Satan shall rack the bowels, and tear the heart-strings of human peace; and stir up wars to the end of the earth for ever, until God, born of the virgin, shall again be with us. That, the end of the convulsion on the edge of which we presently stand, and of all convulsions which shall follow, till the consummation, is to bring about peace for ever, is manifest from all the Scriptures, of which I may quote as one instance out of a thousand, these verses of the forty-sixth Psalm. “The heathen raged, the kingdoms were moved: he uttered his voice, the earth melted. The Lord of hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge. Selah. Come, behold the works of the Lord, what, desolations he hath made in the earth. He maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth; he breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear in sunder; he burneth the chariot in the fire. Be still, and know that I am God: I will be exalted among the heathen, I will be exalted in the earth. The Lord of hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge. Selah.” Ps. xlvi. 6-11.

If any one doubt concerning the above interpretation of this the prophecy of the incarnation, I can refer him to high authority, even that of the angel Gabriel to the blessed virgin, and of Zacharias filled with the Holy Ghost, and of the angel to the shepherds, (interpreting the word Lord, as Jesus himself in the gospel, and Peter full of the Holy Ghost doth in the ii. Acts interpret it,) and of the star to the wise men, and of the great national counsel when they were called together by Herod, of which witnesses every one beareth the same testimony of this Child, that he was to sit upon the throne of David, and become David’s Lord, and rule over the house of Jacob for ever, and become the glory of his people Israel. And if any one doubt that he is to come again to fulfil these things which are written, I can refer him to Simon Peter’s discourses in the beginning of the Acts, and to all the New Testament; as if God giveth me time and permission, I shall yet make manifest to his church.

But this last and crowning attribute of the child that was born of the Virgin, containeth in it a deeper and more blessed mystery than the making of wars to cease unto the ends of the earth; bringing to the troubled ear of my soul the tidings of its peace, and to the church, and to the redeemed world, in the person of the great Mediator and Peace-Maker; in whom God is present and powerful to reconcile the world unto himself. It presents him to my mind in his character of King-Priest, having accomplished the reconciliation, and reigning over the reconciled; the Melchisedek who, as to his person, is King of Righteousness, and, as to his dominion, is King of Salem, which is King of Peace. It presents him to my heart as the King who reigneth therein by the power of his Holy Spirit and hath given me the victory over all my enemies: it presenteth him to my flesh as the King who shall yet accomplish my poor body’s emancipation from that vile prison house of death, by a still mightier power of that Holy Spirit whereof the residue is in his hand. It presents him to the Church as her Head, who hath broken down the middle wall of partition, which Satan had interposed between man and man, between nation and nation, making us all of every kindred and nation and tongue to love one another as he also loved us; who preserveth the unity and continuity of the Church’s life against all the powers of earth, against the evil counsels of the gates of hell; and who shall present her unto himself a glorious Church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing, holy and without blemish. It presents him also as the Head of the nations, ruling and defending them front the power of Satan; and blessing them with all the inheritance of the new covenant, which hath been confirmed to us in his death, and whereof the present Church is as it were the ark of the testimony, and the tabernacle of the witness, borne up and down the wilderness, not yet having found a place to rest. For I agree with my author in thinking that we are not yet put in possession of that new covenant, described in Jeremiah and Ezekiel, and quoted by Paul in the eighth chapter of the Hebrews, which is made to Israel, and, in her, to all the world; (for she is, as it were, the mediatrix and mistress of the nations, at the time of her restoration) for the fourfold blessing of that covenant will by no means apply to any visible body at present on the earth; and only in the way of an earnest will apply to the spiritual Church, which is invisible, and cannot be said to contain Israel, or, as little, to contain all men. We have had the covenant confirmed in the blood of Christ, and we have received the heavenly manna, and the waters from the rock, and the indestructible righteousness, and, for our faithlessness, we are wayfaring in the desert till the appointed times and seasons shall have been accomplished. We have not yet entered into our rest, any more than Paul or the Hebrew Church had entered into theirs; but we are looking for it in that city whose builder is God. We are under our Prophet, who, like unto Moses, is conducting us: we have a Prophet and we have a Priest, but we have as yet obtained no King, because we have not obtained the kingdom which cannot be removed, but look for it.

The Christian Church, like Israel of old, sought for a king, and God gave her one in his wrath; a wicked Benjamite, him of the triple crown, who hath usurped the kingdom; whose spirit of phrenzy our David with his prophetic minstrelsy hath sometimes laid for a little while, but aye as he awoke he would aim a blow to smite him to the wall. And that stout old ireful king hath children whom David loveth as his own soul, and who love David more dearly than they love themselves. But our David hath been fain to separate himself, and with his chosen band to wander in the wilderness, a banished man: anointed, indeed, to the kingly office, and assuredly destined of God to over throw that wicked king over the people, whom God gave them in his wrath, because they lusted after courts and kings, in the days of Constantine and onward, till the crown was placed on the head of that Benjamite. Our anointed, King and his chosen ones, I say, are yet in the wilderness, not daring to appear, but persecuted by the usurper. Yet shall it come to pass, that the usurper shall fall upon the mountains of Gilboa, and with him Jonathan, whom David loved, yet not by David’s hand, but by one whom David hateth and destroyeth the instant he cometh into his presence. And then our King is crowned, and Israel is a kingdom, and under her King doeth valiantly upon all that rise up against the Lord; having “the high praises Of God in their mouth, and a two-edged sword in their hand; to execute vengeance upon the heathen, and punishments upon the people; to bind their kings with chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron; to execute upon them the judgment written: this honour have all the saints.” Psalm cxlix. 7-9. Which being accomplished in the antitype of the warlike David; the pacific Solomon succeeds, that Prophet of Wisdom, that Prince of Peace, who never drew a sword, but sat instated in a throne of wisdom and an empire of great glory; honoured by all the kings around, who came to him for counsel and with offerings, and to have all questions of state, and enigmas, and dark sayings explained. And so “Behold king Solomon with the crown wherewith his mother crowned him in the day of his espousals, and in the day of the gladness of his heart.” Solomon’s Song, iii. 11.

I could expatiate largely upon that composite type of the kingly office of Christ, which was reared up by God in the persons of David and Solomon, the man of war and the Prince of Peace. I could show the mystery of Solomon’s knowing all plants, from the cedar of Lebanon to the hyssop that groweth on the wall: and the mystery of that mighty ocean of political and social wisdom, which is recorded in the book of the Proverbs; at which Lord Bacon, that wisest of uninspired men, used to stand aghast, to see how far his own human genius and cunning wit were over reached: —the former being to the saint the assurance of that intuitive insight into all natural things, which in Adam and his posterity hath become obscured; the second being to the saints the assurance of that sublime faculty of preserving the righteousness and well-being of the earth, over which they shall reign in the day of Christ’s glorious kingdom. But I forbear: only one word will I add upon this head. That when the combined type of David and Solomon’s kingdom had been given in three books of Scripture, and interpreted by more than half the Psalms, as if the end and purpose of the kingdom had been accomplished, it straight way fell into inextricable disorder, and floundered on from bad to worse until, at length, by the golden head of Daniel’s statue, it was taken away, and hath passed through the four successive oppressions in Daniel’s image, signified as about to accomplish the times of the Gentiles, during which Jerusalem was doomed by the Lord to be trodden under foot; after which times and seasons the kingdom shall be again restored unto Israel; and then the times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord, the eternity of which Christ is the Father, the peaceful dominion of the earth of which he is the Prince, shall begin their long expected course of blessedness. “For unto us a Child is born unto us a Son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor; The mighty God, The everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice, from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this.” Isa. ix. 11. Amen and Amen.

That system of opinions with respect to the coming of Christ, which at present holds possession of the churches, gives no representation whatever either of Christ’s priestly or kingly office; and the system which with our author we maintain, aims at demonstrating from the scriptures, that there will be a manifestation of both, upon this very earth where both were set at nought. We do not deny that our Lord was a priest and a king in his estate of humiliation, though he manifested himself in neither the one character nor in the other, that is, neither fulfilled in the temple nor upon the throne the priestly or regal dignity; and we believe that now in his exaltation he hath entered into both, agreeing in this with the words of the Catechism of our church, ‘that he exerciseth the offices of a Prophet, a Priest, and a King, both in his state of humiliation and exaltation;’ and to that end I have shown the prophetic, priestly, and kingly offices which his church is invested withal, even at this present time. But while we hold these things along with our brethren, we believe further, that the time is coming, yea and is now at hand, when, not at the right hand of God, but in the sight of this world, and in the despite of all his enemies, he shall as a king and priest be manifested on the earth, and of the earth hold the royal and the priestly sway for ever and for ever: be that whereof Meichisedek was the figure, be that whereof Moses was the figure; be that whereof Adam was the complete and perfect figure, the Father of an age yet to come. We add this to the present popular creed of the church, from which we take nothing away. We say that the day of the Lord which is the face of Peter’s warning, they interpret of a natural day, but which we in the spirit of his warning, and of John’s exposition, interpret of a thousand years, is the period during which this manifestation will be made. We interpret the conflagration of the earth to be its purification or baptism with fire, and not its annihilation. We doubt whether annihilation be an idea contained in the scriptures at all; for we perceive that the second death is not annihilation; nor are wicked men annihilated; nor is Satan, nor is death, nor is αδες, the place of separate spirits, which are all cast into a lake of fire. We believe that our Lord shall reign a certain limited time with his enemies under his feet, that is in a state of subjection; and afterwards that he shall reign for ever, with his enemies under the dominion of the second death. That there shall be a period of Satan’s imprisonment and of death’s subjection, and of the earth’s protection, government, and blessedness, in despite of all the powers of darkness; and that after this there will be an eternity of Satan’s second death, and death’s second death, and the second death of all wicked men and wicked angels, and their fruits of wickedness; which shall be to the earth an eternity of infallible blessedness, of God’s immediate presence, of the concentration of his love, of the peculiar abode and government of his Son. And that this immortal earth for ever, and the redeemed saints inheriting for ever their inheritance incorruptible and undefiled and that fadeth not away, and the Son of God their king, united to human nature for ever, shall be for ever the monument of God’s love and mercy to believing sinners, the enduring proof unto the universe of the incredible power of faith in the word of God, which when all the unfallen creatures of God behold, they may adore the triumphs of faith, and hold fast their allegiance, and delight in the glory of redeeming love, and in the victory of almighty grace over sin. While on the other hand the lake of the second death which burneth with fire and brimstone, where their worm dieth not and their fire is not quenched, where Satan the Prince of darkness, and the angels which kept not their first estate, where the grave and place of souls accursed, with all unbelievers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and, in short, every thing in the kingdom which offendeth, are tormented for ever and ever; this hell of the second death, with all that are doomed to abide therein, shall serve the opposite purpose to all God’s intelligent and unfallen creatures, of demonstrating to them the horrors of disloyalty and disobedience to the great King, the fearful fruits of sin, the indestructible horrors of death, the passive and impotent misery of those who disobey the will of the Highest; the awful stability of the laws of heaven, and the indefeasible sovereignty of the word of God. But if these theorists destroy the earth, or make of it their hell, for neither of which ideas can I find a single passage of scripture, and against them a thousand; if they carry off the race of redeemed men to mingle with, and be lost amongst the countless myriads of the unfallen angels, the whole end and termination of the glorious mystery of redemption is lost. And the manhood of Christ is lost. He is not God and man in two distinct natures and one person forever. And our honour to have all put under our feet is lost; and the crowning truth of the whole mystery is lost, which is, that God’s power and love is able from the dust of the ground to create a substance worthy of being incorporated with his own eternal essence; and that of the children of sin and frailty, his redeeming word and regenerating Spirit can make the kings and the priests of the universe. For I have no idea that after the purification and exaltation of this earth, those who passed through Christ’s trials and attained unto his glory, shall dwell above in isolated blessedness, or be seen from afar like a solitary star in the spangled heavens; but do conceive that we shall be as it were the heralds of faithfulness, carrying in our person both the lesson and the example wherever we go; ministering to all his creatures the profound mysteries of God’s love to his faithful children, judging angels, ruling principalities and powers, and having all things under our feet; partakers of the prophetic, priestly, and kingly throne of Christ. This I conceive to be the mystery of the God-man, which is not a phenomenon or appearance made to the earth only, but is a reality, a substantial union of the two natures which cannot be hidden, but must be known to all creatures in and under heaven. And if this be the orthodox doctrine of Christ’s humanity, who can doubt, that under Christ creatures of the same glorified humanity may be the stewards of that universal kingdom, and that the saints who are redeemed out of great tribulation, washed and made white in the blood of the Lamb, shall reign upon the earth, where Christ for ever reigneth, and from that as the court and centre of their government, exercise under their king universal government to the end of the world. This I believe to be the mystery of the kingly office: and I have still some remarks to make upon its connexion with and enlargement beyond the priestly, or rather how it exalts the priestly, for they can never be separated.

The prophetic office of Christ hath the same relation to the priestly, which the intellect of man hath to his conscience, and the priestly hath to the kingly the same respect which his conscience hath to his power. For as the intellect needeth to be enlightened with all variety of knowledge, and to be enlarged with all experience, in order that the conscience may come to its office of discerning the oneness of righteousness, and detecting the variety of wickedness; and as the conscience being fully and fairly satisfied, doth call upon all the members of the body and faculties of the mind, to be the executors of her verdict: which having obeyed and subjected the world of means within their reach to the rule of right, the part and function of a man is completed, and he hath attained the full compass of his present fallen condition, and might, according to the apostle James, claim the title of a perfect man: so the Son of man, in winning his way, from the humility of the lowest condition upon earth to the exaltation of the highest honour in heaven, doth pass through the same threefold order; first as a prophet, revealing in the law, and in the prophets, and in the gospel, all the treasures of wisdom and of knowledge, until he could say, It is finished, with that word sealing up the vision and the prophecy; then as a priest, promulgating the law of the Spirit of life to his church, and making her conscious thereof, hereafter to promulgate it to the world, and make it in like manner conscious, to cast out Satan and his angels from elemental nature, at which second epoch it also shall be said, It is done, Rev. xvi. 17: then finally, entering into the office of king, to constrain and oblige all powers, thus brought to a consciousness of the law of righteousness, to work together and carry it into effect, and so he ruleth the world in righteousness, and through this threefold gradation, and by the full execution of these three fold perfections, doth attain to the honour of the finished redemption, riseth into the full-orbed perfection of the Man-God, and bringeth the earth into the condition of heaven. And like as the intellect of man is as it were drawn up into the conscience, and in the righteousness thereof the light of the other is included, and as the righteousness of the conscience is drawn up into and embodied in the fulness of the active life: so the prophetic office of Christ being completed, is taken up into the holiness of the priestly office, and both again embodied in the rule and dominion of the regal office. Which was the order of man’s fall; first his faith in the word was lost, then the purity of his conscience was sullied, and finally the sovereignty of the world was lost; he listened to the tempter’s word, he felt the inward shame, and he lost the obedient region of his blessedness: so that is the order of man’s recovery; he is enlightened in all knowledge and understanding, he is sanctified by the casting out of Satan from his Spirit and from his flesh, and finally, he is installed in regal dignity upon earth, as it was in the beginning. And when will this completion be accomplished? Then when the kingdom is delivered up unto the Father: not at the beginning but at the ending of the millennium. This is the æra of the sinless purity and perfect integrity of mankind and their dwelling place.

At which many start back, and object against Christ and his raised glorified saints coming to reign upon the earth, where mortality and corruption still abide: and on that ground I hear it often objected, that “it is rather to degrade than to exalt our Lord, to suppose him reigning personally and visibly in such a world as this: if we could, with the Socinians, suppose him a mere man, we could conceive such a throne to do him honour; but the actual visible display of the glory and majesty of the glorified God-Man in a world still sinful, seems as repugnant to the nature of things as the admission of a sinful creature into heaven itself.” Objections like this I hear so continually made by those whom I love and esteem in the highest place, that I deem them worthy of very grave consideration.

This objection, which is I know a very popular one, hath its full and proper answer from reflecting a little more closely upon the incarnation of the man-God; who was from the day of his anointing with the Spirit of Holiness after the baptism at Bethabara, the very Prophet, Priest, and King of his church; though waiting for the proper season of their due manifestation. Because it is written in the Hebrews, as hath oft been said in this discourse, that he did not enter upon his priestly office till after his death and resurrection, and ascension into glory; we properly enough conclude that before that time he was manifested in no higher character than the prophet; and because he is to be a priest after the order of Meichesedek, we likewise conclude, that when he is manifested as a priest, he shall also be manifested as a king. But this way of speaking concerning the manifestation doth in no way alter the truth, that from his anointing by the dove, he was the Messiah complete, that is, Prophet, Priest, and King, united in one. According to the words of our catechism, ‘Christ exerciseth the offices of a Prophet, and a Priest, and a King, both in the estate of humiliation and exaltation.’ Those who think that the anointing at Bethabara installed him Prophet only, should remember that the prophetic office had no such ceremonial, at least that I can find; whereas the priest and king were always set apart by unction. And it is said that he was anointed with power from on high, and with the spirit of holiness, as well as with the spirit of preaching. And the passage of scripture with which he opened his ministry, as being declaratory of the fulness of that office to which the Spirit had set him apart, doth contain every office of a Prophet, a Priest, and a King. “To preach good tidings to the meek;” what good tidings is the gospel without the knowledge of his priestly sacrifice and priestly intercession? “To bind up the broken hearted,” in what way but by the balm of his sorrows and sufferings for our peace? “To proclaim liberty to the captive;” in what right but that of a victorious King? “And the opening of the prison-doors to them that are bound;” in what power but that of an Almighty Prince? &c. This whole passage, which I may call our Lord’s credentials, breathes the Priest and King in every word; insomuch that I am tempted to say, the prophetic office was only for the end of making known the rich consolation, and most dignified immunities which were to flow from his offices of Priest and King.

From the time of his baptism therefore, I regard Christ as the head of his church, having in his person all the dignity of Prophet, Priest, and King, and fulfilling the power of these offices in the various acts of his ministry, towards Satan and his angels, towards the men whom it pleased him to deliver from the power of sin, towards the great multitude whom it pleased him to deliver from disabilities and diseases, towards the enemies whom he would astound as at the purging of the temple, and towards the elements of nature over which he ruled at his will. And yet he consented to be humbled and afflicted, and in all ways circumvented, and to be taken, and to be maltreated, and to be put to death. This did the man-God consent to for the gracious end of the world’s redemption; because he had taken flesh and was found in human likeness. And having consented to the greater humiliation, who will say that he may not also consent to the lesser. For no one doubts that to rule as a King from the city of the New Jerusalem over a subject earth, is, however it be conceived, a less humiliation than to be treated and crucified as a malefactor by the earth combined against him.

But it is argued by the objectors, that after the ascension he was glorified into a much higher and more honourable condition, of which it would be as it were a great reduction, to come back to the earth again and rule over it. That Jesus is exalted to the right hand of God, both Lord and Christ, is every where declared in scripture, and may at no rate be doubted; and that this name is far above every name that is named in heaven or in earth, is equally certain; also that it implies in itself the headship and sovereignty of the worshipping creation; but that he hath already taken upon him the office and dignity of reigning over the invisible powers and principalities of heaven, I have the evidence to seek. That this shall yet be the consummation of the Son of man, I most truly believe; but that it is so now manifested I very much doubt. The resurrection declared him to be the Son of God with power; it proved him to be both Lord and Christ; but we do not yet see all things put under him; for he sitteth at the right hand of the Father till all his enemies be made his footstool. If by the power which he presently exerciseth, be meant merely the attendance and obedience and adoration of angels, he had that at his birth, and throughout all his life. If it be meant that he sustaineth all things by the word of his power; the same had he from eternity. But if, which alone is proper to this argument, it be meant that as the Son of man, he entered into any other reward than to be head of the present church, and to wait to be made the head of the heathen, and of the world, and of the blessed universe, I must regard it as an hypothesis till I can find it proved from scripture. I know it is loosely held amongst the people, and the ministers of the people, but this is not conclusive evidence to a Christian or a minister of Christ.

On the other hand, I find his coming again into the world always presented as the time of his reward, and of his power, and of his glory. His resurrection was the assurance of it, and therefore it is ever spoken of as certain; but a season of waiting is also ever spoken of. And what meaning were there in waiting, if the thing were in hand. The second advent, or the bringing again of the Only Begotten into the world, is the realization of that glory. It is yet future to him, though certainly his by the very seat of singular honour where he is seated, but not until the good time of his Father be accomplished. And then he shall be revealed with great glory; then all the angels of God shall worship him; and all kings upon the earth shall serve him. He shall come, not in suffering flesh, but in power and glory; not to suffer, but to rule; not alone, but with ten thousands of his saints; not in the manger of a stable, but in the city of the New Jerusalem. And who is he that will say that this is a degradation. He is now but the head of an humbled church, then he shall be the head of a glorified church. He is now seated in rest and in expectation, all his enemies trampling his inheritance under foot; then he shall be arisen out of his place, and entering into possession, and putting his enemies under his feet. Now his brethren according to the flesh, are scattered, and peeled, meted out, and trodden down, then they shall be gathered in great mercy, restored in great power, and possessed with an everlasting possession of the land promised to their Fathers. This, with much more that might be mentioned, surely constitutes a step of promotion and advancement.

But this is not all? Surely not. He that believeth doth not make haste. Everything in its own order. Christ the first fruits, then they that are Christ’s at his coming; then cometh the end. But they further object, how should the glorified God-man be present on the earth still under the dominion of death? I have answered this question already; and have hardly patience to answer it again. But yet there is another way of looking at it which may perhaps help some doubter out of this dungeon. I will propound a far harder question. How did the man-God condescend, after he was baptized from heaven and declared to be the Son of God, deign to be in a meaner condition than the foxes of the earth and the fowls of heaven? The answer they give to this question is, that he did thereby redeem men. This is true, but it is not the truth I seek; for by emptying himself and becoming a servant, and dying upon the cross, he redeemed men. But why, when he was baptized both King and Priest, did he humble himself while he was fulfilling his most wonderful ministry? The answer is, that he might show the way unto those who should be heirs of salvation, that is, to his elect church, who should in like manner be baptized kings and priests unto God, how they should follow his footsteps. He was our prototype. In his humiliation, we were humbled; and after a manner he is still humbled in our humiliation, by the Holy Spirit “who maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered.” This I conceive was the specific end of his ministry, from his baptism to the garden of Gethsemane.

Now when this dispensation of the elect church is consummated, when the number of the elect is completed, and the kingdom is to be ushered in; how, I ask, is the manner of the kingdom to be set forth? for there is nothing in our Lord’s life that will be the type or pattern of it. Now, Samuel wrote all the manner of the kingdom in a book; and the type of it was constituted in the kingdom of David and Solomon. But where is the antitype? Antitype there is none. For though Christ was king, he was so under the veil of his humility; and is the pattern to the present church, who is also king in the same sense. Here, then, is a type, but no antitype. Here is to be a kingdom, but no pattern of the kingdom. Those, indeed, who do not hold the elect church, get over this difficulty by adopting the Arminian idea of a religious world, which is Arminianism realized: but how do the orthodox believers in an elect and separate church get her out of the condition of a small and dispersed people, into the condition of an universal and exalted people; out of a church which was constituted for a little time, into the condition of an eternal kingdom? To my mind, it is utterly impossible to get over this difficulty in any other way than by the revelation and manifestation of our Priestly-King unveiled; as we had him heretofore manifested under the veil, in order that we might follow in the same twilight. But if the Sun is to arise upon us, then it must arise in his person: he must again set us the example, that we may follow his steps. And for this end he will come as a manifest King, in order to set up the kingdom, and constitute the third estate and highest dignity of man, which is power after a godly sort. He and his risen saints under him will govern the nations and tribes upon the earth; will administer the universal church, or kingdom. Now if there were no presence of evil, then there would be no government, nor wisdom in its administration: if there were no possibility of disobeying, there would be no skill in preserving obedience: if there were no growling adversaries, there would be no power displayed in restraining them. His enemies are under his feet, but not destroyed: he ruleth in the midst of his enemies, and by his might keepeth them under. He advanceth the meek, he establisheth the righteous, he glorifieth the humble, and maintaineth the peace of all. And yet this is not the end, or final condition of the kingdom; but that intermediate manifestation of Christ’s power over all his enemies, and the preparation for that eternal kingdom and government which the sons of men shall hold through all eternity over this universe of God. The church is now preparing to be the head of the kingdom; and the kingdom shall be prepared to be the head of the universe.

Now let me reason thus: had he passed at once into the heavens, without any previous signification of the manner of his fulfilling the priestly office unto his present church, we should have had no distinct understanding of our priestly office unto the world; it could only have been a spiritual revelation, without any outward form to refer it to, or at best only to the typical form in the law without any realization of the type. Now the typical can never pass at once into the spiritual, but must pass though the intermediate degree of the real: otherwise the spiritual being without an object, would become mystical. Therefore in order that those who were to be the subjects of the priestly dispensation might have an object with which to compare, and to which to conform themselves in their priest hood, Christ was a priest inaugurate from the time of his anointing to the time of his death; as I may say, serving his novitiate, in order to show us the example of that novitiate which we should have to serve ere our priestly office should be perfected. And so he forgave sins, and he cast out devils, and he cleansed the temple, and did other offices of the real priest, though he meddled not with any of the typical offices thereof; which would have been to confound the reality with the type. And yet though a Holy Priest, separate from sinners, and bearing about with him an uncontaminated body fit for heaven, he did not deem it unworthy of him to dwell amongst sinful men in the form of a servant. He was the God-Man, and yet was not ashamed to be scorned, and derided, and set at nought, and crucified. Because it was necessary thereby to condemn sin in the flesh, and to show by a manifest life that all its power and violence could be held at bay. He lived amongst his enemies and the enemies of all righteousness, and they had him under their feet from his birth until his death; though he could have commanded ten legions of angels by a single word. But he would not. It is against reason that such a holy thing should be upon the earth; it is still more against reason that he should be trodden down by the wicked things of the earth. And yet so it was, in order to set reason at nought, and demonstrate her inability to attain unto any part of the mystery of divine love.

Now I ask, if so the Scripture reveal it, what difficulty should there be in conceiving such another season between the completion of the priestly and the kingly office. Not that the priestly and kingly are ever separated; but between their manifestation, or before the manifestation of the perfect and complete mediatorial king. Why may not Christ from his new Jerusalem give laws unto the earth, and restrain the powers of iniquity from passing their prescribed bound. He hath since his resurrection administered the kingdom over our spirits. Why may he not at our resurrection administer it over our bodies also? If he could administer it over our spirits while our bodies were under the law of corruption, why may he not administer it over our spirit and body, while the earth and its inhabitants are under the law of corruption? If he could be present as a pure priest in humility, why may he not be present as a pure priest in glory? Everything in its order. He did not start from his birth to his cross, why from his cross to the goal of the redeemed world? There is a redeemed church and there is a redeemed world: and these ideas are at no rate to be intermingled. Or rather there are these three, a redeemed body, a redeemed Church, and a redeemed world. The redeemed body was accomplished at Christ’s resurrection, the redeemed Church shall be accomplished at the first resurrection, and the redeemed world at the general judgment. But if from the redeemed body of the Lord, the body of his Church hath derived such blessed sanctification as that it should be called a pure sacrifice though the heir of death why may not, why by analogy ought not, the earth that is to be redeemed, and all that inherit it, have a like season of restrained though unwilling sanctification, though itself the heir of death, and waiting for a further perfection, ere it be brought to its chrystalline purity and new Jerusalem blessedness. Such as the bodies of the saints, the members of Christ, are to the bodies of sinners, the members of Satan, is the earth that now is to the earth that shall be after the coming of the Lord; and as the body of the saints is not less a dwelling place of God by his Spirit though it be the heir of death, so why should we wonder that the earth then may become a dwelling-place of God by his glorified Son, though it is afterwards to be the heir of a judgment and purification analogous to death?

Nay, more, though it is very presumptuous to speculate upon these things by the way of natural reason, the only possible way being by analogy of God’s past dealings, yet because they drag down the question to this tribunal, I can see as grave reasons for Christ executing his royal function upon the earth during that millennial season of incomplete perfection, as for his executing his priesthood during that intermediate season before he was perfected as priest. In order that his church acting as kings and priests under him over the earth, and the sojourners upon the earth by them trained up to the same high preferment in the ages to come, both might be able, when the Lord shall require it of them, to fulfil those same offices over all the regions of the universe, which I conceive to be our high destination. Why may it not be that the Son may administer the kingdom of all the universe by that race of kings and priests whom he hath brought through the same tribulations through which he passed himself? It may be that he may appoint the whole multitude of the ransomed for a court and ministry to the whole creation, as he appointeth the present elect church for a court and ministry to the earth. And that they may sing with exultation during the millennial age, ‘And we shall reign with thee over the universe,’ as now the church in heaven singeth perpetually, ‘And we shall reign with thee upon the earth.’ It may be that as Christ hath grown up through suffering and strong crying, and contention with sin, into the high office of mediator to this earth; we may be growing up through the same discipline into the high office of mediators between him and the other races of his creatures; to become the ambassadors of his kingdom, the counsellors of his mind, the doers of his will. And that this earth having passed through the same tribulation, may become the centre of material perfection, the place of the manifestation of the glory of God. These it may be said are but conjectures; I propound them as no more: and do only set them forth as counter-conjectures of reason to that conjecture which I am exposing, that it is unworthy of Christ to make his habitation upon the earth. But they are not mere conjectures; they are hints of high discourse, and germs of infinite thought, all flowing from the fountain of that one great feat, the eternal union of the nature of man with the nature of God. To have conjectured this would have been the most daring of all conjectures; but the Lord hath made it no conjecture, but a stupendous fact; I cannot think that it is an unproductive fact, or that time will tell the end of its fruit-bearing. I believe that it may produce wonders connected with human nature far beyond what I have expressed, and far beyond what I dare to express. Nathanael is not the only one who shall yet see greater things than these. If angels be my ministers in this my humiliation, what in my exaltation may not I hope to become. The Lord knows I am not ambitious of these dignities, and that I write not these things in any ambitious mood. But to justify his power and his grace, which hath already made me, a worm, to become a spiritual member of his eternal Son.

But to restrain ourselves within more narrow limits of thought, and to return to closer quarters with those who oppose the idea of Christ’s reign, on the principle of its degrading him: I beg them to consider that Christ doth not consult his own dignity, else would he never have joined himself to the woman’s seed, but remained enthroned in the glory which he had with the Father before the world was. It was his Father’s glory that he sought, knowing well that in advancing the same, he was advancing his own dignity. And how is that glory advanced? Not in destruction; else the second death had swept all things into its fiery lake the moment that Adam fell. No, but in redemption; in the vanquishing of the victor, and the expulsion of the usurper, in the glory of mercy and love, over sin, and sorrow, and death. This brought Christ from the eternal throne of his divinity, to the lowest condition of a man. Oh! how can any one bear such a thought, as that the eternal Son of God, and creator of the universe should become a man. Degrading thought! Such loss of dignity! Such dishonour to God! It cannot be. It must be a fiction of the schools. So naturally doth this reasoning concerning dignity bring us to Socinianism, from which it affecteth to lift us. But, and if he came to the lowest and stood there in order to redeem his church, why may he not come to a much higher and stand there to redeem the world? For I conceive Christ’s personal presence with his saints in the New Jerusalem to be no vain parade of glory, no effulgence of idle beams, but an active, wise, and necessary ministry for the redemption and blessedness of the world that then shall be; just as Christ’s incarnation and presence in the Spirit, is no idle waste of suffering or display of voluntary humility, but an active, wise and necessary ministry for the redemption of the church. And what if the former most wise dispensation which is performed in God’s eternal counsels for the millennium should end in an insurrection of the long blessed inhabitants of the earth, requiring the loosing of Satan, and that last infliction of wrath which brings on the consummation, is there any thing more wonderful therein, than that this present dispensation of the incarnate God and the out-poured Spirit is to end, and is now ending in a desertion, in an apostacy, in an almost total absence of faith and eclipse of light. Is the one more dishonourable to the power of Christ’s presence by his Spirit, than the other is dishonourable to the power of Christ’s presence in his glorious person? Dishonourable! what do they idly talk about? Is the revealing of sin in all its forms, is the defeating of it in all its attempts, is the stemming of it in all its spring tides, is this dishonourable to the Son of God? Thou fool, for this very end was he manifested to destroy the works of the devil. And wouldest thou have this done all at one stroke, or at two, or at three; or what if God without asking thee, should do it by four, or even five? That was one doubtless, when Satan first conceived sin in heaven. That was another blow when Christ ascended to heaven, for he was limited then. There will be another when Christ shall come to the earth, for he will be limited still more then. Heaven rejoiced formerly; now the earth will rejoice. But he is not yet cast into the lake of the second death. There abideth another therefore at the last judgment. And I hear of none besides. Hast thou any objections, brother, that it should be so? I have none. And who dareth to object, for who hath been his counsellor, or who hath instructed him?

But then they reply, How shall I conceive it, or how is it possible to be conceived, that the eternal Son of God should reign on earth in human form; as a man, limited in the space and region of his presence? and what becometh of the infinite spaces and innumerable worlds, around us? and of the heavens, and of the heaven of heavens, when this poor world, certainly but a speck in God’s creation, hath, and holdeth him altogether to herself? Oh! it is a foolish exaggeration of the importance of this earth: a speculation suited to the middle ages of religious darkness; and not to these times, when we have become enlightened with larger and more philosophical views of the universe. Nay, it is enough for us to have had the Son of God upon our earth for a few years: to talk of having him for ever, is extravagant and ridiculous, and not in any way to be borne.

I shall suppose myself and the objector to have lived before the time of the first advent, and that from the ancient scriptures I had derived the doctrine that God himself was to come and dwell with us; that he was to be born of a woman; that he was to exist in human form; that he was to be scoffed and derided by men; to be crucified and put to death after a few years abode upon the earth: and that I did promulgate this doctrine to my friend, into whose mouth I have put the strain of objection mentioned above. What could he do, consistently with himself, but object to this, as ten times worse. First, he repeats his objection, word by word, —‘How is it possible to be conceived that the eternal Son of God should reign on earth in human form? as a man, limited in the space and region of his presence? and what becometh, &c. —and then he adds, But, that he should be conceived in a woman’s womb, and be a child, and an oppressed man, and be put to death too; it is too monstrous to be imagined. Hold not that language to a philosopher: go tell the tale to the credulous vulgar.’ And this is exactly the way in which the Socinians have argued with respect to the incarnation, and exploded it from their creed. But how any orthodox Christian, believing in the incarnation of the Son of God for a few years in humility, should be unable to believe in the incarnation of the Son of God in glory forever, is what I cannot understand. Let us examine this point a little more narrowly.

And first, What is meant by the incarnation? By the incarnation, we mean that the Son of God took up into himself the nature of man, and joined it in a consubstantial union with his person: so that these two natures do and shall for ever co-exist together in him. And while the divinity dwelt in the son of Mary, was it absent from all other parts? No, surely. It is of the very essence of the divinity to be everywhere present, and altogether present in every place. By his divinity, therefore, he was everywhere present throughout all worlds, sustaining and governing them; while, by his humanity, he was present in one place, and in one only. His incarnation, then, doth not hinder him from the presence of heaven; for he himself declareth that he was in heaven, while he abode on earth. As the Son of man, he had beginning of days; but, as the Son of God, neither beginning of days, nor end of years. As the Son of man, he hath degrees of advancement in honour and glory; as the Son of God; he is the same yesterday, today, and forever. Now, we do all thus believe the incarnation; we repose all upon it; we view it as the great substantiating fact, not only of our peace with God, but of the very trinity itself. For the trinity to us had been only a Platonic speculation of the schools, but for the incarnation; which, showing us the Son, reflected to us the Father, from the secret hidden depths of his being; and brought in the necessity of the Holy Spirit, as the great personal communication between them both; in the circle of which all things are derived from and return unto the Godhead.

Thus believing concerning the incarnation of the Son of God, let us proceed a step, and ask, Where is the humanity of Christ existing at this time? Do you say it is existing everywhere? Then I conceive it is humanity no longer; for true humanity is necessarily restricted and limited to place. Besides, if it be existing everywhere, why may, why ought not the bread existing in the eucharist to be considered as his real body? For he absolutely saith, This is my body. I know of no satisfactory reply to the sophistry of Dr. Milner and the other papal casuits of these and other times, but by simply making answer, That Christ’s body is in one place, and can not be in two places at the same time, without destroying altogether the idea of his humanity, and so abolishing his incarnation wholly, which is the very effect of that accursed mass. He is not very man, if his manhood can be in many places at the same time; and he is not very God, if his God-head can be confined to any place at any time.

Where, I ask then again, is Christ’s body? Not in earth; not in the tomb; not in the place of the dead; not in every place, but in some one place. And where is that place? At the right hand of God. And where is that? I know not; but it is somewhere: the very existence of a body giving existence to the idea of a place. This humanity of Christ is, I fear, entirely lost sight of amongst us; and the comfort of it is lost. His intercession for his church, in human form and human sympathy; his longing to deliver his church, their bodies from the grave, their spirits from the place of spirits; his coming to the earth in great power and glory; are, I fear, all, or almost all, lost sight of: and instead, we have a theological creation, an abstract conception of atonement, redemption, and judgment, presented to us instead of the reality of a Redeemer living in human form, and about to be glorified in human form. But once receive to the mind that the humanity of the Lord is somewhere, and the difficulty will vanish of its being about to be revealed again and to remain on this earth for ever. For that place where it now abideth it doth as much honour, above all other places, as it will honour this earth above all when it cometh to abide here. And surely no other quarter of the dominions of God can suffer any deprivation, the which they suffered not during the incarnation, and which they have not suffered since. But what do I speak of deprivation? Is it deprivation to the old, for God to create something new? Is it deprivation to the former age, that in this latter age he hath become incarnate? How were the heavens before he was incarnate? Enjoy they not the same condition since he became incarnate, with whatever accession is thereby brought to them by the knowledge of the grace of God? The root of all this objection is either a fallacy or a heresy. It is either the fallacy, that the humanity doth coop the divinity up within the range of its view and influence: or it is the heresy, that the humanity and the divinity were united but for a time, and not as saith the catechism “in two distinct natures and one person for ever.” Whoso believeth the incarnation to have been some eighteen hundred years ago, believeth it to be forever: the only question is, whether it shall be manifested in this earth forever, or somewhere else. The conception is equally difficult wherever it is manifested; most difficult that it should have been manifested at all. For if it was once manifested a child in a manger, surely it may be again manifested a king upon a throne: if it was once manifested a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief, surely it may be again manifested as the only Potentate, the King of kings and Lord of lords: if once manifested to die, surely it may be again manifested never to die, &c. &c. through all the diversities of the former and of the latter advent, which I need not detail. But surely it is the most preposterous thing that was ever heard of, to believe the former, and to say I cannot find in my reason to believe the latter. Why in believing the former, thou fool, thou dost believe the latter, and much more. The substance of them both is the same; they only differ in their circumstances; the circumstances of the former are most unlike to God, the circumstances of the latter most like to God.

Now I may be bold and ask, Seeing that by his humanity he must necessarily have a local inheritance and abode, what place so well entitled to it as this earth, which he came on express purpose to redeem? Is not the earth made for man, and man made for the earth? Was not man’s body made of the earth’s mould? And, I may say, was not Christ’s humanity derived from the dust of the ground? Was it not taken from Mary’s substance, and was Mary of other materials than all womankind? What then is the inference, but that the silent and inorganic earth hath a part in Christ’s humanity, which is forever joined to his divinity? It is a strange thought, but it is a true one, that the very earth is linked unto the immortal and eternal chain of being. It hath a representative in the court. It hath the royal pledge of heaven that it shall never perish; that into what dignity humanity is advanced above all intelligence, into that dignity will the material earth be advanced above all compositions of matter. Oh! it is a glorious mystery this of the incarnation. I cannot fathom it; but I see in it such glorious things yet to be developed in God’s good time. In that wonderful act of Emmanuel’s conception I see the supremacy of man’s nature over all natures, and the metropolitan dignity of the earth over all places. And I wonder not that the mystic Fathers, meditating too intensely upon the one act of the Virgin’s conception, should have lost themselves in all manner of dreams and visions concerning her immaculate conception, her divine worship, her not seeing corruption, and all the other inventions of Parthenology. Let me not lose myself in any of these pits of error, while I seek to draw out the wonderful consequences of the mystery, “A virgin shall conceive and bring forth a son, and call his name Emmanuel, that is, God with us.”

Beyond this period of the kingdom, concerning which we have discoursed, there is another condition of things at which we have sometimes hinted that, viz, beyond the destruction of death, when the kingdom shall be given up, and the Son himself also shall be subject unto him that hath put all things under him. Here opens a great mystery into which I desire to look, if at any time it might please the Lord to reveal it to my faith and prayers by his Holy Spirit. The mystery consisteth in the subjection of the Son after he hath finished the work of the mediatorial kingdom, and presented it worthy of God’s acceptation. What this subjection may mean is, I say, to me a very great mystery, into which I long and pray hard to be introduced. I have sometimes thought of it thus: That since the resurrection, the Son of God, as man, hath been invested with a supereminent power over the apostate world, and the apostate angels, because of his exceeding great travail of humility on the earth, in the grave, and in hell: of which accession of power beyond what he possessed as the eternal Word, he giveth the notification to his apostles in these words, “All power is given to me in heaven and in earth,” of which also God giveth the notification in the second Psalm, and several other places, under the form of a decree which he had ratified in his counsels from of old. Let no man start when I say an accession of power to that which he possessed as the eternal Word, as if I meant that his power as the eternal Word was not equal to the Father’s: for I do but mean that the Godhead had given up this earth into the operation of the curse, and considered it virtually to be in a state of death, under the dominion of Satan and his angels. By the law of God it was so appointed unto miserable death; and could not be said to enjoy the blessedness of divine rule. For being broken off from the divine will, it was under the dominion of a lie: lost and forlorn, resigned and given over. To redeem and recover and restore was the undertaking of the Son, who set every thing, his very divinity, (if I may so speak,) to risk and peril: and when this risk and peril had been undergone, the price and ransom of his blood paid, it was both righteous and reasonable that the remainder of the work, the reaping of the triumph, the driving out of the conquered enemy, and the pacification of the province should proceed in his hands and by his power. So that in the same sense in which the chief part of our redemption was wrought out by Christ; I say that the chief part of our restoration is conducted by him and in this sense it is that I represent him as having received an accession to that power which was his own from all eternity, as the coeternal Word, but which one may say had been usurped by Satan, and in a manner, if I may so speak, taken from the Godhead. Which did all no doubt proceed by divine permission, yet being so permitted to proceed doth certainly draw to the Son an increase of power and glory which ariseth from redemption. Now when he hath completed the work, and wholly purified the kingdom, he taketh and presenteth it to God even the Father, who can now receive it under his all-pure and perfect government. And from this time forth I can perceive that the increment of power which Christ held in virtue of his great emprize, there is no call why he should hold any longer: and it is here expressly said that he is to give it up. This is the only subjection of which I can form an idea; namely, the resignation of that super eminent and more than equal power which he now holdeth as the mediatorial king of the earth. For as in his humiliation he acknowledged himself the inferior though one with the Father; so in his exaltation I may pronounce him the superior though still one; understanding both the inferiority and the superiority with relation to this earth merely, of which he is the prophet, priest, and king. To give up this superinduced power, and return into the condition of his primeval equality, into the condition of the Son begotten from all eternity; this is what I understand St. Paul to mean when he saith, “then shall the Son also be subject unto Him, that put all things under Him, that God may be all in all;” that is, the earth shall no longer be under mediatorial regiment, but under the same direct regiment of God in which the unfallen worlds are. And God, not God and a Mediator, but God in his personalities and offices, shall be all in all.

But I confess that the difficulty is not wholly removed; and I question whether the question is at all resolved, by what hath been said; for what becometh of the human nature which is united to the divine nature of the Son for ever, “in two distinct natures and one person for ever?” For the Man-God, that is, the Son of man, declared to be the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead, must ever be an outward visible manifestation of the Son’s essential glory. And what shall be His condition when the kingdom is given up? If we suppose the manhood of Christ capable of the like omnipresence with his Godhead; that is everywhere present, and wholly present in every place; then why not present in the bread and wine of the Eucharist? and what meaning in his now sitting at the right hand of God? what meaning in his absence at present? what meaning in his coming the second time to set up his kingdom for ever upon the earth? All idea of place is lost in that which is omnipresent, and all idea of succession in that which is unchangeable. Besides what beginning could that humanity have, or what limitation of place from its beginning, or what limitation now? In his divine nature Christ is everywhere, and wholly in every place. So was he while on earth. He was present in all his power in the Son of the Virgin, and yet he was in heaven. He was present in all his power in his holy human soul which descended into hell; and even then he was in heaven, and on earth also in his divine omnipresence. And when he shall return again with the same body with which he ascended, and in the same manner as he ascended, he shall not the less cease to be in heaven, beholding the face of his Father, and for ever more beheld of him: upholding and governing all the things which he hath created and made. Now, as I have said above, it is the divinity in the man, it is the indwelling power of the Son of God in the Son of man, unto whom is committed the power and the glory and the kingdom of this earth for ever and ever. It is in virtue of his having taken up manhood into himself that the whole work proceedeth; and in virtue of the same that it will make progress to its end and perfection. And being perfected and completed, what becometh of the humanity, of Christ? How standeth it in relation to the Godhead and to the redeemed world?

In relation to the Godhead, Paul informeth us that the Son also shall be subject unto Him, that put all things under him; by which I understand that the Man-God who sitteth on the throne of David, and for ever reigneth over a pure and spotless earth, shall look up to God even the Father, in whose bosom, as the word, he doth for ever dwell. That in that outward manifestation in humanity which he shall evermore retain, he shall acknowledge that more ancient, that everlasting affiliation to the Godhead, in virtue of which his presence in the manhood shall be acknowledged of God, and be made resplendent with divine honour and glory. He shall say as he did in the days of his flesh, “I and my Father are one;” and again, “my Father is greater than I;” and again he shall say, “and no man hath ascended up into heaven but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man, which is in heaven.” In the same sense in which he acknowledged subjection while in his humility, he will acknowledge it when he hath put all enemies under his feet, and reigneth over a world at rest and in blessedness. Meanwhile since his resurrection, and until that time, he is clothed with a super eminent power, with a regal prerogative, the highest of all, without challenge, and I may say without dependance. For if the Father forsook him to leave him when in the extremity of his distress, it may well please the Father to make all the fulness of the Godhead to dwell in him bodily; and leave the government entirely on his shoulder. And such an independent sceptre I believe to be provided for him; such an independent sceptre will he begin to wield, when the time of his waiting is accomplished; and with such an independent sceptre shall he judge and destroy all the enemies of the Lord, and chase them from without the active creation to the region of passive suffering. Which being accomplished, he shall give up that sceptre of the complete Godhead, which God hath placed in his hands, and become as the God-man, the same obedient Son which heretofore he was in the days of his flesh as the Man-God. But into this subject of the regal office of Christ I forbear entering further at present.

CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY

OF THE WORK OF CHRIST, AS HELD FORTH IN THIS TREATISE AND ITS PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE.

OH how much more remaineth to be said upon the other three heads of this apology; viz, the Holy Spirit, the Church, and the personal well-being of every member of Christ; which I may say hereafter, if the Lord grant me time and permission; but for the present, that I may rightly improve, and practically conclude this preliminary discourse, by subjoining a meditation upon this whole subject, with which the Lord did comfort my solitary and sorrowful hours, when that sweet child, who was dear in life and dear also in death, lay near me in shrouded beauty, the daintiest morsel that death did ever feed on. That was the blessed æra when, to me, the light of this blessed morning star brake through the clouds in which the church is presently shrouded up. I prayed God to avenge me of death. I have sought diligently ever since to fight against Satan, the Prince of darkness. The Lord hath given me no mean success, blessed be his name. And while I live I will fight against death that so bereft me. And I will conquer him when we come to mortal battle; and I will reign with him under my feet; because I have made the Lord my refuge, and the Holy One my habitation. This meditation containeth the great work of our Prophet, Priest, and King, in redeeming us from the curse of death; and being written in a practical form, becomes an appropriate conclusion to this Preliminary Discourse; and by being more widely circulated may accomplish more effectually the end I had in view, of contending with weapons of heavenly warfare, against the king of terrors; and it may serve as an example how these views of Christ’s kingdom may be applied to the ends of practical discoursing. The subject of the meditation is, the great achievements of Christ, who “by death destroyed him that hath the power of death, which is the devil, and delivered them who through fear of death, were all their life time subject to bondage.”

Death, with all the terrors of which he is the king, is only the outward form and manifestation to the eye of man, of an evil yet more terrible in the sight of God, which is sin, at whose entering into the creation of God, the whole creation groaned; under whose oppression it groaneth still, and shall continue to groan until the day when the sons of God shall be revealed; when sin shall be cast out of the new Jerusalem and city of our God, and death swallowed up in victory. And of sin the strength is not in itself; but as death deriveth his oppression from sin, so sin hath her strength from the law of God; which is inflexible and unchangeable, and before whose least jot and tittle heaven and earth pay their reverent homage, saying, We shall change as a vesture and shall be changed, we shall remove, and as a scroll shall pass away, but thou, O righteous law of God’s unchangeableness, shall not pass away, but be wholly fulfilled. Sin is terrible only because God is terrible in his righteousness, and death is destructive, because the hand of the Lord is stretched out against iniquity, and the grave is consumptive of beauty and life, because our God is a consuming fire.

But still more deeply to enter into this mystery of sin and death, Satan, one of the princes and lights of heaven, whom God had created to administer and watch over his kingdom, hath fallen from his high estate, and with his angels is reserved in chains of darkness until the judgment of the great day: whence it is written in the Psalms, concerning evil magistrates and delegates of God upon the earth, “I have said that ye are gods, and all of you are children of the Most High, but ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the princes.” For the angels and archangels and principal sons of God’s glorious strength are not infallible, but stand in the faithfulness of their ministry; “are they not all ministering spirits sent forth to minister to them who shall be heirs of salvation?” Whereupon Satan having conceived sin in his high estate, the law of God which is holy, and just, and good stood up against him; that law which heretofore supported his eminent spirit as the heavens, and earth, and all creation are supported, stood up against him, even the Word of God who divulgeth the law of the Father’s unsearchable will stood up against Satan, to cut him off and destroy him for ever. And as God accomplisheth all things in wisdom, and revealeth his doings unto his holy ones, that they may be blessed in the knowledge of him, and he honoured in their praise which he dearly loveth, it came to pass that the Lord did not at once cut off and destroy the rebellious prince, but resolved to make a show of him openly, and in his fall to demonstrate before all the sons of light, the terror and horror of sin, that there might come out of his instability stability, out of his sin righteousness, out of his rebellion, more constant allegiance in all the myriads of intelligent and heavenly beings.

Therefore he did not annihilate Satan with a blow of the thunderbolt, or with a word of his mouth destroy him utterly, which had been an exercise of power, but no standing monument of power, nor visible demonstration of wisdom for ever, nor manifestation of the complete and perfect Godhead. On which account Satan, abiding in a certain reach and prerogative of power, prevailed against the Father of men, and by his subtlety transplanted sin into the innocent and blessed earth. Whereupon the law stood up against man also, and the Lord might have smitten Adam and all that were in Adam’s loins to destruction at once; but that this annihilation is not the method of God’s, but of Satan’s working, —an idea found not in the Scripture, but in the speculations of human reasoners, so that I often question with myself whether it be an idea proper to a spirit whose essence I take to be immortality or the incapacity of being annihilated. The Lord’s way, which is more glorious and beautiful, was to follow the footsteps of the destroyer into the earth dismantled of its beauty, and into the souls of men stripped of their holiness, wherein standeth the image of God, and in his wisdom to reveal by the history of the human race, as upon a theatre in the sight of all the universe, such a wonderful manifestation of his hidden love, as should by many cords bind the universe more closely in its allegiance, and make more manifest demonstration of Satan’s ineffectual strength. For this end the Son himself came forth from the bosom of the Father, to reveal the Father’s unsearchable love to the sinner, while he revealed at the same time, the Father’s immeasurable hatred against sin; who, being long promised, prophesied of, and expected, did come at length in the likeness of sinful flesh, and in a servant’s humblest form; whom Satan strove with all his might to overthrow, but prevailed not, though he brought his body to the dust of the earth, and his soul to the nethermost hell of sorrow, whence he arose in the greatness of his strength, to become the Father of a new race, begotten in death, and brought forth in the tomb: being exalted as a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and remission of sins unto all who believe.

Thus hath Satan, one of the princes who fell, and, falling, drew after him many angels and the sons of men, been made the cause of the revelation of the love of the Father, of the redemption of the Son, and the sanctification of the blessed Spirit, who could not have been known in their mercy and in their grace, otherwise than in the recovery of those who had yielded to temptation. Now, if ye will consider, what a glorious company of the heavenly host are looking with earnestness into the face of God’s being, and into the history of his counsel, as they are revealed at sundry times and in divers manners, in his glorious works and wonderful acts, ye may imagine and somewhat conceive what an increased ravishment of blessedness, and devotion of strength, and energy of praise, hath been made to arise through all the host of created spirits, by this mighty act of the redemption of a fallen world. And moreover I may add this mystery, that Satan was a grief even to the heavenly host in their holy habitations, a continual trouble to the sons of God, with whom he was wont to present himself as the accuser of the brethren, and when at Christ’s resurrection he was cast out of heaven, and fell like lightning to the earth, they sang aloud, “Rejoice ye heavens and ye that dwell in them:” but “woe to the inhabitants of the earth and of the sea, for the devil is come down unto you having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short time.” So that Christ’s incarnation, which was but as it were the seed of blessings to the earth, was the consummation of blessing to the heavens, out of which Satan is now cast to roam at large for a short time over the principality of the air, and the princedom of the world, thereafter to be chained in the bottomless pit a thousand years, and finally cast into the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone, to be tormented in it for ever and ever.

Mark ye it well, ye sons of the earth, that the whole intensity of his cunning artifice, and the whole cruelty of his murderous passion is at present, till Christ’s second coming, concentrated to destroy us; while the whole intensity of divine love, and the whole vitality of the Prince of life is concentrated to save us. And know ye it well that he hath the first of the field, and all advantages against us, because sinful flesh is on his side, and the world is also on his side, and the unchangeable law of God is on his side, and he can stand up before God, and say, They are mine, for they have broken thy law; and he can say, They must die, because they have sinned; death must feed on them, and the grave must hold them, because they are cursed. For thus in ancient times stood he up before God against patient Job, and consumed him like the moth, and thus he standeth up against us all, and bringeth upon us those billows of affliction and overwhelming waves of sorrow, which would drown our souls in perdition, were there not a rock to flee unto which is higher than we. And you might as well think to change laws and times, and to reverse the stable ordinances of God, as think in your own strength to withstand his assaults, or redeem your souls from his dominion; because it is the dominion of sin, whose strength is the law, whose constancy is the unchangeable God, who hath said, The man that sinneth, he must die. Can you say unto disease, depart? Can you say unto pain, gnaw my vitals no more? or to sorrow, poison my peace no longer, and no longer consume my verdure? Can you say unto the clay-cold lips, breathe upon me once more? or to the death bound tongue, speak to me again, that my soul may be comforted, and my hopes revived? or can you say to the grave, give me back my dead, thou devouring grave? or to corruption, feed not on my darling? Canst thou, Oh man! abrogate or reverse any one of these bitter stings which trouble thy soul’s good condition from the cradle to the grave? Why then thinkest thou to be able to redeem thy soul from sin, or to deliver thy life from the mouth of the lions, or to wrestle with death, or to bereave the grave, or to navigate the gulf beyond, or to meet the issues of judgment, which are more terrible than death; being to all the faculties what death is to all the powers of the body, with this difference, that it is not clay to be resolved unto earth, and lie insensible matter till the resurrection, but that it is quick and sentient spirit, able to be blessed only in the righteousness of God, and capable of being only cursed while it lieth at the mercy of Satan, and cleaveth unto sin?

Thus may ye understand the iron oppression and deadly load which lieth upon the estate of man, and crusheth him to the earth with a perpetual death; for we endure in our natural estate a death continual of the spirit, and are defeated evermore of the pure fountain of life, which never reacheth our parched lips in the wilderness of our sinful and unregenerate state; and our beauty is no adorning, save for death to make a banquet of, and our flesh is a morsel to the jaws of corruption. We are by nature the devil’s thralls, the mockery of various evil angels, their tools for all uncleanness and filthiness of the flesh, their ready servants for pride, malice, and revenge, breeding up in our bodies to be the espoused ones of corruption, and in our souls to be the espoused ones of spirits reprobate; fattening for nourishment to the ground we tread on, and thereafter for fuel to the lake that burneth. Such is man by nature, and such is the miserable condition of universal nature.

And who can turn this mighty tide that is against, us, or bale out these overwhelming waters? Sooner might you think to say unto the ocean, Forsake all thy channels, and return back again, ye restless waters, into the great deep from which the Spirit of the Lord did call ye at the first. O man, O my brother man, be not deceived by the artifices of that arch-deceiver, that liar from the beginning, and let not the stealth of the arch-murderer who delights to mangle innocency, and to whose cruelty Herod’s in Bethlehem was but as earth to hell, please thy soul with the fancy, with the fond fancy, that thou canst prevail in thyself to undo the undoing with which he hath undone us, and to reverse the sentence of the Omnipotent, in which Satan is strengthened as is a rock of adamant, by that law of laws, the key-stone of the happy universe, “THE SOUL THAT SINNETH IT SHALL DIE.” Hear ye, and understand what ye bear. Shall the light flow out of its chambers, because he said, Let there be light; and shall darkness mantle the night when the light is gone? Shall the sun rule the day and the moon the night forever? And shall the lowliest plant which looks upon the sun concoct its seed within itself, and continue its being for ever. And shall the rainbow hang out its covenant of mercy in the watery clouds, and protect the earth from a deluge forever? Shall the ordinances of summer and winter, spring-time and harvest, continue for ever; and all the ordinances of God, recorded in his word, for ever endure, because he said, Be it so? And ye foolish, ye sottish, ye possessed of Satan, shall not the ordinances of the spiritual world, for which the visible world was ordained, only as the body is for the soul, or the husk for the precious seed, not be more steadfast and enduring; and above all that ordinance of ordinances, that law of laws, which saith, “the soul that sinneth, it shall die?” “And is God a man, that he should lie, or the Son of man that he should repent? And shall he be holy no longer? Shall Christ embrace Behial? Shall God enter into unity with mammon? Shall Satan the fallen prince gain his purpose, and achieve the throne of the Eternal? And heaven and hell be mingled together, and chaos return again, and there be no God, nor Spirit, but warfare and confusion, inexplicable disorder, and wild uproar, most wasteful ruin, and infinite desolation?

What say you? Can you dare to think it will be so, or that it is so? or is any of you so wicked as to wish it so to be? And O, ye sufferers, will you not look around ye into the visible creation, and behold how the outward curse hath fastened on and fasteneth everywhere? Is not the earth cursed for your sake? Are not briers and thorns its natural productions? Is it otherwise cultivated than by the sweat of your brow? Withdraw your hand from the most fertile, sweet, and blooming spot of the earth, which smileth by the force of sweating toil like the garden of Eden, and whither in a few years would it run? To thistles, and briers, and thorns, and unpruned trees, and wild forests haunted by savage beasts and savage men. And thou, woman, who wast also cursed, doth it not strike to thee and cleave to thee as the flesh unto thy bones? Canst thou achieve thine emancipation from the man, that thy desire shouldst not be to thy husband, unworthy, most worthless though he be? Canst thou conceive children without pain, or bring forth children without pangs? Or, can ye parents, make a covenant with death, that he should spare your children, or with the grave, that he should not consume them? Or, sinful man, canst thou strike a covenant with life, that it should not be with pain, and sorrow, and trouble; or with sin, that it should not be masterful and oppressive; or with conscience, that it should not bite and sting; or with memory, that it should not fester; or with the tongue that it should not be false; or with the eye that it should not be covetous; or with the flesh that it should not be lustful and voluptuous; or with life, that it should not be full of pride; or with any thing beneath the sun, that it should not be full of vanity and vexation of spirit?

I would persuade and convince my beloved brethren, fellow-heirs of suffering, if the Lord have ordained you unto eternal life, that in yourselves, and of yourselves, you are by no means able to take the sting out of death, or to wrest the victory from the grave, who are chartered in their rights by the unalterable law of the Eternal, which is more steadfast than heaven and earth. For it is, because ye are deceived and deluded by manifold temptations of Satan, either not believing at all, or trusting in some false refuge, that ye do not flee to the hope set before you, nor expect salvation to come out of Zion, nor wait for it as for the morning light, nor desire it with more longing than they that watch for the light of the morning. I say to every one who hath not laid hold of the salvation of Christ, being drawn by the will of the father, and empowered of the Holy Ghost, that he is underlaying a fatal delusion of Satan, who hath seared his conscience and blinded his eyes, lest he should see the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ. I tell ye of a truth, that every chamber of nature hath become a spiritual prison full of darkness and evil, and that there is not a spot to flee to, within the coasts of human knowledge or imagination, whereon your spirit can breathe the liberty of God, or be delivered from the thraldom of Satan. Power Almighty is against us, and Power Almighty can alone save us. The law of God is the strength of sin, and sin is the sting of death, and the victory of death is the grave; and Satan being the first conceiver of sin, hath the miserable pre-eminence, and hath strength to keep, and cunning to entertain with all deception, his miserable victims, whom he draggeth with him in fell despite down to that lake, whereto he is himself descending by degrees more and more doleful, the spectacle of God’s triumph over sin, the lesson to all his creatures to stand steadfast in their allegiance.

He that created can alone recover; he that formed the spirit of man can alone redeem it. There must be Power Almighty to recover that which by Power Almighty is held in its lost estate; and here beginneth the most wonderful revelation of the love of the Father, and the love of the Son, and the love of the Holy Spirit, through whose Almighty operation the recovery of our condition is accomplished. For it is a misapprehension to think that all the Persons of the blessed Trinity are not concerned, according to their offices, in this divine work. The Son would not have been permitted to come forth, had the Father not been willing; because from the Father he proceedeth, and without the commission of the Father worketh nothing. And therefore the procession of the Son from the bosom of the Father to redeem, was an act of the Father’s unspeakable love. Whence it is written, “God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son.” And again, “Greater love hath no man, than that a man should lay down his life for his friend; but herein is the love of God manifested, that while we were yet sinners Christ died for as.” But, Oh! to measure that love which yielded up the Son to such loss of place and endurance of grief, who shall undertake, who knoweth it, and who can know it, but the Eternal, and who contain the knowledge of it, but the eternal fountain of love, from which all that is lovely and blessed hath proceeded? To set it forth by earthly similitude is a vain attempt, even to an apostle who had been translated into the third heaven, and seen and heard things which were unutterable, who crieth out, O the height and the depth, and the length and the breadth, of the love of God in Christ Jesus, it passeth knowledge. And Christ is not able by words to render it, or by language of prayer to comprehend it, but only to say, With that love with which thou lovedst me before the world was.

But if the love of the Father be transcendent in permitting his Son to come forth to save the fallen sons of men, then is the love of the Son not less transcendent in coming to save us. For he was not a creature that he should obey. He was not of finite power that he should be constrained to obey. He was not a sinner that the law of the Eternal should bow him from his high estate. Wherein lieth the mystery of the Son’s personality, that had be not been distinct in personality the manifestation could not have been made. For it would have been God reversing by one act, or series of acts, that which by another act, or series of acts, he had brought to pass. And redemption would have been no longer a mystery, into which the angels desire to look, and from the opening of which all the angels and saints shall be ever blessed, and Satan and his angels be for ever cursed; but it would have been a contradiction, an inconsistency, a doing and undoing, or at best a circle returning into itself, and compassing no good with its void circumference. But because he was God, and full of liberty in himself, the wisdom of God which declares the will of God, the word which reveals the mind, the Son which expresseth the Father, the variety in which the unity is seen, while he is himself a unity, the Creator who is installed in creation, the lawgiver who utters the law; therefore that love which the Father had towards us, it was proper to him wisely to manifest, graciously to reveal, truly to word, and as he had given the law of power, so now to give the law of love. For creation is the law of power, and regeneration is the law of love, two principles which were united in one at first, when power was love, which now are parted by our fall, love having departed out of creation, and wrath entered instead; and no longer to be discovered therein, by any methods of science and philosophy, as the unlovely lives and characters of our men of knowledge doth amply show: for love had fled like Astræa to the stars, there being no place found for her any more in nature, and room was not found for her, save in the unfolding of that promise which in all its parts is above nature, “the seed of the woman shall bruise the head of the serpent.” Which word declared unto the fathers, and opened from time to time into more distinct unfoldings like a seed germinating in the earth, was to the fathers who comprehended its plentiful fruit from its present promise, the foundation of faith and of trust; as it is also to us, who do not yet see the perfection of its growth any more than they, although we behold it in a riper state, yet not ripened. For the seed of redemption which was sown in Eden, where all other blessed fruits became accursed, hath not yet been perfected, nor will be perfected until the last trumpet, when the grave shall yield up her dead, and the sea shall yield up her dead, and they shall come from the north, and the south, and the east, and the west, and sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven. After which time of millennial blessedness, death and hell shall be cast into the lake of fire, where the beast and the false prophet are, and Satan after having endured one thousand years confinement in the bottomless pit, shall likewise be cast into the lake that burneth, to be tormented day and night for ever and ever.

And the good and evil are separated, and shall dwell apart forever. The sinners that have been redeemed by the blood of Christ, and ransomed from the power of the grave, being washed and purified shall become the everlasting spouse of Christ in the heavenly places, their bodies also being raised incorruptible, like unto his glorious body, shall be beheld by the hosts of creation, in every look with which they behold Christ in like manner arrayed. For surely he hath taken upon him, not the nature of angels, but the seed of Abraham, and when he appeareth we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is. And then where is Satan the serpent that deceived our first parents, and now deceiveth the nations? Cast down by Christ’s first coming out of heaven where he accused the brethren, and afterwards by his second coming cast out of earth into the bottomless pit to make way for the kingdom of Christ upon the earth, afterwards loosed for a space in order that he may show his unsubdued mischief, for which he is again cast out into the lake that burneth, to move evil no more, but be the subject of evil for ever and ever. And where are Satan’s angels? With him there. And where is sin? With him there. And where are death, and the grave, and corruption their daughters? There, where sin and Satan are. And where are all their earthly works, the men and nations whom they deceived, and who would not be redeemed, the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars? They have their portion in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone, which is the second death. And the creation of God is clean swept again and the works of sin are destroyed, utterly destroyed, left an ever-enduring monument of destruction; and a new book of God’s character hath been opened unto the host of heaven, the book of his mercy and grace, and a new revelation of the personalities of the Trinity in offices of salvation, which heretofore were not needed and not known. For in this work the Spirit hath his wonderful part to sustain, no less than the Father and the Son; the Spirit who anointed the man Christ Jesus with power from on high, who quickened his body in the tomb, who descended from on high upon the church at Pentecost, to disperse the leaves of the tree among the nations, who regenerateth every soul that cometh to glory, and quickeneth every body that is laid in the tomb, who bringeth forth the new heavens and the new earth in their most fragrant beauty, and ever liveth in the souls who come to glory, maintaining their everlasting union with the Son their husband, who leads them in their pure beauty to his Father and their Father, to whom they are obedient for ever and for ever.

And thus the victory over death and the grave, over sin and Satan, over evil angels and wicked men, over the world and the flesh is accomplished, not by any strength or power resident in us, but by the working out of the mighty counsels of the Most High. For as that law of the will of God, which being expressed in words is, ‘the soul that sinneth it must die,’ was the cause of all the ruin and havoc wherewith the world is stored; so that other law of the divine will which being expressed in words is, ‘God is love,’ is the cause of all the blessedness which hath been derived from the promise, and which shall be derived until the regeneration be complete. As that word ‘the soul that sinneth it must die’ brought forth from its infinite womb those threatenings, and curses, and statutes and commandments comprehended in the law; so that word ‘God is love’ brought forth from its infinite womb those promises, benedictions, consolations, and divine covenants of mercy comprehended in the gospel of Christ. And as from the law which stood in commandment, sin started up and said, ‘lo I also am;’ and death started up and said, ‘and I also am;’ and the grave arose with her yawning mouth and said, ‘and I also am;’ and all exclaimed, ‘let us have our own, thou law, for whose sake we watch and ward, lest thou shouldest be transgressed; now that thou art violated, let the dragons that have so long watched thy virgin spotlessness have for a morsel those who have abused thee:’ So the gospel which is the law of reconciliation, the ordinance of love, did come and say, ‘and ye shall have your own, O sin, O death, O grave, a nobler victim than ye could have desired shall ye have. Behold the man of my right hand, Smite him sin; and sin brought all her ordinances of law against him, but could not smite him. Smite him oh death, and death brought her cruelest weapons against him, and thought she had smitten him. Have him O grave, and the grave enclosed him in a tomb of hollow stone, her strongest house, and thought that she had him forever. But speedily death found life stirring in her yet silent and undisturbed realm, and the grave found that her hoary secrets were invaded by the light of life; and their prison doors burst, and their sceptre broken, and themselves captured by their captive, captivity led captive, the spoiler spoiled, the law vindicated, and sinners saved. For why? because there is another ordinance in God than justice. They knew not but that God is only justice; and therefore they had thought their being everlasting as his own. But a new ordinance was in the Lord, the ordinance of love, of which death and the grave had but heard the rumour from afar, which had been slowly unfolding its most meek and radiant form, and now being perfected hath come in and destroyed, and spoiled their realm, to bring in upon sin, righteousness, and upon death, life, and upon the grave, resurrection. And now, love, which heretofore had been in swaddling bands, is grown to stature; and sin which heretofore had been a giant, is weakened in his strength. The former must increase, the latter must decrease. Until all things shall be accomplished which have been written from the days of patient Job, who said “I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand on the earth in the latter day, and though, after, my skin worms may destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God. Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me,” —down to the time of St. Paul who wrote so divinely of those things, “For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory? The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law. But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.” 1 Cor. xv. 53-57.

Thus have we laid open the two dispensations of death and of life; to the former of which we are heirs by natural birth, to the latter of which we become heirs by spiritual birth, —the former of which we hold by the entail of sight, the latter of which we hold by the assurance of faith. The two dispensations are equally certain, and eternally true, flowing each out of an eternal law of God’s unchangeable being; the former flowing from the law of his justice, the latter from the law of his love. We cannot deliver ourselves from the dispensation of wrath and misery, which holds the sinner within its grasp, as surely as the particles of the earth are holden together by their law, or the stars of heaven by theirs. But out of it we can escape into the dispensation of love, which the love of God hath framed for our sake: and to the end that you may escape, was it framed of the love of God; and to the same end is it continually ministered to you in the Church of Christ. The Lord, our righteousness, hath revealed it, not only by word, but by deed, conquering in his incarnation all that opposed themselves to the mighty work; and you have it made known by his ministers. Now, if ye will receive these things which we have heard, and in your hearts believe them, ye must seek earnestly of the Father, that he would send forth his Spirit into your hearts, and anoint you with his power, as heretofore he anointed the man Jesus of Nazareth, that you also may go about doing good, and destroy the works of the devil. For though no one but the Son of God can discharge that ministry which brought life and immortality to those who were through the fear of death all their life time subject to bondage, yet every one who, like him, would condemn sin in the flesh, and obtain the victory over death and the grave, must walk in his footsteps, and in the same strength prevail over the enemy of souls and all his evil angels. But without the Holy Spirit ye can as little stir in this warfare, as without Christ ye could have known that such a warfare was to be undertaken, or such a victory to be achieved.

But will the Holy Spirit be granted to you? Will a Father grant bread to his starving child, or a Mother grant milk to her imploring babe? Therefore, by the faith of that which Christ hath revealed, and by the expectation of that which the Spirit is promised to perform in your regeneration and sanctification, it will as surely come to pass that you shall be saved from the power of sin, of death, and of the grave, as it is sure that, without such faith and cooperation, ye shall perish for ever. Because, as hath been said, hell is as sure as heaven is sure, being equally the offspring of the law of God’s unchangeableness. And they shall both last through eternity; the one to deter from disbelief and disobedience, the other to encourage all creatures to faith and to obedience. For when the host of heaven shall, after the restoration of all things, look to Christ, in every look they shall behold human nature glorious, and see faithful sinners inheriting his glory, and acting in him as the members of his body, infallible as himself, and as himself honoured and blessed. And in every look which the host of heaven shall cast towards the Prince of evil, who was ambitious of Christ’s pre-eminency, they shall behold him in shame and vilest misery, and along with him, sharing in his durable torment, all who would not believe the word and promise of God, but cast off their allegiance to his most holy laws. And these two objects, as the opposite poles of the spiritual world, shall maintain its stability, and perhaps for evermore avert the inroad of pride and ambition, of folly and wickedness, from the seats and settlements of the blessed.

Therefore, if ye will turn unto your strong holds, ye prisoners of hope, and by faith lay hold of the hope set before you, and by faith and patience inherit the promises; if ye will receive the word which is preached unto you, that Christ Jesus, the Son of the Highest, hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows, hath died our death and risen the first-fruits of our resurrection, and satisfied the Law and made it honourable, and broken the covenant into which the Law had entered with death and the grave, and made it enter into a covenant with life and immortality; turning the tide that was against us by his Almighty strength, and manifesting most clearly that it is God’s will to love and save the transgressors by the Gospel, as surely as it is his will, without the Gospel that they should perish: if these things ye will receive, and not reject, but truly believe with your hearts, and come unto the Lord, ye shall be saved,—for the promise is to you, and to your children, and to as many as the Lord our God shall call. But out of Christ ye cannot be saved. Ye have heard the Gospel, and ye have known it; it hath not been hid from your eyes, nor hath its voice been removed from your ears; but it doth abide before you continually, before you and your fathers. And ye must reject it, or ye must receive it. There is no middle course. Ye cannot plead ignorance, like the heathen: ye cannot plead delusion, like the servants of the beast. There is no sorcery upon your eyes; nor sackcloth covering upon the Old and New Testament, the two witnesses of God; which must either consume you with their curses, or bless you with their blessings; be either the savour of life unto life, or of death unto death. Therefore, make ye up your minds this day, which you will serve —Christ or Belial, God or Mammon, the Church or the world. For assuredly it shall come to pass, that upon you shall come all the curses which are written in the book of God, all the pains and sorrows that are before death, all the fears and tortures that are in the article of death, all the judgments that are in eternity. For you were called, but you would not give ear; ye were intreated, but you would not repent.

Oh, and will ye serve Satan, men and brethren; and will ye do the works of Satan, who striketh us with unceasing strokes, and with sore smitings doth wound us; who hath taken peace from the earth, and made the dust of the ground one heap of corruption; who hath grieved and torn us and all our fathers; and now unto this day ceaseth not his enduring warfare upon the flowers of all families and the hopes of all hearts. Oh, and will ye serve him, will ye do his work? Yes, ye will serve him, and his works ye will do, and he will pay you with his wages which is death: and then unchangeable doom, fate irreversible hath you. Ye are thenceforth limbs of Satan, members of the devil; and with him must fall, and with all his angels must sink to uttermost perdition, and live, and live for ever in misery, the prey of sin and death, the monuments of God’s justice, the evidence of the law —“he that sinneth must die,” the terror of all creation, its great beacon, its fearful warning, the stay and establishment of its allegiance.

But, upon the other hand, if ye will turn unto the Lord, and serve the Captain of your salvation, whose great destruction of sin and death hath now been declared; then it shall come to pass, that, from being fellow-workers with Satan in your destruction and the destruction of others, ye shall become fellow-workers with Christ in your salvation and the salvation of others. For verily I say unto every one of you, that by the regeneration of the Holy Spirit, which followeth upon the faith of Christ, ye shall work out your salvation with fear and trembling, God working in you to will and to do of his good pleasure: and by the quickening of the same Spirit, when the day arrives, ye shall rise from the tomb, and disappoint death, and be cleansed from sin, and be united unto Christ in royal and divine dignity for ever and ever.

Oh, men and brethren, how ye are deceived this day, as many of you as despise this great salvation; how miserably you are deceived of your inheritance, dragged down from highest honour, deprived of power almighty against Satan and his works, easy captives, willing thralls, spiritless creatures, without God and without hope in the world, heirs of wrath, sons and daughters of corruption, self-condemned, self-sacrificed, despisers of God, lovers of Satan, careless of heaven, deservers of hell. Whereas ye might have been engaged all your life long in counter-working evil and abolishing misery, in straitening Satan and repaying on his head some of the evil he hath visited on you; fellow-workers with Christ in bruising his head, partakers of those sufferings whereby the waters of sin are assuaged, and builders up of that ark, even the Church, wherein the precious life of the generations of men is preserved.

But we would not, we would not. Oh Lord, have mercy upon us! Oh Christ, have mercy upon us! Oh Holy Spirit, have mercy upon us, who thus set your offices at nought! We are of all men the most worthless, and it shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for us.

But all ye, who have believed the report of the Gospel, and seen the arm of the Lord made bare against sin and Satan, in the death of Jesus Christ, against death and the grave in his resurrection, be of good cheer in all troubles and adversities, for your Redeemer liveth, the same yesterday, to day, and for ever; and He is head over all things to his Church, correcting not his children but for their good, and chastening them only because he loveth them. And every wound on this side the grave, is but a wound to your body of sin and death, whose wounding is the Spirit’s strengthening; whose death is the Spirit’s life. Therefore let sorrow and affliction do their kindly office, and let death in clue time do his kindlier office. Their wounds are open mouths, through which the spirit may receive angel’s food from heaven. And oh exercise yourselves at such seasons with solemn thoughts, and the Lord will bring in array before you such a congregation of your sins and shortcomings, of your worldly affections and fleshly attachments, of sense still living, and sin still surviving, as shall humble you to the dust, and lay you low upon the ground before him. And when they have humbled your soul, and broken your heart with contrition, the Lord, according to his promise, will come with an increase of his indwelling Spirit, and work the more in your soul’s redemption, so that you shall be, like Job, doubly blessed in the riches and affections of the Spirit; haply also, if the Lord will, in the riches and possessions of the present estate; for the earth is the Lord’s, and the fulness thereof. And, above all, you will be wrapped into profounder views and deeper apprehensions of the hatefulness and deformity of sin, of its exceeding sinfulness, and misery, and sorrow, and death; from whence will come more lively apprehensions of the love of the Father, in sending his Son to redeem us out of its power; of the travail and sufferings of the Son, who wrought out the work and finished it; of the quickening and consolation of the Spirit, in making us to go through the same work in our souls, which Christ went through in the sight of angels and of men. And thus we become partakers of the sufferings of Christ, and crucify the flesh with its corruptions and lusts, and have the pledge and earnest of a glorious resurrection, by the power of the same spirit which mortifieth our members within us: and are enabled in all cases of trial, and in all deaths of dear kindred in Christ Jesus, and in our own death, but, above all, in our resurrection, to exclaim —“O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory? The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law. But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.” 1 Cor. xv. 55-57.

Christmas Day, 1826.

P.S. —I have said, that this work was to have been laid on the altar as my Christmas offering to the Church; and in the body of this Preliminary Discourse I have signified that it was written on that day, as indeed the substance of it was; and now two months have past beyond the stated time. The cause of this delay I hold myself called upon to give; especially as I feel it will not be less agreeable to the Church to receive it, than it is to me to offer it.

There arose, in the beginning of last summer, amongst certain students of prophecy in London, a desire to compare their views, with respect to the prospects of the Church at this present crisis; and we held meetings during the summer, from time to time, as we could find opportunity. When one of our number, well known for his princely munificence, thought well to invite by special letter all the men, both ministers and laymen, of any orthodox communion, whom he knew or could ascertain to be interested in prophetic studies, that they should assemble at his house of Albury Park, in Surrey, on the first day of Advent, that we might deliberate for a full week upon the great prophetic questions which do at present most instantly concern Christendom. In answer to this honourable summons, there assembled about twenty men of every rank and church and orthodox communion in these realms. And, in honour of our meeting, God so ordered it that Joseph Wolff, the Jewish Missionary, a son of Abraham and brother of our Lord, both according to the flesh and according to faith, should also be of the number. And here for eight days, under the roof of Henry Drummond, Esq. the present High Sheriff of the County, and under the moderation of the Rev. Hugh M’Niel, the Rector of the Parish of Albury, we spent six full days in close and laborious examination of the scriptures, upon these six great heads of doctrine:

First, The doctrine of Holy Scripture concerning the times of the Gentiles. Secondly, The duties of Christian ministers and people, growing out thereof towards the Gentile churches, Thirdly, The doctrine concerning the present and future condition of the Jews. Fourthly, The duties growing out of the same towards the Jews. Fifthly, The system of the prophetic visions and numbers of Daniel and the Apocalypse. Sixthly, The scripture doctrine concerning the future advent of the Lord. And Lastly, The duties to the church and the world arising out of the same.

Now these are points on which men are supposed to be wholly at sea, without chart, course, or polar star; and it is the common rebuke of the students of prophecy, that no two of them are agreed on any one matter: and therefore the thing which I am about to say, will appear the more wonderful; That though we were for the most part strangers to one another, of different churches and of different countries, and under no influence of one another, we were so overruled by the One Spirit of truth and love, as to have found our way to harmony and coincidence in the main points of all these questions. We believed in common that the present form of the dispensation of the gospel was for a time commensurate with the times of the Gentiles, which again are commensurate with the period of Jerusalem’s being trodden under foot, and of the Jews’ dispersion; that the restoration of the Jews would introduce altogether a new era into the church and the world, which might be called the universal dispensation of the benefits of Christ’s death, while this is the dispensation to the church only, which few compared with the whole. That the conclusion of the latter in great judgments, and the commencement of the former in great mercies, was hard at hand, yea even at the very door; all being agreed that the 1260 and 1290 days of Daniel were accomplished, and the remaining 45 begun, at the conclusion of which the blessedness will be fully arrived. And that during this judgment, which may open upon us any day, we are to look for the second advent of the Lord in person, to raise the dead bodies of his saints, and with them to reign upon the earth. All agreeing that in the view of these things, there was required of us the greatest vigilance at our several posts, and the most fearless constancy in affectionately warning and preaching righteousness to all; according as they are admonished by our Lord in the sixth vial, under which it was the universal opinion we are now living, ready for the last great and concluding vial of wrath.

These things I write from recollection, not caring to use the copious notes which I took, for it was a mutual understanding that nothing should go forth from the meeting with any stamp of authority, that the church might not take offence, as if we had assumed to ourselves any name or right in the church. But there was such a sanction given to these judgments, by the fulness, freeness, and harmony which prevailed in the midst of partial and minor differences of opinion; by the spirit of prayer, and love, and zeal for God’s glory and the church’s good; by the sweet temper and large charity which were spread abroad; and by the common consent, that God was in a very remarkable way present with us; that I deemed it my duty to make known these great results to the Christian churches, which I have thus so early an opportunity of addressing; seeing, moreover, it is the just cause of, and the only apology for my delay.

Having said so much, I think it to be my duty further to state the godly order and arrangement according to which the Albury conference, concerning the second advent, was conducted: for to this, under God, I attribute in no small degree the abundance of the blessings with which our souls were made glad. We set apart a day for each subject, and resolved to give no more than one day to each; and as we were but six free days assembled, having met on the Thursday and parted on the Friday of the week following, we joined the fourth and the seventh subjects together, conceiving them to be closely connected with one another. And having apportioned a separate subject to each day, we proceeded to each day’s work after the following method. We divided the labour of each day into three parts; a morning diet before breakfast, the second and principal diet between breakfast and dinner, and the third in the evening. The object of our morning diet, to which we assembled at eight o’clock precisely, as early as we could well see, was two-fold; first, to seek the Lord, for the light, wisdom, patience, devotion to his glory, communion of saints, and every other gift and grace of the Holy Spirit, which were necessary and proper to the labour, which was that day appointed us in God’s good providence: this office was always fulfilled by a minister of the gospel. Secondly, one of the number was appointed over-night, and sometimes several nights before, to open the subject of the day in an orderly and regular way, taking all his grounds of argument, and substantiating all his conclusions out of the Holy Scriptures: and while he thus proceeded, the rest of the brethren took down the substance of what be said, and noted down the texts from which he reasoned. For we sat in the library around a large table provided with every convenience for writing and for consulting the Holy Scriptures. When the outlines, and divisions, and whole ground-work of the subject were thus laid out by the brother, strengthened by our prayers, we parted without at that time declaring any thing, and refreshed ourselves with breakfast, where we met the pious and honourable lady and family of our worthy host. Two full hours were allowed from the breaking up of the morning till the assembling of the mid-day diet, which was at eleven of the clock, in order that the brethren might each one try and prove himself before the Lord, upon the great questions at issue, and that we might come together with convictions, not with uncertain persuasions, and speak from the conscience, not from present impressions. And when we assembled and had shortly sought the divine favour to continue with us, an office generally performed by our reverend Moderator, he proceeded in due order to ask each man present for his convictions upon the subject which had been laid before us in the morning. And the rest diligently used their pen in catching the spirit of what dropped from each other’s lips. No appeal was allowed but to the scriptures, of which the originals lay before us, in the interpretation of which, if any question arose, we had the most learned eastern scholar perhaps in the world to appeal to, and a native Hebrew, I mean Joseph Wolff. In this way did every man proceed to lay out the nature and the ground of his conviction, which was done with so much liberty and plentifulness, and mutual respect and reverence of the Holy Word, as much to delight our souls.

Now this diet lasted oft four, and sometimes almost five hours, our aim being to gather the opinions of every one before we parted; and when we tired we refreshed ourselves with prayer, which also we regarded as our main defence against Satan. This diet also we closed with an offering of thanksgiving by any of the clerical brethren whom the Moderator might pitch upon. After dinner we again proceeded, about seven o’clock to the work of winding up and concluding the whole subject; but in a more easy and familiar manner, as being seated around the fire of the great library-room, yet still looking to a Moderator, and with the same diligent attention to order, each seeming desirous to record every thing which was said. This went on by the propounding of any question or difficulty which had occurred during the day, addressed to him who had opened the subject, or to any other able to resolve it; and so we proceeded till towards eleven o’clock, when the whole duties of the day were concluded by the singing of a hymn, and the offering up of an evening prayer. Such were the six days we spent under the holy and hospitable roof of Albury house, within the chime of the church bell, and surrounded by the most picturesque and beautiful forms of nature; but the sweetest spot was that council room where I met the servants of the Lord, the wise virgins waiting with oil in their lamps for the bridegroom, and a sweeter still was that secret chamber where I met in the Spirit my Lord and master whom I hope soon to meet in the flesh.

Oh Albury! most honoured of the King

And Potentate of heaven; whose presence here

We daily look for! In thy silent halls

His servants sought, and found such harmony

Of blessed expectation, as did fill

Their hearts with lively joy: as if they’d caught

The glory of the cloud which bore their Lord, Or heard the silver-toned trump of jubilee

Sound his arrival through the vault of heaven.

From thy retreat, as from the lonely watch-tower,

We had certain tidings of the coming night,

And of the coming day. The one to brace

Our hearts with dauntless resolution,

All sufferings to endure in his behalf,

Who for our souls did bear the ascendant dire

Of Satan’s hour and power of darkness.

The other to delight our hearts with thoughts

And dearest joys which are not known to those

Contemptuous and unfaithful servants,

Who think not of the promise long delayed

Of thy most glorious coming, gracious Lord!

For me, and for these brethren’s sake I pray,

That the sweet odour of those hallowed hours

May never from our souls depart, till thou

Our glorious King thy standard in the heavens

Unfullest, and command’st the Archangel strong

To make the silver-toned trump of jubilee

Sound thine arrival through the vault of heaven,

And quicken life within the hollow tomb.

So singeth my soul full gladly in the watches of the morning, which I have prevented, to recall these sweetest recollections of my life. And now I must conclude my labour by entreating thee, courteous reader, to weigh well such an unanimous voice of various divines; and to con consider well ere thou scornest unheard, or unexamined dost reject the sum and substance of the great doctrine of the second advent, which thou wilt find expressed in this great work of God’s favoured servant. The doctrine maketh most winged speed, I perceive, among the babes who are simple-minded, and among the strong men who are content to be accounted fools for Christ. But how is it I hear no account of any movement of desire and expectation of the common husband amongst the virgins who belong to my own quarter of the city, my dear brethren or kinsmen in the Lord, the children of the daughter of my people!

I said, the truth of his Son’s glorious advent maketh winged speed in all the churches, as was evinced in the harmony and unanimity which pervaded those many long and laborious sessions of the divines and lay-men who met together from various quarters at Albury Park, for the end of consulting the Scriptures, and laying open their several convictions upon this great subject. Of which assembly the least that I can say is this, that no council, from that first which convened at Jerusalem until this time, seemed more governed, and conducted, and inspired by a Spirit of holy communion. I said it maketh winged speed in all the churches, but alas that church to which I owe my reverence as to a mother, a bountiful though somewhat a stern mother to me, giveth little heed that I can hear of, to this great immediate overwhelming truth. Do thou bless, O Lord, this second attempt of her unworthy son to awaken some of her fathers, some of her doctors, some of her ministers, some of her elders, some of her members, yea all, yea all, Oh my God, if so it might be pleasing in thy sight and according to thy will. For, that our fathers did heretofore witness a good confession to this kingly office of thy Son, the stones which cover their bones do testify, in the moors and solitudes where they fell martyrs to the doctrine of thy sole supremacy in thy house. Which these eyes can attest; for with unwearied foot I have visited them almost every one, and with keen eye spelt their moss-grown monuments, and do now delight to remember those the haunts of my early youth, upon this lonely watch tower where the Lord hath stationed me in his wonderful providence ; —mine appointed post, from which, by the grace of God, I shall make known unto the Church whatever I hear and see; —fearing not, Oh my Lord, these Pharisaical and Sadducean enemies, with whom I am surrounded, not caring that I have not that communion of the brethren for which my soul longeth. For am not I thy servant, and the son of thine handmaid, whose hands thou hast untied? And to whom then is my light of knowledge, my life of conscience, and my freedom of speech and action due, but unto thee, O my God and King! my Head, the Head of thy Church, the Head of the worshipping universe! unto whom, with the Father and blessed Spirit, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.

EDWARD IRVING. Caledonian church, January 17th, 1827.

A DEAR friend and brother in the ministry of Christ has just sent me the following Note, which I have much pleasure in adding to this Dissertation, not being able to embody it. —It should be affixed to that part of the Work which relates to Transubstantiation. “I think a few words would be desirable; merely observing, that the pious Author does not seem to have been aware that there is no word in Hebrew or Syriac which denotes ‘to signify.’ They always use the thing signified for the sign. The seven lean kine, are seven years; that is, signify seven years: the seven golden candlesticks, are the seven churches; that is, signify the seven churches, &”

THE COMING OF MESSIAH IN GLORY AND MAJESTY

TO THE READER.

A LEARNED Spaniard, resident in Madrid, having remitted to me several curious documents for publication, if I should see it good, amongst the rest I have fallen in with a criticism upon the work, entitled, The Coming of Messiah in glory and majesty; which was first printed in this city, in the Spanish tongue. And considering how universally allowed, are the profound knowledge and vast erudition of R. P. Fr. Paul, of the Conception, by whom this criticism was drawn up, I have deemed it of importance to make it public; in order that the purchasers of the work might possess themselves of this also, and give a new value to their copies, by prefixing it to them.

TOURNACHON MOULIN.

A CRITIQUE OF THE WORK

COMPOSED BY JUAN JOSAFAT BEN-EZRA

ENTITLED,

“THE COMING OF MESSIAH IN GLORY AND

MAJESTY;”

BY M. R. P. FR. PAUL,

OF THE CONCEPTION OP THE ORDER or THE BAREFOOTED CARMELITES.

My Lord Vicar General, (“Señor Provisor Vicario Capitular.”)

FEW things entrusted to my care, have occasioned me so much perplexity and pain, as the criticism which your excellency requires me to give upon the first volume of the work entitled “The coming of Messiah in glory and majesty;” written, as appears, by Juan Josafat Ben-Ezra, who takes the character of a Jew converted to our holy religion of the Catholic Apostolic Roman Church. The cause of this great concern, my Lord, is the very magnitude of the work, and the consciousness within myself, as indeed I am truly conscious, of my incapacity to pronounce upon it a sure and steadfast judgment, such as would set my conscience at ease, and relieve me of the responsibility which must be incurred, whether in condemning or approving it. It may be somewhere about one and twenty years, since I first read the said work in manuscript, with all the interest and attention of which I am capable: and from thenceforth there arose within me the lively desire of obtaining it at any price, in order to read it over and over again, and study and meditate it, with all the pains which it deserves, and which I could afford. At length I obtained my desire, and for several years have had by me, in constant use, a copy which I have read over as often as I could, consistently with the other occupations of my ministry. And every time that I have read it over, my admiration has been redoubled in witnessing the profound study which the author had made of the Holy Scriptures; the method, order, and exactness which adorn his work; and, above all, the light which it casts upon the most deep mysteries and obscure passages of the sacred books.

The truth, the abundance, and natural application of the passages which he adduces from the sacred Scriptures, both of the Old and the New Testaments, incline me in such a way to the understanding and reception of his system, that I dare take upon me to affirm, that, if what he says be false, never has falsehood presented itself so attired in the simple and beautiful garb of truth, as this author hath set it forth in: for the tone of ingenuousness and candour, the very simplicity of the style, the invitation which he always gives to read the whole of the chapter, or chapters he quotes from, as well as those which precede and follow the quotation, the exact correspondence, not only with the quotations, but with that sense of the sacred text which first strikes the mind; all this, I say, gives such strong presumption of truth, that it seems impossible to refuse one’s assent, unless through obstinate prepossession in favour of the contrary system.

Nevertheless, when I take into consideration the number of ages which have elapsed in the church, without even the mention of this system, otherwise than as a fabulous opinion; and advert to certain fathers and doctors, as Jerome, Augustine, Gregory, and to all the theologians since their day, who treat it with aversion, and some of them as positive error; I cannot help quaking and trembling, under the impression that there is less risk in erring with so many learned and very holy masters, than in venturing to aim at the mark by one’s own inclination and judgment. True indeed it is, which somewhat tranquillizeth me, that the matter in dispute preserves the faith of the holy church inviolate, whichever side you embrace: there being between the two parties but one faith, and one Christ Jesus, whom they believe in and adore as their God. All of us believe and confess, as it is in the creed, that this Sovereign King will come to judge the quick and the dead. The faith of the catholic church, or any of her children in this article, hath never been, nor can ever be unhinged. Now the controversy, merely turning upon the mode and circumstances of that advent which all believe, stands thus: —the common opinion of the doctors of our times restricts the coming of Jesus Christ to the single and terrible, and most solemn act of finally judging the whole race of mankind, and publicly assigning to every one through all eternity the reward or punishment which their works deserve: while our author, without excluding, or at all doubting the truth of this judgment, extends it to a period of time antecedent to that last testimony of the sovereignty and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, plants his throne and his tabernacle for a time amongst men, while yet sojourners upon the earth, makes him to dwell with them who became his people, and he their only God, known and adored of them all. —We know that this opinion is not new, but was held by the fathers of the first four centuries of the Christian church; amongst whom we count certain of the disciples of the apostles themselves; who yet did not condemn those who thought differently; as may be collected from the expressions of Justin Martyr in his dialogue with Trypho the Jew.

That the opinion, or judgment of these first fathers should have been abandoned, and that the contrary should have obtained from the fifth century forward to our times, with such force and constancy, there is to be taken into account, on the one hand, that the heretics of the third and fourth century did intermingle gross errors with the sound doctrine of these saints, —and on the other, that the universal erudition and venerable authority of that great doctor, St. Jerome, who openly declared himself against the Millenarians, without distinguishing between the Catholics and heretics, might bring it about that they should be all involved in the indiscriminate condemnation of their doctrines. This, however, appears certain, that the opinion of the Millenarians, unpolluted with the errors which the heretics introduced into it, was common, and held by very many Catholics, as St. Jerome himself gives us clearly to understand, in the introduction to the eighteenth book of his Commentaries upon Isaiah; where, having said that a very vast multitude of our church follow in this single point the opinion of Nepos and Apolinarius, he adds these remarkable words, —“with a prophetic mind I already perceive, how many will be stirred up with rage against me” (ut presaga mente cernam, quantorum in me rabies concitanda sit). Whereby it is clearly manifested, that the opinion which the holy doctor contravened was widely spread. And when it is observed, that the commentaries upon Isaiah, of which this eighteenth book is the last, were entered upon in the fifth century, towards the year 409, the proof is complete, that at this date there prevailed very commonly in the church this idea of the reign of Jesus Christ upon the earth, which is the foundation of the opinions of the Millenarians. But when the immense learning, authority, and deserved reputation of St. Jerome had declared itself against the notion, wherein he was followed by the great doctor St. Augustine, it came to lose ground, and at length to be given up as a point nowise concerning the purity of the faith; and which was to be looked upon as very remote, wherewithal had been mixed up gross errors, deservedly condemned by the ecclesiastical doctors and by the church herself. But this infallible and prudent guide of truth, at the time that she condemned the errors of Cerinthus, and his kindred heretics, who polluted with their gross notions the pure system of the Millenarians, had a care to decide nothing against the latter; as is well observed by the authors who have written catalogues of heretics, or heresies, and especially by Alfonso de Castro, of the minorite orders, in his valuable work against heresies. So that the opinion has against it only the authority of the fathers and theologians from the end of the fifth century onward. Great and very worthy of our veneration as is the authority of so many doctors so wise and holy, it is not with all this worthy to rank with the verities of faith, having never been sanctioned by the infallible authority of the holy church; as is fully cleared and argued by our author in the preliminary discourse to his work.

In virtue of these reflections, my spirit became tranquil upon this point, and had only to struggle with the profound respect due to certain doctors in all respects so venerable; but having been taught by themselves, and among the rest by St. Augustine, that it is only to the divine books, and the decision of the Holy Church, we should yield an unlimited submission and absolute assent; it might be allowed me without temerity to examine the system of the author, although contrary to those learned doctors, and to see if the apparatus of proofs and testimonies which he brings in behalf of his opinion, deserve our approbation, or our blame: and this is what I am now about to perform, in compliance with the command of your excellency.

Two capital points, among many others of inferior importance, form the foundation and key of Ben-Ezra’s system: The first that Jesus Christ, with all the state of majesty and glory described to us in the divine books, is to come to our globe, not only to pronounce here definite sentence upon all the sons of Adam, but also, before the time of that judgment arrives, to reign in this world, and be acknowledged of all the nations of the earth together; that our world may enjoy a period of blessedness, wherein all it’s inhabitants endowed with reason, shall know and adore Jesus Christ the Son of the living God, and his Father who sent him for our salvation, with all the other mysteries which are taught by our holy religion. The second, that in the beginning of this happy period, the Jews, whom by such a wonderful providence we see preserved, though dispersed and oppressed among the nations, will be converted to Jesus Christ, and acknowledge him for their Messiah, will return and become the people of God, and worship him in spirit and in truth, to the universal promotion of the whole world.

These two points, which, as hath been said, are the essential points of our author’s system, appear to me to be theologically demonstrated, by the multitude of authorities from the holy scripture which he brings in this behalf, and the clearness with which they are there expressed: and these great points at issue between the two systems, being found theologically demonstrated, the substance of the work and the main object of the author are secured. All the other matters treated of fall under these two great subjects, being but the demonstration of the most likely mode of their coming to pass; of which, though many be in themselves of the greatest consequence, it will, in respect to the system, be found a matter of indifference, whether or not they fall out in the way in which Ben-Ezra, always reasoning out of the scripture, alleges, they will. So that whosoever shall set himself to prove that any one, or many of these points are different from the author’s explanation of them, will not thereby depreciate or destroy the foundation of his system. Nevertheless I hesitate not to acknowledge, that the work presents difficulties in some passages, which if the author were living, I should ere this have unfolded to himself, that he might resolve and explain them; and now with more reason I might do so, and enforce them in this criticism; but that they will not, I am persuaded, obscure the clear light of truth, with which the substantial matters of the system shine forth. For which reason, and because of the profound and enlarged reflections which I find throughout every part of it, my judgement is; That in this work there is not contained any thing repugnant to our holy faith, but that it may be of good service in making known, and publishing abroad, many truths, whereof the knowledge, though not absolutely necessary in the first ages of the church, is become indispensable in the times in which we now live.

And with respect to customs, not only does it contain nothing contrary thereto, but on the other hand tends much to reform them by the motives which it brings forward; as will appear from what I shall slightly point out, First; by the magnificent idea which he gives of our Lord Jesus Christ, clothed with glory and majesty, and of his immense empire and power, he stimulates the soul to that fear and love of him, which is the fountain of all righteousness. He infuses, moreover, into the mind a profound feeling of the truth of the holy scriptures, and draws to the perusal of them all believers, and especially the priests, to whom above others belong the exact understanding and explanation of them. The hearts of true christians he fills with fear and trembling, by showing them how they themselves through the looseness of discipline, are threatened with that most fearful calamity which the Jews endure at present, of being cast out from the marriage chamber, which is the holy church, into the outer darkness of infidelity in which they shall perish, for ever lost to Christ Jesus the Saviour. Before the unbelievers and ungodly, who have renounced the profession of their faith, he sets forth with energy and truth, the horrible lot to which they are reserved, if they renounce not with detestation their blasphemies and errors, and cease not to fight against the Lord, and his Christ. To all classes of men it may be profitable; because it turns their eyes inwards upon themselves, and leads them to consider their eternal destiny, and so to shun their own ruin, and the desolation of the whole earth, when, as God hath told us by the mouth of his prophet, “desolations, &c”.

From all which I judge, that it may and ought to be allowed to be printed. But I should remark in respect to the copy which your excellency has sent me, that it is full of errors of the press, both in the text, and in the quotations: Some are corrected, but there still remains much to be amended, which ought with all patience to be done by the exact copying of it before committing it to the press; if your excellency permit that it be published, any error, in a matter of so much importance, may be of very great consequence.

This is my judgment, saving a better. Given in this Convent of barefooted Carmelites of Cadiz, the 17th of December 1812. Fr. Pablo de la Conception.

TO

THE MESSIAH JESUS CHRIST,

THE SON OF GOD,

SON OF THR MOST HOLY VIRGIN MARY, SON OF DAVID, AND SON OF ABRAHAM.

O LORD! THE end which I have proposed to myself in this work, as is well known to thy Holy Majesty, is to make known a little more widely, the greatness and excellence of thine adorable Person, with the great and admirable mysteries which relate to the Man-God: of whom such clear testimonies are contained in the holy scriptures. In the present constitution of the church, and of the world, I have judged it highly expedient to bring forward some ideas, not new in themselves, though after a new method, which on the one hand appear to me expressed in the scriptures of truth, and on the other, present themselves to my mind, as of exceeding great importance, especially with respect to three classes of persons. In the first place, by this means, I desire and purpose, to stir up, and even to oblige the priests to shake off the dust from their Bibles, inviting them to a new study and examination, a new and more attentive consideration of that Divine Book, which, though the book proper to the priesthood, as the instruments of his trade are to any artificer, appears in these times to have become to not a few of them the most useless of all books. What advantages might we not expect from this new study, were it possible to re-establish it among the priests, in themselves qualified, and by the church set apart for masters and teachers of the christian community!

My aim and desire, in the second place, is to arrest many, and if it were possible all, whom with the deepest sorrow and compassion, I see running precipitately towards the horrible gulf of infidelity; for this hath certainly no other origin, than want of knowledge of thy Divine Person, proceeding from simple ignorance of the Sacred Scriptures.

My purpose and desire, in the third place, is, to offer some greater light, some other remedy more prompt and efficacious to my own brethren the Jews, whose are the Fathers, and of whom is Jesus Christ according to the flesh. And what remedy can these miserable men receive, but the knowledge of their true Messiah whom they love, and for whom they sigh night and day without knowing Him? and how are they to know Him unless the doctrine be opened to them? and how, in the state of ignorance and blindness in which they are actually found, can that doctrine be sufficiently discovered, while you show them only the one half of Messiah, while the other half is concealed, and even positively denied ? —if there be preached to them only what is to be found in the scriptures, pertaining to thy first coming in suffering flesh, as Redeemer, as Master, as Example, as High Priest, &c.—and there be denied to them without any reason, what, according to the same scriptures, though with ideas little worthy, and even gross, they believe, and hope, pertaining to thy second coming?

O my Lord Christ Jesus! Bounty and wisdom unsearchable! all that I purpose by this work, if by thy grace any good should come of it, must necessarily redound to thy greater glory, which thou hast made to consist with the well-being of man; and I would therefore hope from the benignity of thy most gracious nature, that thou wilt not despise this small gift, which is offered unto thee out of my profound reverence, my acknowledgments, my love, and my earnest desire to serve in any way the cause of my gracious Lord.

If, as I desire, and dare to hope, there follow from this any true benefit, I humbly offer it all to thy glory, and with myself, lay it at thy feet. In consideration whereof I implore, O Lord, with the greatest earnestness, thy Sovereign protection, of which I stand in the greatest need, inasmuch as I fear, and not without reason, great contradiction, being but an obscure man, without human favour, though I acknowledge and confess myself thy servant, however unworthy and unprofitable. &c.

Juan Josafat Ben-Ezra.

PREFACE.

I DID not venture to expose this treatise to the criticism of every sort of readers, without sufficient warrant, without indeed making trial of it over and over again by the best and nicest tests which were within my reach; that is, not until I had consulted many learned men of the highest order, and been by them assured, after a laborious and rigorous examination, that it contained no error whatever, nor even any matter worthy of censure.

Yet as this private examination could not be conducted with such secrecy, but that in some way it should transpire, there arose, in consequence, a great curiosity in the minds of certain other learned men of whom at that time there was no thought, and it became necessary under the penalty of no slight inconvenience to comply with their importunities. This indulgence, though innocent and proper in itself attended with certain disagreeable, and even prejudicial consequences. The treatise while yet every way unfinished was made public, out of all time and season; and in this state several copies of it were taken against my will, and without my being able to prevent it: and what was still worse, those copies were circulated beyond all reasonable bounds; and one of them, I am assured, made its way across the ocean, where they say it has caused no small stir. This, for the following reasons, I can well enough account for, first, because that copy which took so far a flight was incomplete, being only a fragment of the work; secondly, because it was undigested, being no more than the first sketches and conceptions of the mind, which were noted down in the view of being corrected, arranged, and perfected in due time; thirdly, because this copy in itself so incomplete, had been in several parts interpolated and mutilated at the will and discretion of the person who sent it abroad, and who, though full of the best intentions, could not, from his peculiar opinions, do less than introduce into it some very considerable errors. And therefore I may hope that all considerate persons into whose hands this unhappy copy may have fallen, or who may have any knowledge of it, will take these things into account, and not judge of a work from a few soiled and undigested papers transcribed from hand to hand, which, contrary to the wish of the author, were imprudently given to the winds, when they should have been given to the flames. This last destination, not only as a favour, but even as an act of justice I entreat of every one who may possess them.

Having given this preliminary notice, which seemed to me indispensable, I must now offer some slight satisfaction to two or three strictures of a general and obvious kind, and which have actually been advanced by persons of no mean account.

Stricture First. —The first and loudest of all is novelty. This say they, (and they say it as it were with fear and trembling, and doubtless with the best intentions,) in points which any way refer to religion, such as the understanding, and explanation of the Holy Scripture, has always been, and ought always to be eyed with suspicion, and avoided as dangerous; especially in an age when so many novelties are broached, and which has hardly a relish for any thing but novelty.

Reply. —That novelty in these points is to be eyed with suspicion, and not on slight grounds to be admitted, is a very just remark; from which, however, it doth not follow that we ought at once to cast away as dangerous, or without farther thought give sentence against any thing, upon the mere score of its novelty. This would be completely to shut the entrance door against truth, and to renounce for ever the hope of understanding the Holy Scriptures: seeing it is honestly confessed by all interpreters, ancient as well as modern, that in the scriptures themselves, especially in the prophecies, there still remains an infinite number of things obscure and difficult, and not understood; of which although with the utmost possible pains they have all endeavoured to give some meaning or explanation, yet as is well known to those who are versed in these matters, these meanings and explanations of theirs really give no satisfaction, being for the most part no better than merely gratuitous and arbitrary accommodations, of which the impropriety and violence stare you in the face.

Now I maintain that those things in the Holy Scriptures, which until this present time have not been understood, must at some time come to be understood, or at least their true sense to be proposed; for it is not to be believed but rather is repugnant to the infinite holiness of God, that he should cause them to be written in vain. And if a time is to come when they shall be understood, or their true sense proposed, that time must necessarily be future, and consequently upon these points novelty at one time or another is with absolute certainty to be expected: against which if you have positively shut all doors of entrance; if a thing is always to be received and regarded as perilous, and simply upon the score of its novelty, if sentence of reprobation is always to be passed against it; then what hope is there left to us? Nay but this precise charge of novelty, even in these sacred subjects, so far from scaring away your truly wise and learned men, though ever so pious and religious, ought the rather to quicken, and even oblige them to enter upon a formal examination, that it may be searched to the very bottom, and ascertained: First, Whether it really be a novelty or not; whether it be an idea wholly new, never uttered, nor thought of in the Catholic Church from the time of the apostles until now, or only an idea pursued, set forth, explained and proved after a new method. Between which two things, that there is a wide difference, and as it were an infinite disagreement, no learned, pious, and religious Catholic can be ignorant. —Secondly, Whether this novelty, or this idea, not new in itself but only in a new way handled, be false or not; that is to say, whether or not it oppose some verity of divine faith, and contravene these three rules, which are the only infallible tests of faith —1st. Divine scripture in its proper and literal sense: —2nd. Divine tradition: —3rd. The express and clear determination of the church assembled in the Holy Spirit.

Far from fearing a formal examination by this standard, or by these three only infallible rules just mentioned, it is the very thing which I desire, and pray for with all possible earnestness, and the only thing which I fear is the withholding of it. If the matters which I am about to submit, (call them new in themselves or only in the manner of setting them forth and treating them,) be found opposed, or not conformed, to those three infallible rules, and this be proved in a clear and satisfactory way, I will on that account at once yield as conquered, and readily acknowledge my ignorance. But should our novelty contravene none of these three rules, but respect and scrupulously conform to them, in that case no one may with reason or justice condemn it on the single plea of its novelty, or because it does not conform to the common mode of thinking. This were solemnly to consecrate as points of divine faith the numberless senses and explanations, with which, though bare accommodations, the interpreters of Divine Scripture have heretofore contented themselves, to the absolute exclusion of the true meaning: —a thing known, and lamented, and complained of by the learned amongst them, especially as it respects the prophecies.

Stricture the Second. —Ariseth out of the system, or ideas which I term ordinary, upon the second coming of Christ. They say that these are the faith and belief of the whole Catholic Church, as set forth, and explained by her doctors, who in this their interpretation and explanation cannot be in error, seeing all, or the most part of them, concur in it. It is true (they add) that in the three or four first ages of the church, they were differently set forth and explained by some; but (they continue) fourteen ages are of more value than four; fourteen most enlightened, than four obscure ones, &c.

Answer. —In all this declamation, as brief as it is arbitrary, I find nothing but an equivocation. First they confound without distinction that which is of divine faith and belief to the whole Catholic Church, with that which is a matter of purely human faith and belief, or mere opinion; that which we Catholics do all believe and confess as the indubitable points of divine faith, with those particular and accidental things which upon these same points have been, or may be held as matters of opinion. This word faith or belief, may have, and really hath two senses, as diverse, and far distant the one from the other, as God is from man. Even in things pertaining to God, and his revelation, there not only may be, but there is entertained by believers within the Catholic church, a faith and belief entirely divine, as well as a faith and belief purely human —that infallible, this fallible —that binding, this free. The latter of these, in things that are but accidental to any article of faith, not denying, but rather presupposing it, is properly denominated opinion, dictate, conviction, honest belief, &c. In this sense, St. Paul takes the word faith when he says, Him that is weak in the faith receive ye, but not to doubtful disputations. Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind. Rom. xiv. An opinion, however common and universal, may very well exist in the church as honest belief, without on that account ceasing to be matter of mere human faith, or rising above the degree of an opinion: and this honest belief, this faith and belief, however honest and universal it may be, does not properly obtain the sacred name of, The faith and belief of the Christian church, till after the Catholic Church itself, being assembled in the Holy Spirit, shall have adopted as certain that particular thing whereof it treats, formally declaring it to be not a matter of human, but of divine faith; either because it so appeareth clearly and expressly in the Holy Scripture, or because it hath been so received, and faithfully transmitted from the first times of the church.

Whence it legitimately follows, that such words as the following, which in substance are to be met with in every class of ecclesiastical writers who have written upon this side of the question during the last two or three centuries, It was so thought during the four first centuries of the church: but the fourteen following centuries in which it has been thought differently, are of more weight, &c. are words of small importance, and promote their cause but very little. Four ages of one opinion, and fourteen of a contrary opinion, no other foundation or intrinsical reason being produced, weigh no farther, in a question entirely of the future and not within the province of human reason, than four authors of one opinion, and fourteen of a contrary opinion. Although you were to multiply those four centuries, and those four authors by four-hundred, and those fourteen centuries by four-thousand, or forty-thousand, you could never produce a dogma of faith divine, simply from having multiplied by the larger number: nor for such like reasons alone can you bend down the liberty of understanding, which, in things of this kind that respect the future, resteth solely on divine ground, nor suffers itself to be bound by any authority but the Holy Scriptures, and the decision of the church. Wherefore the four, and the fourteen, whether authors or ages, if not supported by some other true and solid reason, must remain for ever in the state of mere opinion, or faith simply human, and nothing more.

Now, whereas the things of which we speak do stand in this condition of opinion, or of obscurity, without its certainly appearing on which side the truth lieth, we ask, who doth or can hinder in so important a cause, that we should not diligently search for the truth? Search for it, I say, through the fourteen as well as the four. And if it should not in any of them be found clear and limpid, (for as much as the things are but opinions, and have never emerged from that sphere) who can hinder us from searching for the very truth in its proper fountain, the Holy Scriptures? The question not being to search the Scriptures for the substance of the dogma; which is already known, presupposed as known, believed, expressly and publicly professed in the whole Catholic Church; but simply to search therein for certain things accidental to the dogma, whereof the sure and certain knowledge, though not absolutely necessary to salvation, may yet be of the utmost importance, not only with respect to Catholics, but with respect to Christians in general, and also perhaps much more with respect to the miserable Jews. And, though in these things of which I speak, accidental only to the article of faith, there is, perhaps, in the church a certain honest belief, this can never in a reasonable or Christian way be reckoned the faith of the church, or, which is the same, divine faith; this false principle once admitted or tolerated, what ruinous consequences might we not apprehend.

Stricture Third. —A few years ago there appeared in Italian a work intitled; “The Second Epoch of the church,” (la sequnda época de la Iglesia) of which the author calls himself Euodio Papia. As there are many things in the present work whose title is, "The coming of Messiah in glory and majesty,” resembling much those that are to be found in the other, (although set forth, and followed out after another and a different method,) there is much reason to fear that both may have the same fate, that is, that this may be forthwith consigned, as was that, to the Index Romanus: [i.e. the Roman list of proscribed books] therefore the right thing would be to prevent in time so unbecoming an issue, by smothering it in the cradle, and transmitting it from the womb to the grave without discretion or mercy.

Reply. —They who talk in this way appear to me either not to have read the first work of which we speak, or not to have read the second, or which seems most likely, neither to have read the one nor the other, but to speak at random, and constitute themselves judges, without any knowledge of the cause. And the reason I have for this supposition is the very variety of opinions which have come to my ears upon this point, differing as widely from each other as the thirty-two points of the compass; now accusing me of plagiarism, as if I had taken my ideas from Euodio Papia, now that in substance I follow the same system, now that I conform to him in the principles and the ends, differing only in the means; and in fine, to be short, that although I disagree with this author in almost every thing, yet at least I do agree with him in my audacious manner of pretending to untie the sacred and indissoluble knot of the twentieth chapter of the Apocalypse; of which guilt indeed all are partakers who have taken in hand to explain the same Apocalypse.

Now, briefly to meet so many, and such diverse accusations, it appears to me that one general reply may suffice. First, I protest that from this work of which we speak, neither have I taken, nor had the power of taking the least particle; for the simple yet decisive reason that I have not read the work in question, nor looked even upon the outside of it, nor so much as heard it spoken of by any one who had read it.

The only thing of this author’s which I have read, is the exposition of the Apocalypse, in which he sometimes refers to another work, which he promises as about to follow, that is, to “The second epoch of the Church.”

But this exposition of the Apocalypse, so far from satisfying me, displeased me as much, and even more, than anything I have read in various authors. For although some things which he points out be good in themselves, he does not ground them solidly, but presents them crude and even deformed, with out explanation or proof; while others appear hard and indigestible; others extravagant; others not a little coarse, and even ridiculous: for example, all that he says upon the battle of St. Michael with the Dragon, from chapter xii. &c. To all which may he added the error (for such I regard it) of supposing three comings of Christ; though all the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, and the Apostle’s Creed, speak only of two: the one as being already past in suffering flesh; the other as yet to come in glory and majesty, which by the apostles St. Peter and St. Paul is frequently denominated the revelation or manifestation of Jesus Christ. From these and other defects which I have found in the exposition of the Apocalypse by this author, I surely infer that there will be found others, equal or greater, in the second work to which be sometimes refers.

Which although I have not read, as I protested a little ago, yet by a brief extract from it, that a friend has just sent me, I comprehend well enough that both the general system of this author, and his method of treating it, differ as widely from mine as the east does from the west. Omitting whatever is extraneous, his general system appears to me the same as was proposed in the last century by the learned Jesuit Antonio Vieira, in a work entitled, Concerning the consummation of Christ’s kingdom on the earth (De regno Christi in terris consummato). And this system again appears to me the same in substance with that of many holy fathers and other doctors therein cited, as also of others that have written since; who all hold it for certain, that one day the whole world, with all the peoples and nations and even individuals thereof, shall be converted unto Christ, and enter into the Church; which being come to pass, they add, that the Jews also shall then enter in, that it may be fulfilled which is written by St. Paul (Rom. xi. 25), that blindness in part is happened unto Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in; and so all Israel shall be saved: And by the evangelist, (John x. 16.) there shall be one fold and one Shepherd. Consequently they suppose there is to be another state of the church, much more perfect than the present, wherein all the inhabitants of the earth will be true believers, and great peace and righteousness and observance of the divine laws, &c. will reign in the bosom of the church.

The only difference which exists in the opinions of the doctors on this point is, that some of them place that blessed estate long before Antichrist, who, according to them, will come to destroy this peace. Others, and I believe the greater number, place it after Antichrist, in order to save, in some way, certain consequences of which we shall speak in their place; and so admit, without the possibility of avoiding it, some space of time between the end and Antichrist; between Antichrist and the glorious coming of Christ. Euodio seems to steer this last course, and would not be chargeable with any novelty, did he not, at the beginning of this epoch, suppose a middle coming of Christ to destroy iniquity, and to order the church and the world after another and a better fashion; making him to come once more at the end of the world, to judge the quick and the dead: upon which point, it seems to me, he should have explained himself more fully. Now how can it be possible that I, who do not admit but reject all these ideas, as seeming to me opposite to the gospel and all the scriptures, should follow the same system? Then what system do I follow? No one: but simply that article of divine faith, which says, From thence he will come to judge the quick and the dead. And upon this doctrine of divine faith I follow the thread of all the scriptures, without interruption, without violence, and without artificial reasonings, as any one may see with his own eyes, if he be not blinded.

It may nevertheless be found that I agree with Euodio Papia, as with other authors, in some things either general or particular. But what then? Shall it be permitted upon that ground merely, at once to confound the one work with the other? At what tribunal durst such a sentence be given? The work of Euodio, as being the work of a Catholic and religious author, it is to be believed, will contain very much that is good, innocent, pious, true, and probable; and it is likewise to be believed, that along with this will be found something else, plainly false, crude, and indigestible, without explanation, or proof, &c; seeing there must be some reason for which it hath been suppressed. And from these premises the just and reasonable inference is, that whoever agrees with this author in those things which are reprehensible, will doubtless deserve the same reprehension; which he will not deserve, nor without injustice may be visited withal, should he agree with him only in the things which are indifferent, good, true, or probable. Is not this according to the undoubted dictate of pure natural reason?

Let it therefore stand for the conclusion of the matter: that Euodio’s work and mine, being two very different works, of different authors, ought to be examined apart, and each dealt with according to its proper merit or demerit; not examining or judging that for this, nor this for that: which were a method of judging utterly repugnant to all laws human and divine. Besides, I affirm nothing dogmatically, but only propose to the consideration of the intelligent, and that with all the clearness I can, the reasons on which I build; submitting all in good faith to the judgment of the church, whose prerogative it is to judge of the true sense of the sacred scriptures. Nor refusing to submit to the judgment even of individual Doctors, after I shall have heard their reasons.

THE COMING OF MESSIAH

IN

GLORY AND MAJESTY.

OBSERVATIONS OF JUAN JOSAFAT,

AN HEBREW CHRISTIAN,

ADDRESSED TO THE PRIEST CHRISTOPHILUS.

PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE.

OVERCOME at length by thine entreaties, my respected friend Christophilus, and having resolved, although with the greatest reluctance, to put down in writing, some of the things which I have communicated to thee, I yesterday set myself to think over the particulars which I had to write, and the order and method which might be most serviceable, as well for relieving the labour, as for explaining myself with freedom. After an enlarged meditation, perceiving that I did but lose the time, and weary myself to no avail, I endeavoured for the present to put my thoughts to silence; and for that end opened the Bible, which was the book that lay nearest my hand, and casting my eyes on the passage before me read these words, which begin the ninth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, I say the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost, that I have great heaviness, and continual sorrow in my heart. For I could wish that myself were accursed from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh. By the consideration of these words, it was not long before the very feelings of the apostle awoke within me; and perceiving that my heart was oppressed by the reawakened and renewed force of that grief, which I do almost always bear about with me, I shut the book, and hastened into the fields to relieve my heart. Where, the first burst being over, and my grief a little subsided, various reflections began to succeed.

In what way is it possible —(I remember to have said) in what way is it possible, that the people of God, the holy people, the house of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, men the most illustrious, the most just, the most beloved and privileged of God, by whose name God himself is known in all succeeding ages, I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob…this is my name for ever, and this my memorial to all generations, Exod. iii. 6,

15. that a people who were born, nourished, and brought up in the faith and expectation of Messiah; a people whom God prepared for Messiah, by an unheard of succession of providences and miracles, by the space of two thousand years: that this people of God, this holy people, should possess in the midst of them that same Messiah, for whom they had sighed through so many ages, should with their own eyes behold him in all the splendour of his virtues, hear his voice and words of life, admire his miraculous works, saying and confessing, He hath done all things well; he maketh both the deaf to hear and the dumb to speak, Mark vii. 37; that they should receive at his bountiful hand benefits of every kind, continual benefits, as well for the body as for the soul: and yet with all this receive him not? with all this disallow him? persecute him with the utmost fury? look upon him as a seducer, a malefactor; and, as Isaiah had before signified, number him with the transgressors? Isa. liii.

12. with all this, in fine, invoke upon him with loud exclamations the punishment of the cross? Surely there have happened things on our earth really incredible, which yet are certain, and rest on the surest evidence.

But (pursued I in my musing) what might be the cause of this great malady, with its infinite train of wretchedness and misery? Perhaps it was that the publicans, the sinners, and the harlots, could not bear the sanctity of his life, nor the purity and perfection of his doctrines? It appears not: for the gospel itself assures us, that the publicans and sinners gathered together to hear him; On which account it was that the scribes and pharisees murmured —and the scribes and pharisees murmured, saying, This man receiveth sinners and eateth with them, Luke xv. 1. Perhaps it was owing to the commonalty and lowest ranks of the people, always rude, dross, and unadvised? As little so: for on the contrary the common people would not rest away from him, but sought him out, followed him into mountains and the most solitary deserts, and with exclamations hailed him Son of David, and King of Israel; yea defended him, and bore testimony to his righteousness; and it was for fear of the people that they did not sooner condemn him.

There remained then no objects of our inquiry save the priests, and the learned doctors of the law, in whom was vested the knowledge and judgment of whatever related to religion. And in truth these were the cause, and with them lay all the blame. But by this very thing, my wonder is increased; Why herein is a marvellous thing (said the man blind from his birth), that ye know not from whence he is, and yet he hath opened my eyes, John ix. 30. These priests, these doctors not know that which they believed? not know that which they expected?

not read the scriptures whereof they were depositaries? Were they ignorant, how could it well be that they should be ignorant, that these were the times in which Messiah was to manifest himself according to the same scriptures? Gen. xlix. 10. Dan. ix. 25. Were they not eyewitnesses of the sanctity of his life, of the excellency of his doctrine, of the novelty, multitude, and greatness of his miracles? Yes: this is all true; but surely the malady was incurable, because it was old: it did not begin then, but descended from a more remote time: surely it had deep roots.

In one word, the malady lay in those ideas which they had formed of Messiah, so wide of the truth, and at such variance with the whole scriptures; which ideas they had imbibed, and did continually imbibe from the very interpreters of those scriptures. These interpreters, whom they honoured with title of Rabbis or Masters for distinction, or of Elders, had already obtained more authority with them than the scripture itself. For which indeed Messiah himself reproved them, in the words of the twenty-ninth chapter of Isaiah: Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying, This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth and honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me: but in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. Matt. xv. 7,8.9. Mark vii. 8,9.

These then are —(I concluded) these certainly are the men who have blinded us, who have deceived us. Those doctors, and scribes skilful in the law, who having received, and holding in their hand the key of knowledge, would neither enter themselves, nor suffer others to enter in; Luke xi. 52. In the scriptures the signs of Messiah’s coming, and Messiah’s person, are very clear; his life; his preaching, his doctrines, his righteousness, his sanctity, his bounty, his meekness, his miraculous works, his sufferings, his cross, his burial, &c. But there being, at the same time, in these very scriptures, and that at every step, other things infinitely great and magnificent, written concerning the person of this same Messiah, our doctors with high indiscretion, laid hold of the latter only, and put them together after their own manner, while they forgot the former, and absolutely despised them as being little to their mind. And what was the consequence? Messiah comes, they hear his voice, behold his righteousness, admire his doctrine, his miracles, &c; he refers them to the scripture, where, as in a faithful mirror, they would find him portrayed in every point. Search the scriptures, for they are they which testify of me, John v. 39. But all in vain: for as there was no longer any Scripture, but the Rabbis; no longer any ideas of the Messiah, but those supplied by our doctors, who themselves, scribes, pharisees, and lawyers, knew only the Messiah described in the books and traditions of men; it was as it were a consequence inevitable, that all should go astray, and that the blind people, conducted by the priest hood equally blind, should fall along with them over the precipice.

Dangers Through the Neglect of Study

Now my friend, setting apart, and endeavouring to forget things so wicked and sad, and which we cannot remedy, let us turn the whole discourse into another channel. If I should dare to say, that we Christians in our present state are not removed so far as is thought from the same danger, nor so secure of not stumbling upon another such precipice, doubtless you would think that I jested. But if you saw that I spake seriously, and held to what I said, you would, I take it, instantly pronounce upon me the sentence of death, crying with a loud voice “take him and stone him.” Yet my Lord, though they take up stones on every side, I say it, I say it; the proposition I hold to be certain, and the foundation I judge to be the same without any substantial difference. Listen to me then with good nature, and start not so at the outset.

How certain it is and of faith divine, that the Messiah promised in the holy scriptures, hath already come into the world, so certain is it, and of faith divine, that, being passed into the heaven since his death and resurrection, he shall come the second time, to this same world, in a manner infinitely different. Accordingly, we Christians believe in two comings, as the two essential and fundamental points of our religion; the one already past, whose wonderful fruits we see and taste to this hour, the other infallibly to come though we know not when. —I ask you is it not true, that these ideas are so certain, so well-grounded, and so just, as to admit of neither fear nor doubt? —You will naturally answer, Yes, surely, but always in the good faith that all the notions held of the second coming of Messiah be faithfully drawn from the Holy Scriptures, whence alone it is allowable to take them.

Notwithstanding I ask thee, thine own self, to whom I speak individually, hast thou, by thine own study, travail, and diligence, drawn these ideas out of the holy scriptures? It were easy to say that we should take it for granted, that seeing thou art a priest, and either hast, or shouldest have the key of knowledge, thou couldest hardly have any excuse for going to draw from other cisterns not so safe, when thou mightst open the door and drink the water pure from the fountain. But the misery is, we cannot take this for granted, knowing quite the contrary from thine own confession. For thou boldly sayest, what need for any one to take upon him self the great and arduous work of drawing pure that which is locked up in the holy scriptures, when so many doctors labouring therein their whole life-time, have saved us the pains. And if I were to turn upon thee, and ask again —but art thou certain and secure, as in so grave a question thou shouldest be, that all the ideas thou findest in the doctors upon the second coming of Messiah are certain and correct? —I fear much, thou wouldest not deign me an answer, but turn me away as an impertinent and foolish fellow. And therefore, I do point with my finger to that very danger above spoken of, lying close before thee, that very precipice over which my brethren the Jews fell headlong.

One of the greatest evils at this day in the church, not to say the greatest of all, is, as appeareth to me, the neglect, the indifference, and even the almost entire oblivion into which the priesthood have fallen with respect to the study of the holy scriptures; I mean, the formal study, not the superficial reading of them. You yourself may be a good witness of this truth; since, being a learned man, and as such devoted to polite literature, you have had, and still have intercourse with men of letters in every department: among all these, how many scriptuaries have you found? how many, who at least sometimes opened that divine book? how many, who paid to it the small honour of giving it a place among other books?

But, returning to our subject, I take upon me, Sir, to tell you, and even to prove to you in all due form, that the ideas given by the interpreters on the second coming of Messiah, in respect to its manner, duration, and circumstances, and received by us as so sure and well-grounded, are by no means such as need not to be examined; which examination can in no other way proceed, but by comparing the said ideas with the scripture itself, whence they have been, or ought to have been taken. A diligence, which if the Scribes and Pharisees of my nation had given, when they were referred to the scriptures by the Lord himself, they had certainly taken up other ideas, widely different from those held by the Rabbis, and might haply not have erred so egregiously.

Review of Previous Systems

What my friend, wouldest thou, have me to say unto thee? For great as is my veneration and respect for those interpreters of scripture, who are men verily great, most wise, most erudite, and full of piety; I cannot help saying that, which not without great wonder I see and observe in them upon this particular point, whereof we treat. I see them, I do say, entirely occupied with the task of accommodating the whole of sacred scripture, especially its prophetic parts, to the first coming of Messiah, and the effects of that coming doubtless great and wonderful; without leaving any thing, or hardly any thing for the second, as if it were their only object to furnish matter for discourses to be preached, or to arrange some office for the time of Advent. And this they do with such zeal and fervour, that they are not at any time let or hindered by the impropriety, or by the violence, or by the silliness of their accommodations, nor even by the rules, which they have laid down at the outset, nor as little (which seems the most strange) do they hesitate to omit several things, now forgetting one, now many entire verses, as if they were of little importance, when often they are so important as manifestly to destroy the exposition which they will nevertheless persist in giving.

On the other hand, I see them assenting to principles, and giving rules or canons for the better understanding of the holy scriptures, but for what I can see it is clear at a glance, that some of these rules, and those not a few, are set down at discretion, without resting on any other foundation, than the exposition itself, or the understanding which they have given, or design to give of many very remarkable passages of scripture. Now if this exposition or understanding hath little justice, or be very wide of the truth (as falls out frequently enough), then have we most proper canons for never coming to the understanding of what we read in the scriptures. Whence also have originated those various meanings, of which they make such abuse, as a safe shelter upon occasions; seeing that however plain and apparent the text may be, if it opposed the ordinary ideas, they have always at hand their Allegorical sense; and if this will not carry them through, then comes promptly to their aid, the Anagogical; to which there are in addition the Tropological, Mystical, Accomodatical, &c. of all which they make a most frequent use, now of one, now of another, now of several at one time, mounting from earth to heaven with all liberty, and the next moment descending with the same ease from heaven to earth, taking, in the selfsame prophecy, in one and the same passage, yea sometimes even in a little verse, one part literally, another allegorically, another analogically, and so composing of various party coloured shreds one thing, one whole, of which at last no one can make any thing, or so much as tell what it is. All the while, the divine scriptures, the book of truth, most venerable, and most holy, lies subjected to the edge and fire of ingenious minds, at the mercy of whosoever can make the best accommodation of it, as if it were a book of enigmas.

From this Sir, imagine not that I absolutely reprobate the allegorical, or figurative sense (and what I say of this, I say in a degree of the others also). The allegorical sense in particular is often a good and true interpretation, to which we should give attention in the letter itself, yet without quitting the letter. By the testimony of St. Paul, we know that many things which are found written in the books of Moses, were figures of many others, which afterwards were verified in Christ; and the same apostle in the fourth chapter of his epistle to the Galatians, speaks of two covenants that were prefigured by the two wives of Abraham; and by his two sons, Ishmael and Isaac, adding, “which things are an allegory.” Now as we know the Epistles of St. Paul, to be equally canonical with the books of Genesis and Exodus, we remain certain and sure, not only of the history but of its application. And yet because of this allegorical or figurative explanation, we are neither to give up our belief that the two wives of Abraham, Agar and Sarah, were really two wives, nor that the things which were for figures, really were, and were accomplished according to the letter of what we read in the books of Moses. Of this kind, however, are not the figurative meanings which we find assigned to Scripture, not only by Origen (whom on this account Jerome calls ‘the ever-allegorical interpreter,’ and in other places ‘our allegorist’), but by ecclesiastical writers of every name, both ancient and modern; which interpretations of theirs, most frequently leave no room for, but utterly destroy the historical, that is, the obvious and literal sense. And although it be all true which they say, it is obviously not the truth contained in that portion of Scripture of which they treat, but derived from other places of the same Scripture, interpreted after a literal and obvious way; which they themselves agree is after all the only method of interpretation, that will establish an article of faith, or teach a point of truth.

By all this, says a modern author, it shall come to pass, that Holy Scripture has not till this day been explained in any different manner from that of the fourth and fifth century, which was rather oratorical, than exact and literal; partly out of an ill-understood reverence for antiquity, partly because it is a more easy and convenient way, whereby hardly any text, how ever obscure it may appear, will not admit of some interpretation; which is all they desire. Thus, a licence to explain divine scripture, in a thousand other senses besides the literal, has encreased by time to such an excess, that we may say without exaggeration those very commentators have made it inaccessible, and in some respects contemptible. (These are not my expressions, but those of the learned man just referred to)3 Inaccessible to those pious and religious persons, who having a hunger and thirst after the truths contained in the sacred books, are deterred from the fear of falling into the great errors which these same doctors muster against them, if they shall dare without the light and help of their commentaries to read the sacred books. And as in those commentaries so great and various, that which is oftenest in fault, and seldomest keeps its ground, is the Scripture itself, which not unfrequently we see thrust out of its proper place, and something else substituted in its stead; it seems a necessary result, that at the least a great part of it, and especially the prophecy, should remain hid, and as it were inaccessible to those who in good earnest, and with the best intention desire to study it.

The commentators, to speak generally, certainly do not enter into many very grave and plain mysteries, which are found repeated under a thousand forms in the Holy Scriptures. This is an evil, and no small one; but a greater still is this, that they forbid the entrance, and shut the door upon many who might have entered, giving them reason to understand, and sometimes taking the greatest pains to persuade them, that those mysteries to which I refer are perilous, are errors, dreams, ravings, &c. and that although in the Scripture they appear express and clear, they may not so be understood, but in some other way, in an hundred other ways, according to their different notions; excepting only and always that one way, and that one form, in which the Holy Spirit hath dictated them. And if thus to pious and religious persons, the Scripture has been rendered in a good measure inaccessible by its very interpreters, to others less pious and religious, especially in this age, which they call an age of light, it has been made little less than contemptible; inasmuch as they have given such persons occasion to say, and sometimes with the greatest liberty, that the Holy Scripture is at best a useless book, signifying nothing of itself, and not to be understood as it is read, but in some other way which must be divined: a book, in short, to which every one may give the sense that best him. Whereby, through the respectful dread of the one class, and the impious contempt of the other, one and the same effect hath naturally been brought about, than the study of the scripture could have come to be entirely given up, —an evil which in these days hath reached its height.

3 Fleuri. V. Discourse upon Ecclesiastical History.

All this which I have just pointed out, though in a general and confused way, must, I am persuaded, appear to you harsh and insufferable, especially in the mouth, or from the pen of a miserable Jew; and your displeasure will certainly increase, as we descend to the examination of those particular matters, so little examined, though generally received: for in those particular matters of which I am about to treat, I think, Sir, that I shall depart from the common sentiment, or the common judgment of the Expositors, and to a certain extent also, from that of the Theologians. This precise and formal declaration, which I make thus early, and which as we proceed you will see accomplished to the full, naturally makes me fear the first burst of your indignation, and constrains me to look out for some retreat from the face of the tempest, I mean the tempest of strong and violent censure, which I anticipate.

It appears to me a thing most natural, and therefore most excusable, that before having sufficiently heard, even before you can be possessed of the full knowledge of the cause, and even without giving heed to the process, you should condemn me at the least, for a rash and audacious person, who have dared by myself, being a fellow of no account, to contradict so many learned men, who after attentively considering the things in question, have established them as it were with an unanimous voice. Far be it from me to think of myself as any thing by the side of such, and so great men, whom I venerate, and to whom I bow, as is in reason and justice most due. But this veneration, this respect, this deference, you are not ignorant, Sir, has its just and precise limit to which it is lawful to advance, but beyond which we may not pass. The doctors themselves do not ask, nor can ask of us to pass those limits at the expense of truth, but teach us the very reverse; seeing there is hardly one among a thousand of them, who does not differ in something from the opinion of the rest. I say in something, for to do so in every thing, would be at the least an insufferable extravagance.

I treat only of one particular point, that is the coming of Messiah which all look for; and if in the things which pertain his particular point, I find in the doctors some deficiencies, or some ideas far from correct, and which yet appear to me of great importance, what do you think, my friend, that I ought to do? Shall it be a crime to speak of these defects, to publish them and to maintain their fallacy? Shall it be temerity and audacity to propose this to the consideration of the intelligent? Shall it be to fa~in the respect due to those very wise doctors, if we say, that either they overlooked them by having their attention divided over a thousand other things, or that it was impossible to help it on the system which they followed ? —And this is all I say, or claim a right to say: to which if you continue to apply the terms temerity and audacity, look, my worthy Sir, for words more proper to express the thing. What wonder if an ant, whose path is in the dust of the earth, should discover and make use of some small though precious grains, which might well escape the eye of the eagle? What wonder, what presumption or audacity were it for an ordinary man, though of the lowest ranks of the people, to discover in a great edifice that it was weak and threatened decay in some particular part? Not, certainly, that the edifice in general was not built according to rule; but that the foundation on which some part of it rested was not of an equal strength, or so firm as it ought to be. Would it be at all right to treat such a man as ignorant and clownish, to reprove him as a rash and audacious fellow, to say unto him with scorn, that he presumed to know more than the architects themselves, who, having as good eyes as he, did build on that foundation? But if, unfortunately, the architects in reality had not examined the foundation in that part, or not with sufficient attention; if they had trusted to others that went before them, and those again to others; and if in this trust they built without suspicion, looking no further, than to the placing of one stone upon another —in this case, were it wonderful that the vulgar and ignorant fellow should discover the defect, and, in making it known, speak the very truth! By this simple and obvious example, you may understand how much I have to allege in my own behalf: it will all come under this homely instance, to which I deem it unnecessary to add any further apology.

Only I ought to forewarn you, that, as in all this treatise which I am about to lay before you, I must necessarily at every step speak of those interpreters of scripture or rather of the interpretations which they give to those passages of scripture bearing my particular subject, I fear greatly lest I should be inevitably betrayed at times into expressions or words, which may seem to fail in respect, and even in civility. Whatever you shall find of this character, I pray, Sir, that you would have the goodness to correct; my intention being surely nothing more than to speak clearly and seeking in the least to wound the venerable name of our doctors and masters, that, on the contrary, I look upon them with particular favour, as not being ignorant of the boundless field of the scriptures in which they laboured, nor doubting of the goodness and rectitude of their intentions. So, let my expressions and words be what they may, they have no reference either to their persons, or to their piety, or to their wisdom, or to their erudition, or to their genius, &c. but regard merely the system which they have embraced. This system is the thing which I take a right to combat; showing by very facts, and by arguments the most simple and manifest, that it is insufficient, mainly weak, and unable to stand beneath so vast an edifice as is that mystery of God, which the holy scriptures unfold; and proposing another system, which is the only one, as it appears to me, able to sustain the whole. By this method, for more than a century, our physical philosophers have proceeded in the study of nature; neither art thou ignorant, what progress by this method they have made.

This work, or rather this friendly letter, which I have the honour of presenting to you, (to aim at some sort of order,) will, I think, arrange itself under the three principal heads of a husbandman’s labour; —to prepare the soil, to sow, and to reap. So as our first part will embrace merely the necessary, and at the same time the most helpful preparations, such as clearing the ground, ploughing it, removing obstructions, and resolving difficulties, &c. The second will embrace the observations, —which may be likened, in some sort, to the grain which is sown. In the third, and last, we will do our endeavour to collect whatever fruits of our labour we can find.

Fain would I present all these things in that admirable order, and in that concise and clear style, which might satisfy the good taste of our age. —But, I am not ignorant that this talent is not granted to all. Among the innumerable multitude of writers, who are every day produced in this enlightened age, one cannot help distinguishing the nobles from the plebeians, —the few among the many. But what order or style can you expect from a common man, whom you yourself have obliged to write? Will it not be sufficient to understand what such a one says, and to make out the point which he would express? Now this is all that I desire. If thus much I attain, there remaineth to me no thing more to aspire after, to thee nothing more to desire.

THE COMING OF MESSIAH

IN

GLORY AND MAJESTY.

PART I.

WHICH CONTAINETH CERTAIN NECESSARY PREPARATIONS FOR A RIGHT VIEW OF THE SUBJECT.

CHAPTER I.

OF THE LETTER OF HOLY SCRIPTURE.

§ 1. ALL that I have to say to thee, my venerable friend Christophilus, reduces itself to the serious and formal examination of one single point; which, in the present constitution or system of the church and the world, appears to me of the highest importance; viz. Whether the ideas which we entertain concerning the coming of Messiah, that essential and fundamental article of our religion, be true and just ideas, faithfully drawn from the divine testimony, or not.

In this second coming of Messiah, I comprehend, not only his manifestation, or his revelation, as St. Paul and St. Peter frequently term it; but also all the things which immediately connect themselves therewith; or hold with it an immediate relation; as well those which shall precede it, as those which shall accompany it, and likewise all its consequences. If my eyes deceive me not, I seem to see all those things with the greatest clearness and distinctness in the holy scripture. I seem to see them all, grand and magnificent, worthy of the majesty of God, and the wonderful person of the Man-God. And far from finding any difficulty in constructing and harmonizing them one with another, they appear to me coherent and consistent, as being all dictated by one and the same spirit of truth, which can in no wise be inconsistent with itself. It is true, indeed, that many of these things I understand not, nor am able to form a clear and precise idea of the manner in which they are all to come about: but what doth this signify? Am I in any way able to comprehend the wonderful manner in which Christ is present in the Eucharist? Yet withal I do believe it, though I understand it not; and by this faithful and genuine act of belief it is, that I am able to find in that sacrament the sustenance and life of my soul.

This reflection, which doubtless affordeth the greatest and most solid comfort, I extend, without any fear, to all things which I read in the holy scriptures; and, full of confidence and security, I reason with myself in the following simple strain: God is in every thing infinite, and I am in every thing puny: God can with the greatest ease do infinitely more than I am able to conceive: therefore must there be an infinite absurdity in thinking that I can measure him within the littleness of my ideas; consequently when he speaks, and I am certain that he speaks, I ought to bring my understanding and my reason into captivity to the obedience of faith, and therefore ought to believe at once whatever he says to me; and that, not after the mode in which it shadows itself forth to my mind, but precisely after that mode, and with all those circumstances, which he has condescended to reveal to me, whether I understand them, or whether I understand them not: because it is faith, and not intelligence which is required at my hand. By such argument, not the less excellent, because it is simple, I feel, my friend, that my heart opens, my faith revives, my hope strengthens, and, in short, I feel other effects, assuredly good, which there is no occasion to mention.

Yet as the desire of understanding is natural to man, and often highly to be praised, so that it keep within its proper limits I seek to understand those things which I believe; that is, the things of which I speak pertaining to the Messiah’s Advent, for I meddle not with any thing beyond; and for the understanding of these things, I look into the interpreters of scripture. And what follows? To you it will appear incredible, and almost a solemn absurdity, when I say, that hardly have I looked into the authors upon the points I speak of, when I feel almost every thing I had read and believed in the scripture to fade away from my sight, leaving my understanding so obscured, my heart so cold, and my whole soul so disgusted, that it is not till after much time, and many efforts, I can bear to look inward upon myself.

Which happening to me many times, or to speak with more propriety, so often as I read the interpreters upon the points mentioned above; one day when wearied of so much disgust, I began to think within myself, that it might prove a useful labour, to undertake an attentive and lengthened trial of those explanations, and meanings which are found in the Interpreters, comparing them one by one with Scripture itself. This which I read with my eyes, I said, taking into my hand the holy Bible, is certain, and of faith divine. God himself is he who speaketh herein. That which I read in other books, be they what they may, is neither of faith, nor can be. Because, verily, in them speaketh man, not God. Because, verily, some say to me one thing and some another. Why, in fine? Because, verily, they tell me things very wide, very foreign, and sometimes very adverse from that which is clearly and expressly told me in the holy Bible. Finding then between God and man, between God who speaks, and man who interprets, a great difference and even contradiction, to which of the two should I give credit? To man, and cease from God: or to God, and cease from man? Doubtless you will say what these very Interpreters say, and preach often enough, that I ought to believe both God who speaks, and man who interprets; that is to say, God who speaks, but not in that literal, simple, and clear sense which the letter declareth, and in which he appeareth to speak, but another recondite and sublime sense, which the Interpreter discovers, and by which he explains what God hath spoken. And this do, say they, upon the pain of imminent danger, upon the pain of falling into great errors, as hath happened to so many heretics, and so many besides who were not heretics, but catholic and pious men.

Not so fast, my friend, let us pause here a moment. Seemeth it to you, in strict and formal speech, that there may be some real danger in simply and faithfully believing what is so clearly written in the Holy Scripture? I judge you durst not say as much of the writings of St. Jerome, or any other celebrated doctor. Danger in the Holy Scripture? Danger in understanding it as you understand and believe any writer? Danger in believing the infinitely true God, holy and faithful in all his word, unless licence shall have first been sought of scanty and limited man? —I am not ignorant of the instance so common and hackneyed by which they attempt to prove this danger, viz. that the divine scripture oft speaketh of God, as if he really had eyes, ears, mouth, hands, and feet; of all which nothing can be understood literally, forasmuch as God is a pure spirit, with the notion of which, nothing of that kind can consist. But why not consist? Why not take all this exactly by the letter? For this very reason, as every reader of scripture well doth know, that the true God whom we adore, is a most pure and simple spirit, without bodily or material mixture. This being known, is altogether sufficient for one, though of the slenderest capacity, to conclude at once, and evidently comprehend, that the eyes, ears, mouth, and hands, which the Scripture assigns to God, cannot be corporeal, but purely spiritual, and such as to consist with a pure spirit. And if thus he understand, and thus believe, doth he not understand and believe a truth? How can God speak to be understood by us, but in our language, and by our words? Whence, then, by this example, doth the danger of the literal sense appear?

The danger, my friend, I say not remote and apparent danger, but proximate and real, lies on the contrary, in believing man the interpreter, when he departs from that proper, obvious, and literal sense, which the letter with all its context holds forth; when he omits, or conceals, or adds any thing which opposes, is away from, or not entirely consistent with the literal sense. Or if not, tell me why they should not admit, but condemn as dangerous, or at least as crude and undigested, that famous proposition of the most learned Theodoret? who in the 39th question upon Genesis, commenting on these words,—“The Lord God made for Adam and his wife, coats of skin, and clothed them;” and purposing to deny, as he actually doth, that God gave to Adam and Eve, such a clothing of skins; thus expresseth it, —”We ought not to adhere, as it were, faithfully to the naked letter of the sacred Scripture, but seek after the treasure hidden under the letter, for this reason, that the very letter of Scripture sometimes declares a falsehood.”4 Either this proposition is not false, harsh, and reprehensible, or if it be, then so also are all the threats they make, and all the fears of danger and destruction, which they cast upon the literal understanding of scripture.

Observe here, in passing, a thing of great importance, which you shall find in very common practice. This learned bishop of Scyro, probably believed as a wholesome, certain, and safe opinion, that which was commonly received in his time, as it is in ours, and in both without foundation, to wit, that the transgression of our first parents took place in the very

4 Non oportet adhærere nudæ literæ scripturæ sanctæ tanquam verb; sed thesaurum in littera latentem, quærere, eo quod ipsa litera divinæ scripturæ interdum falsum dicat.

day of their creation: some indeed granting them another day of grace, and others according to their greater or less liberality extending it as far as the eighth day. Upon this supposition, it appeared to them inexplicable, that God should so soon find skins to clothe them withal: which could only be in one of two ways; either by creating these skins out of nothing, or by taking them from some animals: not the first; for God had ceased from all his work: as little the second, for the animals just created, had not had time to multiply, and it is not to be believed, that a species should perish in order to obtain their skins; therefore the clothing which God made for the offenders, could not be of real skins, but of some other material which is not known.

This reasoning appeared to that learned man, both good and conclusive, as it hath appeared to others since his time; and if the reasoning be good and conclusive (which it is far from being, because it resteth upon a falsehood), then follows very forcibly this alternative; either the divine scripture tells an untruth, or the transgression of our first parents did not happen so soon as is supposed: but this last may not be said, because it is the common opinion of the doctors, which is more sacred than scripture: therefore the divine scripture must pay for it: consequently the divine scripture affirms a falsehood. —So that to save a common opinion from contradiction, there results this general rule, “we ought not to adhere, as it were, faithfully to the naked letter of Holy Scripture, but search for the treasure hidden under the letter, for this reason, that the very letter of scripture sometimes declares a falsehood.” —I consider it as certain, that you will look upon this rule not only as false, not only as crude, not only as wanting in reverence, but also as fraught with prejudice and danger. Nevertheless, I do not hesitate to express my apprehensions upon good grounds, that the use of this same general rule appears to yourself, to be perhaps, upon occasions, convenient, useful, and even necessary.

§ 2. But then, have not many (I hear you reply,) erred; have they not fallen into peril, and therein perished, from understanding the scripture exactly as it reads? Has not the literal sense of scripture, proved unto many a very grievous stumbling-block? My friend, I resolutely answer, No. —The errors which so many have taken up, as well heretics as not, have in no instance originated in the literal sense of scripture, but absolutely in the very reverse, in having departed from that sense; in having understood, or in the pretence of having understood, something different from that pointed out by the letter: in having believed, or imagined there is or may be some error in the letter; and under this impression omitted, or added something. Read with attention the history of heresies by any one of the many authors who have written upon this head, and you shall find yourself forced to confess, that not one has owed its origin to the obvious and literal sense of scripture: I mean its true and real origin, not that which they wickedly pretend for it. I have now before me the catalogue of heresies drawn up by St. Augustine until his time; wherein are comprehended, all, or most of those, which St. Ireneus, and after him St. Epiphanius have confuted; and I have reflected not a little upon those which have arisen since; and so far from finding their origin in the letter of scripture, I find it always in quite the contrary cause, of not wishing to conform to the letter and the literal sense.

This is the reason, as St. Augustine testifies in his second book of Christian doctrine, why the Holy church in the Holy Spirit assembled, when it has mentioned and condemned any of these errors, has only had to produce the letter of the scripture upon the point: that is, the text and the context taken literally in that sense, which obviously, clearly, and naturally occurred to the mind. Nor, I may add, has the church ever defined any truth, no, nor ever can, by drawing the text from its obvious and natural sense, and carrying its meaning to something else away from the letter, or opposed to it. —What more would heretics have desired? They would instantly have triumphed!

Not only by the church in the Holy Spirit assembled, but also by all the ancient fathers, and by as many doctors as have since written against heresies, hath this same course been always, or almost always observed. I say almost always, because it is not to be denied, that sometimes in the heat of disputation, they have passed much beyond this rule, and much beyond this just and precise limit. And then it is precisely that they conclude nothing and effect nothing. So that it may be said with truth, thus saith the Holy Scripture in this matter; and by other means is not any thing concluded.

Heretics the most corrupt, and the most wide of the truth, have ever pretended to establish their errors by scripture, as if this were indeed that universal fountain, from which every one might drink what pleased him best. They would, I say, have us to believe, that they are in scripture, and have been thence derived. But, in truth, they held them already, independent wholly of the scripture; and held them for the most part in the heart, rather than the head: and having adopted them, and perhaps without adopting or believing them, they went to the divine scripture to search therein for some confirmation, or defence of them, out of a spirit of mere malignity, of emulation, of hatred, of independence, and of system. And what followed? It followed, and it is quite natural that it should so follow, either that they found in the scripture, a text in a kind of way favourable; or they themselves did open violence to it, in order that it might stand on their side, now taking away, now adding, now divorcing it from all its context, that it might be forced to speak that which it really did not speak. The Manicheans, for example, maintained their two principles, or two gods, the one good, the other bad; the one the cause of all the good in the world, the other the cause of all the evil, physical and moral, which afflict and trouble the children of Adam. Having with this view ransacked, with the utmost care and diligence, the whole of the sacred writings, they at length found these words of Christ, Every good tree bringeth forth good fruit, but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit; a good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. Matt. vii. 17. The joy of such an important discovery must have been so great to those learned, though hardly rational men, that it would not give them leave to read another line which immediately follows, to the great dishonour of their second principle—every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn down, and cast into the fire. —This second principle, they might have reasoned, always produceth evil, and never good, therefore sometime it shall be hewn down, and cast into the fire. Consequently it neither can be, nor can be called God, nor with any propriety, a principle; therefore there cannot be more than one only true God, the principle and end of all things. All this, these doctors might have concluded from that very text which they adduced, had they read the whole of it with good eyes; but as their eyes were so vitiated, it was a necessary consequence that the whole should be vitiated.

Thus, in the heresies of that time was fulfilled, hath been always fulfilled, is fulfilled, and for ever shall be fulfilled, to the very letter, that which is written in scripture: He that seeketh the law shall he filled therewith, but the hypocrite will be offended thereat. Ecclesiasticus xxxii. 15. Reading the scripture with such bad eyes, and with such depraved intentions, what wonder, that instead of the truth which they do not seek, they should find the error and the offence which they do seek? —And shall it be said, that this and other errors of the like kind, have had their origin in the letter of scripture?

Calvin and several others, to take a step forward, advanced that Jesus Christ was not really and truly present in the sacrament of the Eucharist. And as if this were clear and express in the scripture, they defied any one whatever to a disputation, upon condition that they should bring and use no other arms than scripture itself, for which they professed a high degree of respect and veneration. Say now that you and I, who are Catholics and have a sufficient knowledge of the question, with all our heart take up this defiance, and enter to the disputation with the Bible in our hands. But before opening it, I ask of them the favour to show me some place, or places of the scripture, from which they have extracted this novelty. The real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, I add, counts years of possession, even for as long as the church hath been invested by Christ himself; for it is clear from constant and universal tradition, and likewise from all ecclesiastical history, that the church has always believed, taught, and practised it, as a thing received from the Apostles, and found written in the scriptures themselves. —With all Catholics, therefore, we stand in lawful possession of this doctrine of the real presence; and a legitimate immemorial possession, is sufficient, and more than sufficient to establish a sure right.

It is not enough, in a tumultuous body they answer me, unless there be found, and produced in judgment some instrument, or authentic scripture, which proves the contrary. Well then, I say, let this instrument be shown, this scripture, that it may be seen what it says, and in what terms it speaks. With all the labour they take, with all their turning the Bible over and over again, they in fact produce nothing, they show nothing, and can show nothing which contradicts, or in any way makes against my possession, and my right. Where, then, is this place of the Holy Scripture to be found? Whence, by taking it literally, have they imbibed this error? On the contrary, I show them not one but many places of the same scripture, which are clearly in my favour. In the first place, I show them the four Evangelists, who with all clearness declare it when they speak of the last supper. St. John, indeed, on that occasion, being occupied with other admirable mysteries, omitted by the other Evangelists, makes no mention of it, having already left it, both spoken and repeated in the sixth chapter of his gospel. —My flesh is bread indeed, and my blood is drink indeed; he who eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, &c. —The bread which I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world. I show them, in fine, the instruction which St. Paul gives upon this subject to the church of Corinth, and thereby to all the churches besides, saying, that which he had there taught he had received immediately from the Lord. —For I have received of the Lord, &c. 1 Cor. xi. 23.5

Having shown them all these places of the scripture, clear and undeniable; I pray in the name of grace or of justice, this only, that they would not strip them of their literal sense, that is, the obvious and natural one which the words bear; because it is not lawful to do so, no, not even with the writings of Calvin himself. If they concede to me the obvious and literal sense of the texts which I have mentioned, by this alone, without further effort, the error is dissipated: nor is it necessary to pass to other arguments: the dispute is at an end. —But if my petition find no favour, if they persist in denying that the divine scripture speaks what our eyes see, if they pretend that saying one thing, another thing is to be understood, &c. the error will go on for ever, and the dispute will last for ages.

5 Note from Irving’s Discourse: A DEAR friend and brother in the ministry of Christ has just sent me the following Note, which I have much pleasure in adding to this Dissertation, not being able to embody it. —It should be affixed to that part of the Work which relates to Transubstantiation. “I think a few words would be desirable; merely observing, that the pious Author does not seem to have been aware that there is no word in Hebrew or Syriac which denotes ‘to signify.’ They always use the thing signified for the sign. The seven lean kine, are seven years; that is, signify seven years: the seven golden candlesticks, are the seven churches; that is, signify the seven churches, &”

What I say of this error in particular, I say generally of all errors and heresies whatever, which have disturbed, afflicted, and scandalized the church. In the history and progress of seventeen centuries, I do not find one which has not had the same origin. The heart being once depraved, the understanding through its means doth easily become depraved also, and then it is most easy to wrest all authentic writings which might stand in the way. This wresting of the scriptures, which in all ages has been found so common, showed itself so far back as the time of the Apostles, and is alluded to by St. Peter in the third chapter of his second epistle, in these words, which the unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, to their own destruction. And from that time till now, there may be observed, in respect to such unstable men, one or other of these two things, either that they have falsified and corrupted the text, by adding or abstracting some word, or if that have not been in their power, they have at least with impunity persisted in denying that the text means that which it says, and which every one who can read it, reads plainly and directly. And for what all this straining, but for dread of the letter? Therefore it is not the letter which hath led them into error.

I do not speak here of another class of men, who have combated other truths, which, although not appearing expressly from the scripture, are not on that account the less to be relied on; whose whole argument is this —They do not clearly appear from scripture, therefore they are not true, but may be denied, and undervalued without any scruple. A most lame conclusion, we reply; for besides those infinite truths which clearly appear upon the letter of scripture, there have always been certain others, which the church received from the living voice of her masters, who received them in the same manner from the living voice of the Son of God, after the resurrection, when during forty days he appeared unto them, and spake unto them concerning the kingdom of God, Acts i.: as also by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, who dwelt in them. These truths, the church hath faithfully and constantly preserved from the beginning, always believed them, taught them, publicly and universally practised them, in all parts, and at all times, without interruption, and without any substantial alteration. Of which these are the five principal: 1. The Apostles’ creed. 2. The seven Sacraments. 3. The Hierarchy. 4. The perpetual virginity of the most Holy Mother of Messiah. 5. The scripture itself, as we now possess it, without more variety than is indispensable in the versions from one tongue to another.

Some other truths the doctors point out, which either are not so sure, or are not so interesting, or may be brought under these five heads, which hold no lower origin than the apostles themselves. So that we say confidently with St. Ambrose; away with arguments when faith is in question, now let logic be silent; not the reasoners, but the fishermen are to be believed.6 It availeth, therefore, very little, that those truths are not found in the scriptures; and is sufficient that the contrary of them be not clearly and expressly found therein; which indeed would invalidate any tradition, or rather convict it of false tradition; it is enough that the church has always believed, has always taught, has always practised them. And they who will not yield to all this, do furnish more than sufficient ground to believe that the whole evil is in the heart: for whom, therefore, there remaineth no other remedy, save the most severe and terrible one, which is already entered in the gospel. —And if he will not hear the church, let him be unto thee, a Heathen man, and a Publican. —Matt. x. 17.

§ 3. With respect to pious Catholics, who have sometimes erred, more or less, we have to say nearly the same as of the heretics, with this great and notable difference, which is

6 Aufer argumenta ubi fides quæritur, jam dialectica taceat; piscatoribus creditur non dealecticis.

all their apology; that if in any thing they have erred at a time, their error has been not in the heart, but in the head, which they no sooner came to know, than they instantly retracted with simplicity and truth. But if with moderate attention, we search into the true origin of those errors, far from finding it in the letter or literal sense of the scripture, we shall find it always, or almost always, in the very contrary. All the errors which are attributed to Origen, a man otherwise great, and famous for his learning and the sanctity of his life, are certainly to be attributed to no other principle than this; That he inclined his understanding, not indeed to that which the scripture says, but to something else very remote, which it saith not; so that every word must have another occult sense, which it was necessary to search out or to divine; and the scripture became in his hands nothing better than a book of enigmas.

For which he alleged that text of St. Paul, For the letter killeth, but the spirit maketh alive, 2 Cor. iii. 6; understanding it in the same manner, and with the same grossness of interpretation, as he had this other, There are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven’s sake, Matt. xix. 12. Proceeding upon a principle so false as was this, drawn from his understanding of the letter killeth —what wonder that he erred? The wonder would have been if he had not erred.

§ 4. Is not, then, that sentence of the apostle and teacher of the Gentiles true, The letter killeth, but the spirit maketh alive? Is it not true according to this sentence, that holy writ, being literally understood, kills the poor simple man who so understands it; but quickens the learned and spiritual man, who understands it spiritually? I reply to you, Sir, with all courtesy, that what St. Paul says is a truth, and a truth of great importance, while the interpretation you have just given of it is not so, but a gross and even ridiculous falsehood.

The letter, of which the apostle speaks, as any one who has eyes may see, is nothing but the law, cut in letters upon tables of stone, which God gave to his people by the hand of Moses, This letter, or this written law, being contrasted with the law of grace, is that which is said by the holy apostle to kill. For why? Not only because it ruled with rigour and with terrible threatenings, yea with death and all other chastisements and calamities, but because it neither gave the Spirit, nor had it to give; that is to say, when it was promulgated from Mount Sinai, there was not given along with it the quickening Spirit, whose time was not yet come. This God reserved for another and a more seasonable time, when Messiah himself, having concluded the mission of his eternal Father, and the redemption of the world, arose and was glorified; For, says St. John, the Holy Spirit was not yet given, because that Jesus was not yet glorjfied, John vii. 39.

The law of grace, on the contrary, was not, in the day of its promulgation, written on tables of stone, but on the tables of the heart; not with carved material letters, but by the quickening Spirit of the living God, which in that day was shed abroad abundantly by Jesus Christ in the simple and pure hearts of the believers, illuminating, instructing, and empowering them to embrace that law, and fulfil it in all its perfection; no longer in fear as slaves, but in love as the sons of God: whereof the same Spirit gave them testimony and sure earnest: The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, &c. Rom. viii. 16.

Now as the Spirit which was then given was not a passing thing limited to that day only, but permanent and stable, which was to be given in all times, and to all believers who should seek to entertain him, the apostle says, that the Spirit of the law of grace quickens, which the written law does not, but kills, because there was not in it such a spirit. This is all which is asserted by St. Paul, and this is in substance the explanation given to the text by judicious authors, when they come to it: having given the literal interpretation of a clear text in scripture, we oft-times find them calling it the interpretation according to the letter which killeth, alluding no doubt to this expression of St. Paul, but in a sense which it neither hath nor can have. Read the book of St. Augustine, Concerning the Spirit and the letter, (de Spiritu et littera,) and you shall find, from the very beginning of it, the well-merited censure of those who pretend by this text to justify themselves in forsaking the proper sense of scripture, in order to escape away to allegory. Allegory is good, being used in moderation, and without prejudice to the letter, which must in the first place be preserved. This secured, allegorize how much you choose, extract figures, moralities, predicable conceptions, and whatever may he for the edification of the reader; provided always that you oppose no other place of scripture, taken in its proper and natural sense.

§ 5. It cannot be denied that we read many things in scripture, which taken according to the letter, and even studied laboriously in connexion with the whole context, we do not understand. And why is there much that we do not understand? Does it appear to you of fixed and absolute necessity that every thing should be understood, and in every time? If you look closely into it, this ignorance, or want of understanding in respect to many things in scripture, more especially in the prophecy, cometh of the one or other of these two causes; either that their time is not yet arrived, or that they do not accord well, but mainly oppose some ideas, or system of ideas, which we have already adopted as good. If the time for understanding many things be not yet arrived, and the substance of them were of no use, how should we think to understand them? How are we to understand that which the infinite wisdom of God hath sought to keep from being revealed to us, by the darkest veil of obscure metaphor, in order that it might not be understood before its time? The understanding of this kind doth not depend, my dear Sir, upon our ingenuity, nor upon our study, nor upon the holiness of our life; but dependeth solely upon God’s pleasure to give us the key, to give us the spirit of understanding. And God is not accustomed to give this but in his own times, especially in respect to those matters which, out of their time, might be productive of loss rather than gain. The elders, it is undeniable, were dark on many points which at present we understand; and they who are yet to arise shall understand many more, which are at present unintelligible to us; because, in one word, they were not written without a determinate end in view, which end would not be obtained if they remained for ever hid.

After the same way, we reason concerning the second cause of this want of light. If some and not a few of the things we read in the scripture do not accord with those ideas, or that system which we have adopted, but clearly oppose them, how should it be possible that in such a case we should understand them? According as the system may appear to us complete, and our ideas evident, will the obscurity of those scriptures increase, which are clearly contrary, and even sometimes contradictory thereto. And in all times the utmost efforts of the greatest minds have been used to unite these two enemies, but all in vain. Wherefore in vain? For the very reason that we have just pointed out. Because our system appears to us the only one, and our ideas evident. And being so, all the efforts which can be made lead to no other result than this, to make the scriptures yield in order to accommodate our system, that it may rest victorious, without losing an inch of ground. But as God’s verity is essentially immutable and eternal, and incapable of yielding to any efforts of the creature, this its unalterable firmness will come, by a natural consequence, to be the whole cause of its obscurity. As if we should say, This, and the like passages of scripture, will not, after all that we can do, accommodate themselves to our system; therefore they are obscure, therefore they must have another sense; therefore it will be indispensable to search for some other sense, more suited to the purpose of accommodating, or at least of not opposing, our system.

This mode of reasoning will appear to you far from just; and yet it is incredible what use is made of it. And who knows, my friend, (but keep this secret to your own breast) who knows, but those threats which they hold out, of error and peril in the literal sense of scripture, have respect solely to the things which will not square with the system they have adopted? These threats surely do not extend to all the scripture, seeing they themselves search into and admit the literal sense; as far as is possible for them. And why should they withhold from doing so in certain peculiar cases? And what are these,? They are those precisely, and, as it seems to me, those only, to consider and examine which, is the primary subject of this treatise, —all the things that pertain to the second coming of our Lord.

CHAPTER II.

OF THE EXTRINSICAL AUTHORITY OF THE LETTER OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES.

§ 1. IN the understanding and interpretation of those prophets, which in any way pertain to our great subject, it is very easy to remark, how the interpreters of scripture, having for a moment sought and followed after the literal sense, in which it was not possible for them to make much progress, in a short time betook themselves to the pure allegory, pretending that this is the sense especially intended by the Holy Spirit. For which, if we ask them their reason and grounds, their only reply is to refer us to authority wholly external; that is, to the other doctors of antiquity, who in like manner understood and explained them. This argument, from authority which, in other points of doctrine and morality, may and ought to be looked upon as good and legitimate, does not appear to be so in this point of which we treat. For as, without any disrespect to the more modern doctors, we may ask them a reason for their interpretation, when it is not agreeable to the letter of the text; so, in like manner, may we ask it of the ancients, for as much as the authority of these, however great and respectable it may be, cannot rest upon itself. This is a prerogative of the highest kind, which pertains to no one but God only. And therefore their authority must ground itself either on scripture itself, declaring it clearly so to be, or on universal, immemorial, sure, and constant tradition, or on some decision of the church, or on some good and solid reason.

This is in substance precisely what St. Augustine says to St. Jerome, in that celebrated epistolary dispute which was held between those two great doctors, upon the true meaning of the second chapter of St. Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians. The reasons which St. Augustine produced, and by which he impugned the sentiments of St. Jerome, appear most clear and decisive: insomuch that St. Jerome himself, finding no way of eluding their force but silently confessing it, was fain, as an ultimate resource, to betake himself to external authority; bringing in his behalf the authority of St. Chrysostom, Origen, and other Greek fathers, who had been of his opinion: to which St. Augustine replied in these words, well worthy of consideration: “For in the ear of thy charity I confess, that only to those books of scripture which are now acknowledged to be canonical, have I learned such deference and honour, as to believe most firmly that none of their authors hath fallen into error in any of their writings. And in this kind of writ, if I should fall upon any thing which seems to me contrary to truth, I do not doubt that it is either the error of the manuscript, or that the interpreter hath not apprehended what was said; or that I have not understood it. But other authors, however great their attainments in sanctity and learning may be, I read not in the belief that the matter is true because they have thought it, but because they have succeeded in persuading me, from these canonical writers or from probable reasonings, that it is not repugnant to truth.”7

The same holy doctor, not to be inconsistent with himself, protests in another place, that he does not desire for his own writings that they should be otherwise treated than he himself did treat those of other doctors; that what appears agreeable to truth be adopted, and what appears contrary or foreign to the same truth, should be cast away or impugned. “The disputations of any, though catholic, and praiseworthy men, we ought not to hold in the same estimation with the canonical scripture; so as not to feel at liberty without offence to the honour due to them, to call in question, and even to refute any thing which we may chance to find in their writings disagreeing with the truth, as God hath enabled others, or ourselves to understand it. And as I feel in respect to the writings of other men, so wish I my readers to feel in respect of mine.”8

Since, however, in the particular things of which we are about to treat, external authority is the only enemy which we have to fear, and which at every step will occasion us the most terrible opposition; it appears proper and even necessary, to say a word or two thereon; presupposing always, and assenting to every thing in the subject which is sure and certain. The authority of the ancient fathers of the church, is doubtless of the greatest weight, and we ought not only to respect it, but to yield ourselves to it entirely; not blindly, or in all supposable cases, but in certain cases, and with certain precautions and limitations taught by the theologians. The following is a general proposition in which all agree: “When all, or almost all the fathers of the church unanimously concur in the explanation or understanding of any passage of scripture, such unanimous consent constitutes an argument of theology, and sometimes of faith, that this and no other is the true interpretation of that passage of scripture.”

This general proposition, though sure and certain, admits however, of some limitations not less sure and certain, and on which the doctors are equally agreed. The first, that the passage of scripture in question should directly bear upon the substance of religion, or the universal doctrines of the whole church, as also upon morality. Which limitation is expressly written in the decree of the council of Trent, Session 4th: whereby it is commanded that no one shall dare to interpret holy scripture, conforming it to his own opinion, “in matter of faith and morals, pertaining to edification in doctrines, contrary to that sense which hath

7 Ego enim fateor charitati tuæ, solis eis scripturarum libris, qul jam canonici appellantur, didici hunc timorem honoremque deferre, ut nullum eorum auctorem, scribendo aliquid erasse firmissimè credo. At si aliquid in eis offendero litteris, quòd videbatur contrarium veritati, nihil aliud quam vel mendacem esse codicem, vel interpretem non assecutum esse quòd dictum est, vel me minime intellexisse, non ambiguam. Alios autem (auctores) ita lego ut quan talibet sanctitate, doctrinaquæ perpolleant, non ideo verurn putem, quia ipsi ita senserunt; sed quia mihi, vel per illos auctores canonicos, vel probabili ratione, quòd a vero non abhorreat, pesuadere poterunt. St. Aug. Ep. 82. ad Hier. n. 3.

8 Neque enim quorumlibet disputationes, quamvis catolicorum et laudabiliurn hominum, velut scripturas canonicas habere debemus, ut nobis non liceat, salva honorificentia, quæ ipsis debetur, aliquid scriptis improbare atque respuere si forte invenerimus, quod aliter senserint quam veritas habeat, divino adjutorio vel ab aliis intellectæ, vel a nobis. Talis sum ego in scriptis aliorum: tales ego volo intellectores meorum.

been held, and is held by the holy mother church, whose prerogative it is to judge of the true sense of Holy Scripture, or even against the unanimous consent of the fathers.”9

A second limitation is; that the explanation or understanding which they give to the passage of scripture, be given by all, or the greater number of them, not as a mere suspicion or conjecture, but as a verity of faith. And the third limitation is; that the point in question should have been treated by all, or most of the fathers, not by the way, as in some sermon or homily, but on express purpose; determining, proving, affirming, and resolving that the thing which they assert is a verity, and the contrary of it an error. Some other limitations are laid down by the doctors, which however it is not material to mention here, these three, which are the chief ones, sufficing for our present purpose.”10

§ 2. Be not afraid, my friend, lest I should fail in respect for the authority of the ancient fathers, or desire to invade the just limits of that authority. For the points which I am about to treat, in the first place, do not bear directly upon doctrine or morals: in the second place, the ancient fathers do not treat of them on purpose, hardly touch them in passing, and that but a few: in the third place, the few who do touch them, do not agree in their sentiments, some affirming and others denying, which is a circumstance of the utmost importance: and in the fourth and last place, neither the fathers who affirm, nor those who deny (excepting St. Epiphanius, of whom we will speak in due time) treat the opposite opinion as erroneous. This censure is quite modern, and from the mouth of incompetent judges. St. Jerome, one of those who held the negative, says expressly, that he does not therefore, neither can, condemn those who hold the affirmative: “which things, though we follow not, we leave to the judgment of God, in consideration of the multitude of church men and martyrs who have so expressed themselves.”11

From all which it clearly appears, that we are at liberty to follow some and forsake others: to follow, I would say, that opinion which all things considered and justly weighed, shall appear to us most agreeable to the tenor of the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments.

For the greater confirmation of what has been said, we conclude this point with the words of the great Bossuet. This wise and judicious writer, in the preface to his exposition of the Apocalypse, in order to smooth the way for a new course which he was to take, proposes certain difficulties, among which, the first is the authority of the ancient fathers, and the concurring sentiments of interpreters, who had seen in the Apocalypse, not the persecutions of the three first centuries of the church, but the last which are to precede the coming of the Lord, and to this difficulty he replies under his thirteenth article, after the following manner:

“But the mere novice in theology knows the resolution of the first difficulty. If it had been necessary, for the explanation of the Apocalypse, to reserve every thing to the end of the world, and the times of Antichrist, would it have been permitted, that so many learned men of the past age should understand by the beast of the Apocalypse, now Antichrist, in the person

9 In rebus fidei et morum ad edificationem doctrinæ pertinentium contra eum sensum quem tenuit et tenet sancta mater ecciesia, cujus est judicare de vero sensu Scripturarum Sanctorum, aut etiam contra unanimem consensum patrum.

10 See upon this point Meichor Cano, de locis, lib. T: Petavio Prolegom ad Theolog, and Possevino Aparato Sacro, etc.

11 Quæ licet non sequamur, quia multi ecciesiasticorum virorum et martyres ita dixerunt…judicio Domini reservamus. (In cap. 19. Jerem.)

of Mahomet, now something else; or Enoch and Elias by the two witnesses of the eleventh chapter?…the learned ex-Jesuit Louis de Alcazar, who wrote a large commentary upon the Apocalypse from which Grotius has taken many of his ideas, makes it to be perfectly accomplished up to the twentieth chapter, and shows the two witnesses without speaking a word of Elias or of Enoch. When they oppose to him the authority of the fathers and of certain other doctors, who, with unbridled license, would make traditions and articles of faith out of the conjectures of some of the fathers, he replies, that other doctors have thought differently, and that the fathers likwise vary upon those points, or upon the greater part of them. Consequently, that there is not, neither can be, found in them a constant and uniform tradition, as it is also with many other points, upon which doctors, though catholic, have pretended to find it. In short, that it is not a question of doctrine nor of authority, but of pure conjecture. And all this is well grounded in that rule of the council of Trent, which placeth the understanding of the scriptures, neither in constant tradition, nor in any inviolable authority of the holy fathers, but in her own unanimous consent, and this only in matters of faith and morals.” The whole of this which Mr. Bossuet says, receive my friend as if I had spoken it all to you, in answer to the only difficulty which I see in my way. And now let us come to the subject.

CHAPTER III.

THE ORDINARY SYSTEM UPON THE SECOND COMING OF MESSIAH IS PROPOSED, TOGETHER WITH THE METHOD OF EXAMINING IT

§ 1. EVERY part of Divine Scripture hath so close a connexion with the adorable person of Messiah, that we may truly say, the whole of it speaks of him, either in figure, in prophecy, or in history; all beginning in him, and in him terminating as its true and ultimate end. Our Rabbis did not fail to perceive well enough this great and important truth; but among so many great and magnificent things which, as it were, at every step, they read concerning Messiah in the Prophets and the Psalms, encountering some others little to their mind, and which seemed to them unworthy of such greatness and majesty; nor wishing faithfully and sincerely to believe what they read, for the reason that they could not harmonize, in one and the same person, the grandeur of the former with the meanness of the latter; and would not distinguish nor admit, in the same person, those two states and times, infinitely wide of each other, which stood out so manifestly in the scriptures; it came to pass, that they took at length a side which was the side of our ruin and the root of all our evils, resolving to declare for the former and to forget the latter.

In consequence of which imprudent resolution, they did, almost without perceiving it, form a general system, which, little by little, they all came to embrace, one saying what another had said, and for no better reason than that the other had said it. And with great pains, they set themselves to accommodate to that system, which appeared to them the only one possible, all the prophecies, and whatsoever is said in them, resolving to give no quarter to any thing, be it what it would, unless it would yield compliance. A truly wretched system, which, in the end, brought the whole people of God to that miserable state in which they are found at this day. Leaving however these things, as now irreparable, and turning to our purpose, we thence take leave to propose, and likewise to examine with attention, the ideas which the christian doctors give us concerning that coming of the same Messiah, which we still expect. They say, or suppose it as certain, that those ideas are derived from holy writ: but is it certain? And granting that it is so in the general, is it likewise certain that they are faithfully taken, without omission, addition, or any disguise, and every thing standing in its proper place? So it appears to me we ought to suppose, yielding our judgment to the authority of so many learned men, who have built upon this foundation, deeming it to be good, solid, and secure. And I do, for the present, desire to suppose it so, without setting myself unseasonably to deny or to dispute. Nevertheless, as the subject presents itself to me, as being one of the highest importance, and there is on the other hand nothing to hinder me, I desire to take the advice to drink the water in the fountain; to see and feel and prove for myself, the conformity which those ideas have, or may have, with the scripture itself, from whence they are taken; for it is a clear case that it will yield much greater satisfaction, to see Rome itself with our own eyes, than in a description or painting.

§ 2. All the things, general and particular, which we find written upon this subject in books, being reduced to a few words, form a system, of which the substance may be set forth in the following terms: —Jesus Christ will return from heaven to the earth in glory and majesty, not before, but exactly at, the end of the world, his coming being preceded by all those great signs which are written in the Evangelists, the Prophets, and the Apocalypse. Amongst which one will be most terrible, the persecution by Antichrist for the space of three years and a half. Authors do not entirely agree in every thing pertaining to this persecution. Some place it immediately before the coming of the Lord; others, and I believe the greater number, observing in this a very great inconvenience which might ruin the whole system, take to themselves the liberty of placing this great event some time before, in such a way as to leave a space of time, great or small, determinate or indeterminate, between Antichrist’s end and Christ’s coming. For which we shall see their reason in its proper place.12

A short while before the coming of the Lord, and immediately on his issuing forth from heaven, there will come on the earth an universal deluge of fire, which will consume all the living, without one single exception; this ended, and the fire quenched, in one moment will arise unto life the whole human race: so that when he arrives at the earth, he will find every child of Adam, who hath been, is, or is to be, not only risen, but likewise assembled in the valley of Jehoshaphat, which lieth close to Jerusalem. In this valley, they say, the universal judgment is to be held. And why? Because so the prophet Joel assures us, in the third chapter; and although the prophet speaks not of the universal judgment, as appears from all the context, yet so have certain of the ancients understood the passage, and so it has been received until now, without formal contradiction. And this, notwithstanding the exact measures which have been made by the curious, in order to see how, within the space of a mile and a half in length by a hundred paces in breadth, it were possible to accommodate those tiny men who must be assembled from all ages and from all quarters of the world, forasmuch as they will accommodate themselves as best they can; and the wicked and miserable people, says a learned man, can go into any room however small.

Then the Lord being come to the valley of Jehoshaphat, and being seated upon a throne of majesty, not upon the earth, but in the air, though very near the earth, and all the just being in like manner stationed in the air, according to their orders, after the manner of an amphitheatre, the books of the consciences of men shall be opened, and all the good and evil

12 Phenom. 4.

of every one published abroad; whereby the cause of God being justified, the Judge shall pass the final sentence, on some of eternal life, on others of eternal death: whereupon instantly the sentence shall be executed, which casteth down to hell all the wicked to dwell with the devils, and Jesus Christ shall return once more to heaven, carrying all the good along with him.

This is the sum and substance of all we find written in books; but if we regard with any degree of attention what is spoken and declared to us throughout the scriptures, it is easy to perceive that many very substantial matters are here altogether wanting; and that those which are present, though true in part, are found out of their proper place. Whether this be so or not, it does not appear possible, within short compass, to clear up and decide; for not only must proofs be produced, but intricacies disentangled, and many knots unloosed and broken.

§ 3. It is known unto all, by the principles of mere natural reason, that the only mode of ascertaining the goodness and truth of a system, upon any subject, is to see and make experiment whether all the particulars which belong to it be thereby well explained. Let us give an example.

I wish to know for certain, if the ancient system of the heavens, commonly called the Ptolomean, be good or not. I have nothing more to do than to examine if it explain, in a natural, easy, and intelligible way, all the movements and phenomena which I clearly and distinctly observe in the heavenly bodies. I clearly and constantly observe, without change or variation, that a planet, for example, Mars, appears to my eyes much greater when it is in opposition to the Sun, than when it is in its quadratures. I observe of the same planet, that it does not always follow its natural course, but, at a determinate time, remains many days immoveable, and as it were nailed to the same spot in the firmament. I observe, with the same clearness, the planet Venus sometimes above the Sun, at others underneath, between the Sun and the Earth. I observe Jupiter encompassed with other planets, of which he is the centre of motion, and which, consequently, are found now above now below him, now on the one side now on the other, &c. In this way I observe a hundred other phenomena, of which, though I be in ignorance how they are, I cannot therefore doubt but they really are.

I seek then to explain these and other things upon the ancient system of Ptolemy; I ask this explanation of the most celebrated philosophers and astronomers, Egyptian, Greek, Arabian, and Latin. I see the vain efforts which they make to give some explanation of them. I hear the suppositions which they endeavour to establish, all of them arbitrary, improbable, and incredible. I contemplate with wonder the eccentrics and epicycles to which they are driven, as a last resource: and as the result of it all, being convinced that in reality they explain nothing—that all is inexplicable confusion and unintelligible gibberish, I am truly justified upon this ground alone, in pronouncing my definitive sentence, the most just which was ever given on any subject of pure physics: That the system cannot subsist, that it is manifestly false, that it ought to be for ever proscribed and rooted out by the learned; and that, number whom it may among its defenders and patrons, be they all the learned men who have flourished for two or three thousand years, let authorities be cited by the thousand from all the libraries in the world, still I am right in maintaining my conclusion sure and steadfast, that the system is false, that it explains nothing, and that the phenomena themselves destroy it.

But if in the room of this system another come forth, which, upon being well examined and confronted with the celestial phenomena, is found to explain them in a clear and natural way which satisfies all difficulties, and that without violence, without confusion, without arbitrary supposition - though this new system should claim no higher patronage than its own author, no more authority than the proofs it brings along with it; this authority alone will weigh more in a faithful balance than all volumes however large, and all the learned men who wrote them; and any man of judgment, when he comes to possess sufficient knowledge of the question, will at once abandon them all; and for the pain of this step, and for the courtesy which on other grounds they might deserve, offer in good faith, as his just and reasonable excuse, that, in one word, there was in their time no other system, and so they wrought with this, on the supposition of its goodness. Now, my friend, forget not this, for it is a kind of parable.

§ 4. Without departing far from that propriety which a similitude requires, we may consider the Holy Bible as a grand and most beautiful firmament, adorned of the Spirit of God with so much variety and magnificence, that it appears impossible to open one’s eyes without being held riveted in attention. This first view, though confused and general, naturally excites the curiosity and desire of knowing what things they are which they present, how they are to be understood, what connexion or tie they hold with each other, and to what determinate end they are all directed. This curiosity being excited, the first step that naturally presents itself, is to go and search in books what the doctors have thought and taught thereon, how they have explained these things, and what lights they have left us for arriving at the true understanding thereof.

If after many years of formal study in books of this sort; if after having sought a natural and clear explanation of some particular phenomena which appeared to us of high importance; if, after having confronted these explanations with the phenomena themselves, we find nothing but suppositions. and arbitrary accommodations, and those for the most part violent, confused, disjointed, and manifestly out of the question; what would they that we should do but seek another path, more direct, though not so much trodden: seek, I mean, some other system, on which things will work better: —and this is what I am now about to propose to your consideration.13 Perhaps you will say to me that before proposing another and a new system, I ought in due form to have impugned the old one, and shown its

13 One of the most learned men of the past age, well known for genius, erudition and piety, by his admirable sermons, proposed to have done what I now undertake, though by a method widely different. After thirty years of meditation, and of study in all kinds of ecclesiastical writings, he says, that it fared with him as with the dove of Noah, which, when she found no rest for the sole of her foot, returned unto him into the ark. Not finding in the interpreters any thing in the region of prophecy whereon the foot might surely rest, (because they have explained scripture only in a moral, figurative, or accommodated sense,) he felt himself constrained to return to the scripture itself, that he might seek therein the proper and literal sense in which to rest. This he endeavoured to do in a work which he never finished, and which on that account has never seen the light. Of this remarkable work I have read only a short extract, by which it is easy to comprehend both the system and its foundations. The system, though it contains some new views, seems in substance to be the same as the ancient one, with a proportion of novelty which appeareth to me improbable. Forasmuch as he finds himself forced to suppose things which he ought to have proved, or to have recourse to other senses widely different from the literal one, and likewise to cite some texts without paying much respect to the context. His system is, that the present church, which he calls the kingdom of Christ on the earth, shall at a future time reach over all the earth, embracing within itself all the individuals of the human race, of whom not one shall be without its pale. In this blessed time, which he supposes to be long before the period of Antichrist, the whole church with all its members shall arrive at so high a state of sanctity and perfection, as fully to verify iii itself all the prophecies of Messiah’s kingdom. On which account he entitles his book, Concerning the Consummation of Christ’s kingdom upon the earth (De regno Christi in terris Consummatto): others entitle it the Key of the Prophets (CLavis Phetarum). This system is entirely subverted by the single parable of the tares, which in the gospel are represented to be ever mingled with the wheat, and ever occasioning mischief, until the harvest. Although it is not my purpose to follow this system, either in a greater or less degree, it seemed to ma good to mention it here, simply to show what so learned a man thought of the insight into the prophecies which is possessed by the interpreters of Scripture. In which particular I do agree with him.

insufficiency. I had myself thought of doing so; but afterwards it appeared to me better to take another way, shorter and incomparably less troublesome; which is, after having proposed the two systems, and cleared the second of certain embarrassments, to enter straightway upon the observation of some particular phenomena, and ask at the one system and at the other for a clear and just account of the same: by which means much labour will be avoided; whilst at the same time it will be visible at a single glance, which of the two systems is the best, or which should stand alone; for it is a clear case, that that system is the best which best explains the phenomena; and that ought to be regarded as the only one upon which alone they can be thoroughly explained.

CHAPTER IV.

ANOTHER AND A NEW SYSTEM IS PROPOSED.

BEFORE proposing this system, friend Christophilus, I desire in thee a certain degree of composure of mind; and that thou wouldest not readily give way to any disgust; or, without due reflection, raise the cry against an imaginary enemy, under a false alarm. This system, though set forth and followed out with novelty, is not so new as you may think, but is in the substance of it, I do assure you, much more ancient than the ordinary one; so that, when the latter began to make way, towards the end of the fourth century of the church and the beginning of the fifth, the former counted more than three hundred years of antiquity. Nevertheless, in consideration of thy weakness and preoccupation, I do not propose it in a dogmatical and assertory way, but as a mere hypothesis or supposition, which, whether it be arbitrary or not, we shall come to see by and by, and must not at present decide. But, be this as it may, it is without difficulty granted one to proceed after such a manner, even in respect to systems which at first sight may appear ever so incoherent for by such a permission with little hazard much progress may be made towards the discovery of truth.

GENERAL SYSTEM.

JESUS CHRIST will return from heaven to the earth, when his time is come, when those times and seasons are arrived, which the Father hath put in his own power, Acts i. 7. He will come accompanied not only by his angels, but likewise by his saints, now raised from the dead: by those I mean, which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world and the resurrection from the dead, Luke xx. 35. Behold! the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, Jude 14. His visit will not be so short, but with more leisure than is thought. He will not come to judge the dead alone; but likewise, and in the first place, the living. And consequently this judgment of the quick and dead cannot be one and the same, but two judgments, widely differing not only in substance and manner, but also in time. Whence it follows (which is the principal matter to be attended to) that there must be a very considerable space of time between the coming of the Lord which we expect, and the judgment of the dead, or the universal resurrection.

This is the system. It will appear to you very general; —and yet I ask not any thing to be granted to me besides the space of time which I have just spoken of. By which alone I hold that all the prophecies will admit of an easy understanding and explanation. But is it possible to grant this space of time upon the system of the interpreters? And is it possible to deny it upon the system of the scriptures? This is the point which we have chiefly to examine and dispute throughout this treatise. For yourself shall be the judge, and to you it shall belong to give final sentence, after having seen and examined all the process; and to do so prior to such a view and examination, were a manifest violation of the sacred rights of nations.

And in the first place, I take upon me to deal with certain difficulties which stand in the way of admitting this system, and which you would immediately desire to submit to me: and all will go well by the blessing of God, if you will only hear me with good nature, and not condemn me before the time.

The first of these difficulties is, that the system which I have just proposed carries a great resemblance to error, and sounds like the fable of the Chiliasts or Millenarians, and so does not deserve to be listened to, not even for diversion.

The second, that I place the Lord’s coming in glory and majesty long before the general resurrection, and besides, do say, and affirm, that he will come with his thousands of saints already raised up. Whence it follows evidently, that I must admit two resurrections, one, of the saints who come with Christ, the other long after of all the rest of men: which is contrary to the common sentiments of the theologians, who hold it as a thing most certain, and as a truth not to be disputed, that the resurrection of the flesh is to be simul et semel, that is, once only, and upon all the Sons of Adam without distinction, in one and the same time and instant. Other difficulties will spring up in their place.

CHAPTER V.

FIRST DIFFICULTY—THE MILLENARIANS—DISSERTATION.

I CANNOT deny, nor am I ashamed to confess, that there was a time when, to me at least, this was a cloud so dense and fearful, that oft-times it hath made me quit the subject entirely. Continually encountering as I read the commentators, especially upon the Prophecies, and the Psalms, these or similar sentences expressed in a decided tone, This place cannot be understood literally, or we shall have the error of the Millenarians. This was the heresy of Cerinthus; this the fable of the Rabbis, &c. I naturally thought it must be a point decided, that whatever had any relation, great or small, with the Millenarians, should be looked upon as a certain peril of error and heresy.

Under this fear I remained many years without almost daring to open the Bible, which on the one hand, I held in respect and admiration; and on the other, felt strongly tempted to regard as a useless and insipid book, and what was worse, dangerous to boot. Ah! what labour and anguish I had to endure at such seasons! This, verily, was the real error and the true peril, to think that God himself whose principle of words is truth, and whose nature is goodness,14 might sometimes conceal poison in the bread which he gives his children; and

14 Cujus principium verborum veritas, et cujus natura bonitas.

that they, seeking with simplicity the food of the soul, which is truth, and seeking that truth in its proper fountain, which is the Holy Scripture, might find in place of bread, a stone; for a fish, a serpent; and instead of an egg, a scorpion.

This reflection which at times occurred to me with great vivacity, at length restored me to some heart, and while not yet entirely re-assured, it occurred to me one day to think, that any way, it would be the lesser evil of the two to blame man rather than God, because as St. Paul saith, Let God be true but every man a liar, as it is written Rom. iii. 4. Whereupon there began to be renewed in me a suspicion, which for the time appeared to me just: That the interpreters of sacred scripture, and I may say the same of a proportion of ecclesiastical writers, having their minds extended over an infinity of various things, could not treat every one of them with that leisure and exactness, which haply some of them might require. And consequently it might very well come to pass, that in the weighty and very wide subject of the Millenarians, every thing which was stigmatized with that name, might not prove to be error or fable; but that with errors manifest and gross there might be found, intermingled, many truths of the highest importance. In which case it would be more agreeable to reason, to separate the true from the false, the precious from the vile, than to confound the whole in one and the same lump, and cast it all away in the apprehension of error.

With this in my mind, I began thenceforth seriously to study this particular point, and with a view to it did diligently search, with all the attention and reflection I am capable of, whatever authors ancient or modern I had access to, and in which I thought to find any light; but always confronting them with the holy scriptures, as I believe we ought to do; that is, with the Prophets, the Psalms, the Evangelists, St. Paul, and the Apocalypse. And after all the diligence which I could apply, I warrant you, my friend, that till this hour I have been able of a surety to find nothing save a great admiration, and along with it a true deliverance.

That we may be able in a matter so grave, and at the same time so delicate, to proceed with order and clearness, let us take it up by parts. Three principal points are here to be noticed: of which we should take such exact and patient observation, as to remain perfectly introduced to the knowledge of the cause, and consequently in a state to give righteous judgment. First, we ought to examine if the church hath decided ought, or spoken any word upon the issue. Secondly, we ought to know perfectly the different classes of Millenarians which have existed, what the doctors say concerning them all, with their mode of thinking in refuting them, and the reasons whereon they ground the condemnation of them all. Thirdly, and lastly, we ought faithfully to set forth that which these doctors themselves say, and the manner in which they endeavour to rid them selves of that great and terrible difficulty, which gave occasion to the errors of the Millenarians; that is, the explanation which they give, or pretend to give of the twentieth chapter of the Apocalypse. To the examination of these three points this dissertation reduces itself.

Before, however, proceeding to the first of these, permit me, my friend, to put one question to you, which is, Whether among so many doctors, ancient and modern, who have written against the Millenarians, you be acquainted with any one who has treated the point largely, and gone to the bottom of it? It is likely you will cite to me among the ancients, St. Dionysius Alexandrinus, St. Epiphanius, St. Jerome, St. Augustine, and among the moderns Suarez, Bellarmine, Cano, Natal Alexandro, Goti, &c. But this is to disregard, or not to pay much attention to, the words which I make use of, fully and to the bottom; whereby I understand nothing less than a formal and rigorous discussion of the whole point, and of whatever is comprehended under it.

This alone, as it seemeth to me, can be called handling a point fully and to the bottom, and I assert that I am ignorant of any one who hath so, treated it. In other ways diverse from this, I know that many have treated it, not only those whom you have just cited but innumerable doctors of every class. The commentators treat it, or to speak more correctly, touch it several times: very many theologians touch it, most of them by the way, few with any discussion: those who have written on heresies touch it, and generally all ecclesiastical historians, and withal I can assert that not one hath gone into it fully and to the bottom, in the true sense of these words. All, or almost all, agree to its being a fable, a delirium, a dream, a formal error; and this not only with respect to the accidents, that is, the relative and accidental circumstances (in which I could concur), but likewise as to the substance. But no one with distinctness and clearness gives us to know, wherein consisteth the error; no one shows us, as they ought to do, any clear, certain, and undoubted truth, which opposeth and contradicteth the substance of the millennial kingdom. But of this we shall speak in due form, after having concluded the first point of our controversy.

ARTICLE I.

Examination of the first point.

HAS the church already decided this point? Has she condemned the Millenarians? Has she spoken one word upon the issue? No notice to this effect do we find in grave authors of the best class, but only in others of an inferior order, of whom some cite one council, some another, and the most part condescend upon the Roman council held in the time of St. Damasius. Let us begin with this.

St. Damasius held in Rome, not one only, but four councils. In which of these did he decide the point we speak of? The acts, of those councils, especially of the three first, are still extant, and may be seen in Labbé, in Dumesnil, in Fleuri, &c. The first council of St. Damasius took place in the year 370, in which were condemned Ursacius and Valens, obstinate and most dangerous Arians. The second in the year 372, in which Auxentius of Milan, the predecessor of St. Ambrose was deposed, and the consubstantiality of the Holy Ghost determined. The third was in 375, in which were condemned Apollinarius, and Timotheus his disciple, not for being Millenarians, concerning which point not a word is spoken, but for teaching that Jesus Christ was not possessed of a reasonable soul, and supplying the want thereof by his divinity. The fourth council was in the year 382, concerning the acts of which, according to Dumesnil and Fleuri, there is no certain memorial. It appears that the principal burden of the council was to decide, who was the true bishop of Antioch, Flavianus or Paulinus; and in the defence of the latter it would appear that St. Jerome, his presbyter, came to Rome, as certainly did St. Epiphanius, who both lodged in the house of St. Paula.

Granting then those notices which are found in histories, ask now those authors, whom we began by referring to, whence they have it, that the general question of the Millenarians was decided in the Roman council of St. Damasius; and you shall find that they have no better answer to give than that so they found it in other authors, and those again in others, who sometimes at last derive it from the annals of cardinal Baronius. But whence does this learned cardinal derive it? If from any archives worthy of faith, why does he not distinctly say so? Why does he not assure us of it as a certainty, instead of speaking as one who suspects or supposes it to be so; a mode of speaking very suspicious, to say the least of it.

The truth is that the notice is evidently false in all its respects. First, because there is not any instrument which proves it; and a matter of fact, of such weight, cannot, in any way, be rested upon an arbitrary suspicion, or upon a perhaps. Secondly, because we have a positive foundation, and, in the present question, of the greatest weight, for affirming the direct contrary, that is, that St. Jerome, an antimillenarian, who wrote his commentaries upon Isaiah and Jeremiah many years after St. Damasius, (not less than twenty, as is affirmed by the learned Muratori, in his book of Paradise) says expressly, in the preface to the eighteenth book upon Isaiah, that in that time, which was the beginning of the fifth century, a very great multitude of Catholic doctors followed the party of the Millenarians: Whom (he is speaking of Apollinarius, a heretic and Millenarian, whose errors, pertaining to the person of Jesus Christ, we have just seen were condemned in the third council of St. Damasius, in the year 375) Whom not only men of his own sect, but also a very great multitude of our people follow in this point only.15 And upon the nineteenth chapter of Jeremiah, speaking of these same things, he saith: “Which things though we hold not, yet neither do we condemn, because a multitude of church men, and even martyrs, have spoken them; and let every one be fully persuaded in his own mind, and let all stand over till the judgment of God.”16 Think you that St. Jerome, after an express condemnation of the church just passed, would have been capable of speaking with such indifference? This is the reflection of the same Muratori himself, and is not the less strong in evidence against them, because it is the confession of their own party.

Other authors, perhaps reverting to what we have remarked above, have recourse, but with the same obscurity, to the Florentine council, celebrated in the time of Eugenius IV. in the year 1439. But in that council there is found this only laid down as a point of faith, that the souls of the just which leave this world without the guilt of sin, or which have been purified in purgatory, pass immediately into heaven to enjoy the sight of God, and are truly blessed before the resurrection. But what connexion hath this position with that which they would overthrow? The fourth Lateran council is another of those which they cite, and there are not wanting some who cite likewise that of Trent; and withal never mentioning the session, the canon, nor any thing else determinate. Why, think you, is this omission? If the church, in any council, had spoken any word in the question at issue, would they have failed to copy it with all punctual fidelity? And, in that case, could those grave and learned authors, who have written against the Millenarians, have been ignorant of it? or, not being ignorant of it, have dissembled? This single reflection is sufficient, and more than sufficient, to set my mind at rest that the notice is utterly false. Particular authors may well join together in thundering out anathemas against any thing clear and express in the scriptures, which may not square well with their ideas; but the Church gathered together in the Holy Spirit will not do so, hath never done so, and it is not possible that she should do so, because it is not possible that the Holy Spirit should abide to assist in it.

15 Quem non solum suæ sectæ homines sed et nostrorum in hac parte dumtaxat plurima sequitur multitudo.

16 Quæ licet non sequamur, tamen damnare non possumus, quia multitudo ecclesiasticorum virorum et martyres dixerunt; et unusquisquæ in suo sensu abundet, et cuncta judicto Domini reserventur.

There still remains to be examined another council, which they pretend expressly condemned the millennial kingdom, not only as to the accidents, but as to the substance of the doctrine, and consequently all Millenarians without distinction. This is the first of Constantinople, being the second Ecumenical, that which added to the Nicene creed these words, “Whose kingdom shall have no end.” Which being granted, they argue thus; The church has determined that when the Lord shall come from heaven to judge the quick and the dead, his kingdom shall have no end. Now the Millenarians fix an end to it, by saying that it shall endure a thousand years, be that a determinate or indeterminate time. Therefore the church has decided that the opinion of the Millenarians is false and erroneous, and consequently the Millenarian reign.

Without having recourse to the council of Constantinople, which does not speak a word concerning the Millenarians, and only addeth those words in order to clear a truth, which was not express in the Nicene creed, they may construct the same argument by simply opening the Holy Bible; because it is one of those truths to which both the Old and New Testaments bear witness, and whereof the rudest of all the Millenarians is not ignorant. But those who proposed this argument in so decisive a tone, by that alone give us to understand with how much haste they have looked at this point, upon the surface merely. If any Millenarian had said, that the thousand years being concluded, Messiah’s reign thereupon determined, the argument in that case would have been terrible and invincible; but if no one has said or dreamed so, to what amounts the argument? Nevertheless, we answer briefly, that the kingdom of Messiah, considered in itself, without any extrinsical relation, can have no end, is eternal as the king himself; but considered as a kingdom over the living, and the sojourners who have not yet passed through death, under this single aspect it must needs have an end. Why? Because the living and the sojourners over whom he is to reign, and whom, as king, he is to judge, have all once to die, without one being left who hath not passed through death. Now that state of things being arrived, in which all are dead, as infallibly it must arrive, it is clear that he can no longer be king over the living and the sojourners, because truly there are none. Therefore the kingdom, viewed in this single aspect, will have an end; because the universal resurrection immediately succeeding, the kingdom will then come to be over all the dead now raised, and that eternally and without end. This is in substance what the Millenarians asserted, and what the scriptures assert, as we shall see by and by. If any one, or the greater number of them, pass beyond this in the accidents; if they add any circumstances which are not manifest in the scriptures, or oppose them in any respect, I am the first to reprobate their conduct. But in order to give a just sentence, in order to know what things they have spoken worthy of censure, and what things really are not so, it is necessary to enter into a patient examination of the whole cause.

ARTICLE II.

The different classes of Millenarians, and the conduct of their opponents.

§ 1. IN those who impugn the Millenarians, speaking generally, one thing appears to me very blameworthy: that having impugned some of them, and convicted them in error upon certain things added by them out of their own fancy, and unsupported by scripture, they rest in this alone as if they were masters of the field, and forthwith pretend that they have attacked and utterly destroyed the substance of the Millenarian kingdom, which in the same scripture is so clear and express. The pretension is certainly singular. Nevertheless, this question may be put to them: have all the Millenarians then, asserted those particular matters which with so much reason you impugn, and convict of fable and error? And though for a moment it were granted that all have asserted them, may it not be that these particulars are not inseparable from the substance of the kingdom whereof the scriptures speak? Such a serious and formal examination, it appears to me, ought to precede these confutations, in order to make sure that the tares are pulled up without injury to the wheat; but the confutations themselves, even the most diffuse of them, show clearly the very contrary spirit.

It certainly, and without doubt, appears that the authors who treat this point confound the errors of the ancient heretics, the gross ideas of the Jews, and the fables of the Judaizing Christians in the same confused mass, with that which many Catholic and pious doctors, and along with them, some holy fathers of the highest order have thought and spoke; and even which is more extraordinary, with that which the scriptures clearly and distinctly express. Everything being thus confounded and forcibly brought into the same question, the confutation is indeed a very easy matter.

In effect, we find in these confutations that St. Justin and St. Irenæus, two martyrs, fathers and pillars of the church in the second century, are noted as having miserably slidden (notwithstanding their doctrine and holiness of life,) into the error of the Millenarians. We find St. Papias the martyr, and bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia, represented as the patriarch and founder of this error, from whom they say, without any reason, that the rest took it (and he from his master the apostle John, whom he knew, and with whom he lived and conversed) by having imperfectly understood, as they are pleased to continue, or by having taken up in a confused way the literal meaning of his words. We find in like manner stigmatized St. Victorinus Pictaviensis the martyr, Severus Sulpicius, Tertullian, Lactantius, Quintus Julius Hiharion, and I might add in general, many Greek and Latin authors, whose writings have not come down to us; since, as St. Jerome testifies, “many churchmen and martyrs have been of this way of thinking,” whom in another place, he calls “a very great multitude.” And as Lactantius says, it was in his time, that is, until the termination of the fourth century, the common opinion of Christians: “this doctrine of the holy fathers the prophets, which we Christians follow.”17

To know what this goodly company thought upon the kingdom of Messiah, we have unfortunately no great opportunity to read their writings, which could not have failed to profit us if they had come to our hands. The few which have been left to us, to wit, of St. Justin, St. Irenæus, Lactantius, and a short passage of Tertullian, Lib. 3. adv. Marcian. c. 24. (for the book concerning the hope of the faithful, in which he treated expressly of this subject, is lost,) are sufficient to justify the verdict that the rest were Catholic and pious.

St. Justin, a Millenarian, impugns the errors of the Millenarians with so much vehemence, that he does not hesitate to say to the Jews, whom he addresses, that they do not think those Christians, who believe and teach those fables, neither do they hold them as Christians, although clothed with that name; which they dishonour so much by teaching things inconsistent with God and the scripture, which they have themselves invented, and which they treat with the reason of worldly and carnal men, who savour only the things of the flesh, (qui solum ea quaæ sunt carnis sapient,) —(St. Just. in Dial. curn. Tryph. v. finem.)

17 Hæc doctrina sanctorum patrum et prophetarum, quam Christiani sequimur. —(Lib. 7. div. inst. c. 26.)

Almost in the same tone speaks St. Irenæus, and it is easy to see in the whole of his 5th book against heresies, when he touches this question, how far he was from admitting into the kingdom of Christ, any thing which should savour of flesh and blood: for that whole book seems to be pure spirit imbibed from the epistles of St. Paul and the gospel. St. Victorinus, a Millenarian, explains himself in the same way against the Millenarians, in these words quoted by Sextus Senensis: “Therefore are they not to be esteemed who agree with Cerinthus the heretic, in maintaining the kingdom of a thousand years, to be earthy.”18 Since then, these Millenarians are men who make war upon one another, what may be the cause of this contention? To this question, which is a very judicious one, I proceed to give a short reply.

§ 2. We ought to distinguish three classes of Millenarians, assigning to each what properly belongs to it, otherwise we shall never understand the scripture; for it is the joining and confounding of these three classes, by their impugners, which produceth that dense and obscure veil which keeps the scripture hidden and inaccessible. In the first class we have heretics, and those alone.

Eusebius and St. Epiphanius, (Euscb. lib. 3. hist. et St. Epiph. haæresi. 28.) name Ceriuthus as the inventor of many corruptions. That heresiarch being given up to the belly and the palate, placed therein the happiness of man. And so taught his disciples, that after the resurrection, before ascending to heaven, there should be a thousand years of rest, during which, to all who had deserved it, the hundred-fold mentioned in the gospel, should he rendered. When, accordingly, there should he extended unto all, un-bounded licence in every thing pertaining to the senses, and all should be continual merry-making, and jubilee to the saints, magnificent banquets, festivities, concerts, entertainments, theatres, &c. And what appeared most important, each would be master of an entire seraglio, like a Sultan; “and with whatever lusts he was himself led captive, for he was a man who, with the most exquisite refinement, followed after the desires of the body and the flesh, in those he dreamed that the blessedness of that life would consist.”19

What think you, friend, of such ideas as these? Does it appear to you probable or possible that the saints who are called Millenarians, or the other Catholic and pious doctors, would in any way follow this party? That they would adopt grossness so unworthy and so contrary to the gospel? Read with all your eyes the Millenarians which remain to us, and you shall find neither trace nor shadow of such follies: on which account, this class of the Millenarians at least, should stand to a side, and never come into consideration when the kingdom of Messiah is treated of.

In the second class, we enter in the first place, the Jewish doctors or Rabbis, with all those wretched ideas fatal to the whole nation, which they have held, and still hold concerning their Messiah, whom they look for, and expect in the form of a great conqueror, another Alexander, subjecting to his dominion by force of arms, all peoples and nations of the world, and obliging all men to observe the law of Moses. In this second class, I have given the Rabbis the first place, to signify, that by their means others have always entered, following their footsteps; or adopting some of their ideas. These are they, whom, with propriety, they call judaizing Millenarians, whose principal leaders were Nepos, an African

18 Ergo audiendi non sunt, qui mille annorum regnum terrenum esse confirmant, qui cum Cerintho hæeretico sentiunt.—(Lib. 6. Bibl. Sta. ann. ad not. 347.) 19 Et quarum rerum cupiditate ipse ducebatur, quippe qui invitamentis corporis et carnis cum prirnis obsequèretur illecebris, in eisdem beatam vitam fore somniabit —(St. Dionis. Alexandr. lib. 7 hist. c. 20.)

bishop, against whom St. Dionysius Alexandrinus wrote his two books upon the promises, and Apollinarius, against whom St. Epiphanius wrote under the 77th heresy. These Millenarians knew well from the scriptures the substance of the reign of Messiah. They knew that his coming from heaven to earth, which we all look for, in glory and majesty, would not be with such expedition as is commonly supposed, they knew that not so speedily would all the living and sojourners come to an end, nor so speedily succeed the universal resurrection of the whole human race: they knew that Christ was to reign here on the earth, accompanied by very many consociates of his kingdom, that is, very many saints already raised from the dead. They knew, finally, that he was to reign over the whole earth, over all the men living and sojourning thereon, who would believe and confess him for their lawful Lord, and submit implicitly to his laws, injustice, in peace, in love, and in truth, as appears clear and express in the very scriptures themselves. All this these doctors knew, or at least they saw, as it were, from afar, in an obscure and confused way. Oh what a difficult undertaking it would have been to impugn them! All the scriptures would have arrayed themselves upon their side, and engirdled them as with an impregnable wall.

The misfortune was, that they would not content themselves with those limits which reason dictates and revelation prescribes. They added of their own, whether through ignorance, or inadvertence, or caprice, several other particulars, which are not clear from revelation, but manifestly opposed by it; asserting, and obstinately maintaining, that in those times of which we speak, all men should be bound to the law of circumcision, as also to the observance of the antient law and worship, regarding as necessary to salvation all those things, which were, as the apostle says, our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ. These ridiculous ideas, more worthy of a smile than a refutation, were nevertheless embraced by innumerable followers of Nepos and Apollinarius, and caused within the church great disputes, amongst which, it appears, the principal question was confounded and fell altogether out of mind.

We come now to the third class of Millenarians, in which we enter the catholic and the pious, and amongst them those saints already cited, with many others, of whom hardly a general notice is left to us: the many churchmen and martyrs who have held these doctrines. As to those of this class, whose writings remain to us, it appears most certain, that neither did they admit the indecent errors of Cerinthus, which they expressly detested and abominated; nor as little the fables of Nepos and Apollonarius, of which no trace is found in their writings. I have read St. Justin, St. Irenæus, and Lactantius, and have found no trace of such extravagancies. What, then, have they said, and wherefore are they branded with error? That which they have said is the same in substance with that which we read expressly in the prophets and the psalms, and, in general, everywhere in scripture, which they opened with its proper and natural key. If you ask me now, What key was that? I answer you, at once and resolutely, The apocalypse of St. John, especially the four last chapters thereof, which pass for the most obscure of the whole, and without doubt are so, being viewed with reference to the ordinary system. Among these is the twentieth chapter, which has been, in a certain sense, the stone of stumbling and rock of offence.

This precious and inestimable key had the misfortune to fall, almost from the beginning, into the impure hands of gross heretics; which appears to me to be the true reason why the kingdom of Christ, at his second glorious and abiding advent, should have fallen in time into the greatest contempt and oblivion, remaining like a precious pearl, confounded with the dust and hidden in it.

True it is that it hath not thereby remained wholly invisible: it hath been seen and well observed, although from a distance, by some, who, not daring to avail themselves of the true keys for entering into the inclosure of truth, vainly and obstinately set themselves to force her doors. The fathers and Millenarian doctors, of whom we have spoken, had no such fears: they took the key in simple faith and with intrepid valour; they cleared it of that mire and uncleanness which so much disfigured it, and with no more ado they opened the doors with great facility. This is all the offence —this is all their crime.

Nevertheless, it must be confessed, (seeing in this place we undertake not the apology of these doctors, nor the defence of what they said, nor purpose building at all on their authority,) it is undeniable, I say, that they have at least not explained themselves well; and, having opened the doors, they have not opened the windows. —I mean to say, they did not stay to take a leisurely survey, and attentively to examine in detail all the things which were within: they passed much too rapid and superficial a glance over the whole, esteeming of greater importance to those primitive times many other things, which called for all their attention. We observe the same with respect to the gravest doctors of the fourth and fifth centuries; who, although most wise and eloquent, did not always explain themselves upon some particulars so largely as we desire and have need of in this day. Likewise it is undeniable that many Millenarians, although both catholic and pious, but wanting in spirituality, not a little abuse this twentieth chapter of the Apocalypse, adding from their own fancy matters which the scripture expresseth not, and proceeding to write treatises and books, which appear more like novels, fit only to amuse the idle.

But, in one word, these novels, fables, gross and indecent errors, whether of heretics, Jews, judaizers, or ignorant catholics, have nothing to do with the question. Why? Because none of them are to be found in the scriptures. Nothing of this is found in the Prophets, or in the Psalms, or in the Apocalypse, from whence it is alleged that these novelties are drawn. Nothing of it, in short, is said or intended by these holy doctors, whom we have seen branded and confounded among the rest under the equivocal name of Millenarians. Why, then, do they stigmatize them with this error? why do they assert, in general, that they have slidden into the error or fable of the Millenarians? The reason why will discover itself by degrees as we proceed, for it appears impossible to discover it quickly or at once.

§ 3. Do not think, Sir, from what I have said above, that I likewise seek to confound among this multitude of writers those grave and learned men who have written expressly upon this subject; among whom there be many, who do a kind of justice in carefully distinguishing the opinion of the fathers and churchmen from the opinion of the heretics and judaizers: I see that they separate them, and with good reason, from the common herd of Millenarians, for this end giving them the name of innocent: but I likewise see, that when they come to censure and final sentence, they involve them all. The general sentence comprehended in these four words, —error, dream, delirium, fable, falls upon all without distinction or mercy. Of this, take the following example, and hereafter you will not fail to observe others of the same kind.

Sixtus Senensis, a learned and judicious author, (Bibliot. Sanct. lib. iii. annot. 233.) touches the subject of the Millenarians; and, after having spoken indifferently, hath these words, “there are, however, some who think that the two opinions differ very widely from one another.”20 In order to prove this, to wit, that the opinion or doctrine of the good and holy Millenarians was very different from the opinion of the heretics, he translates a passage entire

20 Sunt tamen qui arbitrentur utramque sententiam longissime inter se distare.

from Lactantius Firmianus, and ingenuously confesses that this doctrine is very different from that of Cerinthus and his followers; but, nevertheless, he blames it. And for what reason? I would not believe it, did I not see it with my own eyes. For the, self-same reasons, by which he impugns the heretics: —a manifest sign that he has no other weapons. These are his words, “Hitherto the opinion of Lactantius and others, which, though it be diverse from the dogma of Cerinthus, doth nevertheless contain error; inconsistent with the evangelical doctrine, —which teacheth, that after the resurrection there will be no connexion of male and female, no use of meat and drink; the Lord declaring, that in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; and St. Paul, that the kingdom of the Lord is not meat and drink”21 Is there no more confutation than this of the doctrine of Lactantius and of the others whom we shall mention? No, my friend, there is no more, for here the subject is concluded.

Doubtless it will appear to you a thing incredible, that an author of judgment should find nothing to oppose to the doctrine of Lactantius, but the two texts from St. Paul and the gospel, as if these destroyed or controverted it: one of two things is true; either Lactantius says that among the risen saints there will be such marriages and banquets (in which case his opinion differs not from that of Cerinthus), or he says it not; and so the whole refutation, with the text of the gospel and St. Paul, on which it rests, are out of the question, are a there confusing of the matter, and an endeavour to escape from the burden of the subject. Now it is certain that Lactantius, neither directly nor indirectly, utters such extravagance; and equally certain is it that neither St. Justin, nor St. Irenæus, nor Tertullian, have broached such an error, nor ever had a thought of it. Therefore they should look out for other arguments, or be altogether silent upon the subject. Their conclusion appears good, but has no bearing on the question.

What I have just said of this, you may extend to all who have written against the Millenarians; for I at least can find none who is not altogether, or in a great degree, guilty of the same conduct. They all distinguish one set of Millenarians from the others —the scandalous heretic from the judaizer, and both from the innocent; but the blow falleth alike on all, and this quality of innocence only availeth to bring the sad consolation of dying guiltless. In some measure to justify this cruel sentence, they quote the authority of four holy and much respected fathers, St. Dionysius Alexandrinus, St. Epiphanius, St. Jerome, and St. Augustine; whose writings having examined, we are left at a loss to know for what end they referred us to them. Although it may detain us a little in our research, it becomes necessary to clear this point, by seeing what these fathers have said, and also what they have not said.

§ 4. The most ancient of them is St. Dionysius Alexandrinus, who wrote towards the middle of the third century. This holy doctor wrote a work divided into two books, which he entitled, Concerning the Promises, wherein he impugns the gross errors of Cerinthus, and chiefly a treatise then in the hands of all, written by one Nepos, an African bishop. Now what was the principal or only scope of the refutation? What is it that he really impugns and convicts of falsehood? Although neither the book of Nepos, nor that of St. Dionysius, have come down to us, yet from a certain fragment of the latter, which Eusebius hath preserved in the seventh book of his history, the twenty-second chapter, it is to be clearly seen that St. Dionysius had in his eye nothing but the ridiculous excesses of Nepos, and his peculiar tenets

21 Lactantii et aliorum sententia, qmæ licet a Cerinthi dogmate sit diversa, errorem tamen continet alienum ab evangelica doctrina, qmæ docet nullum post resurrectionem fore maris ac femirnæ coitum, nullnm cibi potusque usum, nullum denique carnalis vitu oblectamentum, dicente Domino; in resur rectione neque nubent, neque nubentur, et juxta Pauli vocem, regnum Domini non est cibus et potus.

upon circumcision and the observance of the Mosaic law, with the addition of certain other errors much akin to those of Cerinthus. His words are as follows: “But forasmuch as a written book hath been objected to us, and that, as many are pleased to think, most powerful to persuade; and as the doctors of this sect hold in no value the law and the prophets, refuse to follow the gospels, and corrupt the epistles of the apostles, yet assert the doctrine of this work of which I speak, as if it contained some great and abstruse mystery; and forasmuch as they suffer not the simpler among the brethren, who are unskilled in the sublime and admirable work of our Lord’s glorious and truly divine coming, of our resurrection from the dead, conjunction and fellowship with the Lord, and assimilation to his immortal nature, to think deliberately; but endeavour to persuade them that in the kingdom of God there will be objects and mortal rewards, such as we in this life are wont to look after: I do certainly hold it to be a thing demanded of us to dispute against that brother, by name Nepos, with sharp argument, just as if he were present.”22

Already you will perceive, from these words, what it was that Nepos held and Dionysius undertook to refute. If you desire now to see more clearly the whole substance of this reffutation, and consequently the substance of Nepos’s book, read St. Jerome upon Isaiah, who, speaking of Dionysius, thus expresses himself: “Against whom a very eloquent man, Dionysius Alexandrinus, a father of the church, wrote an elegant work, to ridicule the Millenarian fable, the golden and gemmed Jerusalem on the earth, the renewal of the temple, the blood of victims, the rest of the sabhath, the cruel rite of circumcision, marriages, births, education of children, delights of the feast, and servitude of all nations, and the renewal of wars, armies, and triumphs, and slaughter of the vanquished, with the death of the sinner a hundred years old.”23

If the book of St. Dionysius had contained nothing but the derision and confutation of all we have just read, it is certain that he doth in no way concern himself with the harmless Millenarians, but with the Jews or judaizers. It is true that those first words, “against whom,” in the text of St. Jerome, do not fall upon Nepos, whom he does not name, but upon St. Irenæus, concerning whom he is speaking: but this is a clear and manifest equivocation, not of St. Jerome, but of some of his ancient transcribers; for no one is ignorant, seeing it is a matter of fact against whom St. Dionysius wrote, and the saint himself says he wrote “against that brother whom I name Nepos.” You will perhaps say that it is the same thing to write against Nepos and against St. Irenæus, for they were both Millenarians. This would be good enough, if first it were proved that St. Irenæus had taught and maintained those same

22 Verum cum opus scriptum nobis objectum sit, illudque, Ut quibusdam placet, ad persuadendum valentissimum, cumque doetores ejus sectæ legem et prophetas pro nihilo putent, evangelìca sequi negligant, apostolorum epistolas depnavent, bujus tamen operis doctrinam, ut dixi tanquam magnum aliquod, et abstrusum mysterium, asseverant complectantem. Cumque fratres nostros aliquando simpliciores, et magis imperitos de sublimi et admirando opere, vel gloriosi vereque divini Domini nostri adventus, vel nostræ a mortuis resurrectionis cum Domino conjunctionis, consociationisque, et ad ejus immortalem natunam assimilationis, non aliquando cogitare sinant: sed illis persuadere conentur in regno Dei objecta, et mortalia præmia, quales et hominibus in hac vita spectare solumus, tandem futura; nobis certé necessum arbitror advensus istum, quem dico Nepotern, perinde ac si præsto adesset acuta ratione disceptare.

23 Adversus quem vir eloquentissimus Dionisius Alexandrinæ ecclesiæ pontifex, elegantem scripsit librum, irridens mille annorum fabulam. Et auream, atque gemmatam in terris Hierusalem, instaurationem templi, hostiarum sanguinem, otium sabati, circumcisionis injuriam, nuptias, partus, liberorum educationem, epularum delicias, et cunctarum gentium servitutem, rursusque bella, exencitus, et tniumphos, et superatorum neces, mortemque centenarii peccatoris, &c. D. Hier. ad præf. lib. 18.

absurdities of Nepos, which are expressly those that St. Dionysius impugns in his book. By a like equivocation it were an easy matter to bring an innocent man to the gallows.

The second holy father cited by them is St. Epiphanius, who wrote a hundred years after St. Dionysius of Alexandria. This holy doctor, in his book against heresies, certainly speaks twice of the Millenarians, and in both instances against them. In the first, heresy 28, he speaks of Cerinthus only; and having stated his particular errors, very easily confutes them from the gospel of St. Paul. In the second, heresy 77, he speaks of Apollinarius and his followers. And what is it which he here impugns? See it manifestly in his own words: “For if at last we are to be raised up, in order to be circumcised, why not anticipate the circumcision? To what end, then, is it said by the apostle, If ye be circumcised Christ will profit you nothing? Likewise, As many of you as are justified by the law are fallen from grace! And likewise that saying of the Saviour, In the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels.”24 All that follows is in the same tone, and conveys nothing different. So that the whole argument affects the judaizers only.

True it is, and may not be dissembled, that, before concluding this point, the saint pronounces sentence against all Millenarians in general, without distinction, and condemns the whole doctrine, without any reserve, as heresies, which is noted with great care by Father Suarez, as if it were some express decision of the church. Part 2, de Incar. disp. 5. sect. 8. But who is ignorant, says Father Calmet, upon the twentieth chapter of the Apocalypse, that St. Epiphanius terms many things heresy which in reality are not so, simply because they coincided not with his own opinion. The same remark concerning Epiphanius is made by many other learned doctors, whom there is no occasion to mention here, in support of a thing so currently acknowledged. Moreover, if St. Epiphanius condemns as heresy the opinion of the Millenarians, even of the holy and harmless among them; St. Irenæus does the same by those who follow the contrary opinion, calling them ignorant and heretical, whereof Natal Alexandro complains with good reason. Hist. Eccl. sect. i. disp. 27. According to him, we have two holy fathers, one of the second, the other of the fourth century, who condemn, as heresy, two opinions diametrically opposite to each another. To which of them should we bow? You will say to neither of them in this point, and I subscribe to your opinion with all sincerity, conforming in this to the conduct of St. Justin, who, although a good Millenarian, did not take upon him to condemn those who were not, but said to Trypho these words full of justice and charity “I am not reduced, O Trypho, to such wretchedness as to speak otherwise than I think; I have confessed to thee that I and many who think along with me, are of this opinion with respect to the future; but, at the same time, I have signified to thee, that many Christians of pure and pious sentiments do not agree with me in this.”25

The third holy father, who is cited against all the Millenarians without distinction is St. Jerome. But I know not why. For first, this holy doctor never speaks expressly upon the subject, but barely touches it by the way, now in this, now in that place, and always after a historical and discursive manner. Secondly, he never determinately explains of what class of

24 Nam si denuo, ut circumcidamru resurgimus, cur non circurncisisnem antev entimus? Quorsum igitur ab Apostolo dictum est; si circumcidamini Christus vobis nihil proderit? Item qui in lege justificamini a gratia excidistis. Tum etiam illud salvatoris dictum: In resurrectione neque nubent neque nubentur, dum erunt sicut angeli.

25 Non sum eo miseriæ redactus, O Triphon, ut alia quam sentio loquar, confessus sum tibi, me, et plures mecum sentientes, id ita futurum arbitrari, multos vero etiam, qui puræ, piæque sunt sententiæ Chnistianorum hoc non agnoscere, tibi significavi.

Millenarians he speaks. Sometimes it would appear at first sight, that he speaks of all without distinction, but from the very context it is easy to be discovered that he speaks only of the followers of Cerinthus; for example, when he says in his preface to Isaiah, “whom I do not envy; if they love the earth so greatly, as to desire earthly things in the kingdom of Christ; and after abundance of meats and a glut to the belly, seek still lower gratifiactions.”26 To whom but Cerinthus could this apply? In another place he speaks thus, “taking occasion from this opinion some introduce a thousand years after the resurrection, &c.”27 If these words after the resurrection, signify the general resurrection, it can apply only to Cerinthus and his partisans, because to them alone belongs this particular absurdity: all the others, placing the general resurrection not before, but after the thousand years. Besides, that in the same place the saint explains of which sort of Millenarians he is speaking, when he says, “not understanding that though in other respects the promise of returns might be honourable, the baseness appears in the matter of wives, that he who shall have put away one for the Lord’s sake, shall receive an hundred in the future life.”28 Search in any Millenarian except Ceriuthus who advanced this brutality, and certainly you shall not find it. Therefore it is clear that St. Jerome is speaking here solely of Cerinthus.

Finally, to be convinced that this holy doctor in no way favours those who seek to involve all Millenarians in one sweeping sentence, call to memory what we remarked in the first Article, as spoken by him upon the nineteenth chapter of Jeremiah, “which things though we follow not, yet neither do we condemn, because many ecelesiastics and even martyrs have so testified.” If the saint spoke here of the opinion of Cerinthus, or of the particular points in which Nepos and Apollinarius erred, it appears clear, that he not only might but ought to have condemned all these things, as St. Dionysius and St. Epiphanius had said and done before him. But by his saying, we cannot condemn those things, because many Catholic doctors and among them many martyrs have thought the same, we easily gather, that in this instance, he had in his eye no other Millenarians, but the Catholic and pious, who consequently do not deserve to be comprehended in the general sentence. Therefore upon this point, which is the only one we speak of at present, the authority of St. Jerome proves nothing, or if it prove any thing, the very reverse of that for which it is cited.

The fourth holy father is St. Augustine, who speaks of the Millenarians, (In lib.de civ. dei. c.7.) and does not wholly leave them till the tenth chapter. And, after all, we may say of him as of the other holy fathers, that he speaks against the errors of Cerinthus, and his followers. In the seventh chapter he recounts those errors, and brings forward the places of the Apocalypse which may have given occasion to them; and immediately adds these words, “which opinion were some what tolerable, if spiritual delights were believed as being about to be afforded to the saints from the presence of the Lord during that Sabhath: for we ourselves once had that notion; but when they say that those who are then risen shall lose themselves in most immoderate carnal feasts, in which meat and drink shall be so plentiful as not only to free them from all care on that account, but likewise the allowance of them shall

26 Quibus non invideo, Si tantum amant terram, ut in regno Christi terrena desiderent, et post ciborum abundantiam, gulaque ventris ingluviem, ea quæ sub ventre sunt, quærant.

27 Ex occasione hujus sententiæ quidam introducunt mille annos post resurrectionem, &c. (Lib. 3. in Mat. c. 19.)

28 Non intelligentes, quod Si in ceteris digna Sit repromissio, in uxoribus apparcat turpitudo, ut qui unam pro Donuno demisserit, centum recipiat in futuro.

exceed all belief; these things can in no way be received save by the carnal: and they, who are spiritual, name those who hold such dogmas, Chiliasts, from a Greek word, which being literally rendered into Latin, is Millenarians.”29 This is all which is to be found in St. Augustine upon the doctrine of the Millenarians.

Now then what connexion hath all this with that which the Catholic and holy Millenarians hold? They likewise reprove, and with much more acrimony, what St. Augustine reproveth. This holy doctor says, that the opinion of the Millenarians in general would be tolerable, if they admitted or believed that the saints were to enjoy certain spiritual delights in the presence of the Lord. So that if the good Millenarians of whom we speak, should admit and believe in such spiritual delights for the saints already raised up, and even for the sojourners, their opinion would be at least tolerable, and not worthy of condemnation or censure. And can you, my friend, doubt of this? I do not now quote from St. Irenaæus or St. Justin, for that would occupy a very large space; but I quote one short passage from Tertullian, in which are expressed those delights of St. Augustine. “For we also confess, that in the earth a kingdom is promised to us, but before heaven and in another state, as being after the resurrection for a thousand years, in the city of divine workmanship, the Jerusalem let down from heaven, which also the apostle designateth our mother that is above, and, pronouncing it to be our πολιτεμα or citizenship in the heavens, he elsewhere looks upon it as a celestial city. Which Ezekiel also knew of, and the apostle John saw, and to every one who agrees with us in believing the new prophecy of the Apocalypse, his discourse beareth witness, that the very effigy of the city represented beforehand, that which was hereafter to be revealed to his sight This we say is held out by God in prospect, for receiving the saints in the ressurrection, and cherishing them with plenty of all good, yet spiritual things, as a compensation for those which in this age we have despised. Seeing it is just and honourable in God that his servants should also exult, in that place, where they have been afflicted for his name sake.”30

Besides these four holy fathers whom we have just examined, as being cited against the Millenarians in general, we find yet another in the dissertation of St. Natal Alexandro, (In Ep. 4. Bas. ad Epis. orient.) taken from St. Basil, —and what says St. Basil? He complains of the absurdities of Apollinarius, and that is all; his words are these, “he wrote also upon the resurrection certain things, written in a fabulous, and even a Jewish style, alleging, that we should return again to the worship prescribed in the law, so as to be again circumcised, to

29 Quæ opinio esset utcumque tolerabilis, si aliquæ delitiæ spinituales in illo sabbato affuturæ sanctis per Domini præsentiam crederentur: nam etiam nos opinati sumus aliquando; sed cum eos, qui tune resurrexerint, dicant immoderatissimis carnalibus epulis vacaturos, in quibus cibus sit tantus, ac potus, ut non solum nullam molestiam teneant, sed modus quoque ipsius omnem credulitatem excedat, nullo modo ita possunt nisi a carnalibus credi, hi autem, qui spirituales stint, istos ista credentes, chialistas vocant græco vocabulo, quod verbum e verbo experirnentes, nos possumus Millenarios nuncupari.

30 Nam et confitemur in terra regnum nobis repromissum, sed ante cœlum, sed alio statu, utpote post resurrectionem in mille annos, in civitate divini operis Hierusalem cœlo delata, quam et apostolus matrem nostram sursum designat, et polyteuma nostrum, id est, municipatum in cœlis esse pronuntians, alioqui utique cœsti civitate ceum deputat. Hanc et Ezequiel novit et apostolus Joannes videt, et, qui apud fidem nostram est novæ prophetiæ seu Apocalipsis, sermo testatur, ut etiam effigies civitatis ante repræsentationem ejus conspectui futuram predicarit…..hanc dicimus excipiendis, resurectione sanctis, et refovendis omnium bonorum, utique spiritualium copia, in compensatione eorum, quæ in sæculo vel despeximus, a Deo prospectam. Siquidem est justurn et Deo dignum illuc quoque exultare famulos ejus, ubi sunt et afflicti in nomine ejus. (Tert. lib. 3. in Marcion. c. 24.)

observe the sabbath, to abstain from meats forbidden by the law, and to worship in the temple at Jerusalem; and from being christians wholly become Jews again: —than which can any thing be affirmed more ridiculous, and more at variance with the truth of the gospel.”31

The complaint of St. Basil, is well founded, and just. And not alone St. Basil, but likewise St. Justin, St. Irenæus, St. Victorinus, St. Sulpicius Severus, Tertullian, Lactantius, and the rest of the great multitude of Catholic doctors, and saints, who were Millenarians, may complain, and with much more reason, of Apollinarius and Nepos, and all their followers; because the absurdities which they added, much more than the gross indecencies of Cerinthus, were the occasion and the cause, why in the end all was confounded together, and in their zeal to punish, and annihilate the guilty, they did not spare the many innocents, who concurred only in the general question.

In effect, those two legions of judaizing Millenarians, the partisans of Nepos and Apollinarius, together with the books which were published against them, by St Dionysius, St. Epiphanius, and others, appear to form the epoch of an entire and total change of ideas upon the coming of the Lord in glory and majesty (I speak of the mode, duration and circumstances). Till then, the Holy Scripture had been understood as it reads in its proper, obvious, and literal sense: and consequently, all which it announces to us upon the coming of the Lord, had been faithfully and simply received. And if disputes had occurred, they had not been so much upon the things themselves, as merely upon the indecent and worldly style of setting them, forth, which the heretics and Jews had used. But these two legions of judaizers, who held of both, coming after, and being much more learned and disputatious than the former, all became forthwith disordered and obscured, and the truth lay confounded with the error.

In these times of obscurity, the Catholic doctors found themselves fully occupied in withstanding and confuting the Arians, infinitely more dangerous than the Millenarians: forasmuch as they related immediately to the person of Christ, and the substance of religion. Therefore it was not possible for them to apply on purpose to the formal, and circumstantial examination of this point, nor to take upon themselves so great a labour as was required to separate, according to the scriptures, the precious from the vile, which in the judaizing Millenarians had become so mixed up with one another.

Yet, desiring to separate themselves, and to separate the faithful, as well from Judaism, as from the indecent ideas of the heretics, (for it would seem that the judaizers adopted a great part of both,) it appeared to them most safe, at that time, not to consent with them in any thing, but to cut the knot with the sword of Alexander, by denying the whole without any distinction or mercy; or, to speak more correctly, by leaving things in the state in which they found them, there being no need to insist on a point which was not controverted.

So far it was very easy; but the difficulty still remained, to unite and harmonize with the common opinion, the Prophets, and all the scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. But this great difficulty did not then appear so insuperable as to be hopeless. Already, by this time, had the path which Origen discovered been opened up and well trodden; who, although by many he had been blamed for it, and still was so by not a few, did not therefore fail to be

31 Scripsit et de resurrectione quædam fabulosè, imo judaice composita in quibus dicit nos iterum ad cultum in lege præscriptum reversuros, ita ut iterurn et circumcidamur, et Sabbaturn observemus et cibis in lege prohibitis abstineamus, Sacrìficiaque Domino offeramus, et in templo Jerusalem adoremus, atque prorsus cx Christianis judæi reddamur, quibus quidnam poterit ridiculum magris, imo alienum ab evangelica veritate dici?

imitated upon occasions, and in the present point this course appeared inevitable, for there was no other resource. It was necessary either to turn back, or to enter and make way by this path of pure allegory, so rough and insecure. And in effect it so came to pass, that from henceforth they began to leave the plain understanding of those things which are written in the Prophets and the Psalms, &c. for interpretations, for the most part spiritual, allegorical, or accommodative; trying with great pains, and not less violence, to accommodate some things to the first coming of the Lord, others to the primitive church, others to the church in the time of her persecution, others to the church in the time of peace; and when no better could be made of it, as must often have occurred, there remained a last refuge very plain and easy, to take a mental flight to heaven, in order to accommodate to the state of things there, what would not accommodate to them here. This they began to do in the fourth age, it was prosecuted in the fifth, and has continued even till our time.

§ 5. Let us now come to the thing next at hand. Be it granted with good will, I hear you say that the ancient Millenarian fathers, and other Catholic and pious doctors, did not adopt the gross errors of Cerinthus, nor the insufferable notions of the Jews and judaizers; still it is undeniable from their very writings, that they believed, taught, and maintained this proposition.

After the coming of Christ, which we look for in glory and majesty, there will still be a great space of time; that is, a thousand years, determinate or indeterminate, before the resurrection and general judgment.

And who does not perceive, you turn upon me and say, that this is not only a fable, but a positive and manifest error? To which I confess, I have for my reply only these two words: how and whence can we know that it is a fable, a positive and manifest error? The proposition certainly affirms a thing, not past nor present, but future; and we all know assuredly, that though the past and present may naturally come under the observation and knowledge of men, it is not so with the future, which belongeth to the knowledge of God only. Wherefore, if God himself declare to me clearly and expressly in the scripture, the same which is affirmed in the above proposition, in this case, were it not very wrong not to believe it? Were it not very wrong to doubt it? Were it not very wrong to wait before believing it, for the sanction of those who can have no insight into the future? Were it not wrong to affirm, though others should affirm it, that the very proposition which contains it is a fable and an error? and with what reason, and upon what foundation, can it be so affirmed? Because so it seemed some time since, to certain interpreters and theologians, on the system which they embraced. Weak foundation! We know well that they are never infallible but when solidly founded in the Holy Scripture, or in a constant and universal tradition of the church, as hath been said before. This only would bear upon the case, and not mere human authority. Let any passage of scripture be produced, any certain tradition constant and universal, any decision of the church condemning our proposition as erroneous and fabulous, and we will immediately condemn it ourselves: bringing our understanding captive to the obedience of faith. But for all your proof to produce the authority of certain doctors, and that too, for the most part, equivocal, (forasmuch as the doctors whom they cite, as we have just seen, do not dare to condemn that which is said and affirmed in the above proposition, but only the abuses which have been added to it,) to dare upon such a ground to give general sentence against the whole issue, as if it were found altogether convicted of error, fable, delirium, and dream, &c, such conduct appears to me to prove nothing more, than that they wish not even to hear with patience a proposition, which places in great hazard, or to speak more correctly, utterly destroys their whole system. Do you think that if there were any conclusive word, either of the scripture, or of the church, they would have kept it hid and not produced it? I search that scripture, I search the councils for some authentic document, or good reason, whereon might be founded an opinion so universal as the contradiction of our proposition; and I formally assure you, that I find none which satisfies me, nor which can bring my mind even into hesitation. The instruments and reasons which are produced, do, it is clear, conclude, and well conclude against the heretics, against the Rabbis, against the judaizers, and in short, against all who fabricate any thing out of their own brain, and daringly add it to the general proposition, instead of deriving it from thence, or, which is the same, who fabricate any thing to the clear and manifest contradiction of the scriptures.

Now I perceive clearly that the Divine Scripture, and almost all of it which is prophetical, speaks of that interval between the coming of the Lord in glory and majesty, and the judgment and universal resurrection. I see that they declare and announce to me things distinct, things grand, things stupendous, things wholly new and unheard of, which are to follow upon the glorious coming of the Lord. Again, I see that St John, in his Apocalypse, repeats many of these things, almost with the very expressions with which the prophets set them forth, and sometimes in the very same words. I see that he makes frequent allusions and appeals to many places of the prophets and the Psalms, &c. inviting me to mark them with care. I see, in fine, that being come to the nineteenth chapter, he first, with the greatest possible vividness and magnificence, presents me the coming of the Lord from heaven to earth, with the destruction and utter ruin of all impiety. And, passing to the twentieth chapter, he lays completely open to me all the doors and all the windows, deciphers to me great mysteries, speaks to me with the greatest clearness and precision, tells me, in fine, expressly, that the space of time which is to follow upon the coming of the Lord, which the prophets do not particularly mark out, but simply call the day of the Lord, and more frequently, in that day, in that time, &c. will be a day and a time which shall endure a thousand years, repeating these words, A thousand years, not less than six times in that chapter.

All this, and much more, which we will observe in its proper time, we see clearly in the Holy Scriptures; and thereon do those build who hold the proposition above mentioned. And what do those, who censure and condemn it as false and erroneous, produce against it? On what foundation do they build? Search, Sir, for this foundation in all quarters, and it seems to me, you will weary yourself in vain. I at least find no other but the vague and arbitrary word, that the Divine Scripture ought not so to be understood, much less the twentieth chapter of the Apocalypse. How then should it be understood? This is what remaineth to be examined in the following Article.

ARTICLE III.

The Explanation which they offer of the Twentieth Chapter of the Apocalypse.

§ 1. AS the proposition set down above is found expressed in formal terms in this chapter of the Apocalypse, it is clear that he who denies that proposition, who condemns it as fable and error, must either do the same by the text of this chapter, or ought at least, in terms which will leave us fully satisfied and convinced, to show that the thing affirmed in the holy text is widely different from that which is affirmed in the proposition. This then is the great difficulty, in the resolution of which you are not ignorant that great minds in every age have laboured: whether the fruit have been commensurate with the labour, you shall come to know only by considering and examining this explanation, faithfully confronting it with the text and all the context; which we now proceed to do.

The interpreters of the Apocalypse, to facilitate, in some degree, the performance of so arduous an undertaking, prudently prepare themselves by a twofold labour —without which all were lost. The first is, resolutely to deny that the nineteenth chapter speaks of the coming of the Lord in glory and majesty, which Christians with one consent do wait for. The second consists in practically separating the twentieth chapter, not only from the nineteenth chapter, but from all the rest; considering it as a separate piece, as an island, which though near to other lands is not joined to any of them. If these two suppositions (for such they are till they be proved) be admitted as certain, or be allowed to pass as tolerable, no doubt the difficulty would be less grievous; but taking the holy text in connexion with all its context, are such suppositions admissible?

§ 2. You know already, Sir, the great event contained in the nineteenth chapter of the Apocalypse, from the eleventh verse unto the end: it is the coming from heaven to earth of a singular personage, terrible and wonderful in all his aspects. He comes in the front of all the armies which are in heaven, and he is represented as seated upon a white horse, with a sword in his mouth, with many crowns upon his head, with a royal vesture or mantle dipped in blood, on which, in various places, are written these words, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords; and his name is the word of God. Many particulars besides are there set forth, which you may read and consider for yourself. In consequence of the coming from heaven to earth of this great personage, there immediately follows, not so much a battle with the beast, or Antichrist, and with all the kings of the earth gathered together to make war with him who sat upon the horse, as the destruction, the entire and total ruin of them all, with all their mystery of iniquity: and so with these words the whole chapter endeth: These two (Antichrist and his false prophet) were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone, and the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse, which sword proceeded out of his mouth, and all the fowls were filled with their flesh.

Our doctors cannot altogether conceal the great embarrassment in which they find themselves upon this passage of the Apocalypse. If the personage spoken of be Jesus Christ himself, as appears by all his tokens, not only does he come directly against Antichrist, but likewise indirectly against the system they have espoused. Why? Because after Antichrist is destroyed follows the twentieth chapter, and in it many important matters wholly irreconcilable and opposed to their system. In so much that there appears no middle course between the two extremes, either of renouncing the system, or not recognizing Christ in the personage who is there represented. This last is the alternative which has appeared to them the least painful. This they show that they have no faith in their own eyes, but as it were taking into their hands a good telescope, that they may the better observe this great phenomenon, they confidently exclaim, “It is not Jesus Christ: there is no need for the Lord to remove from his heaven, to come and destroy Antichrist and all the potentates of the earth, which by a single nod he can beat down and annihilate. It matters not that he comes with such state and majesty. It matters not there should be seen upon his head many crowns. It matters not that there should be read upon his thigh, and upon various parts of his royal robe, these words; King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. It matters not that his name should be the word of God. All this is of no importance —it is not Jesus Christ.

“Then who is it? It is, say they, taking a look with their telescope, It is St. Michael, the prince of the angels, the patron and protector of the church, coming with all the armies of heaven, to defend her against the persecutions of Antichrist, to slay that wicked one, and to destroy the whole of his universal empire. True it is that to St. Michael are given a name, signs, and countersigns, which do not appertain to him but to Jesus Christ. But this is because he comes in his name, with all his prerogatives and with all his authority.” We do not stop at present, nor set ourselves prematurely to examine the reason which the doctors may have for affirming that the wonderful person of whom we speak is St. Michael, and not Christ. These reasons it will be necessary to divine, for they are not adduced. And who knows but they may all be reduced to this single one, the fear and dread of the following chapter. Let us however leave the plea undecided till another occasion, which will come when we treat purposely of Antichrist; but let us not therefore refuse to accept what they concede, to wit, that in this chapter Antichrist is spoken of, and consequently the latter times. This is enough for our present purpose; and however they may say and insist that this nineteenth chapter has no connection with the following, we shall be as though we understood not, while we hold that concession in hand for what may follow.

§ 3. The ruin of Antichrist, with all that is comprehended under that name, being entirely consummated, and the King of kings remaining master of the field, St. John immediately continues, in the twentieth chapter, which thus commenceth :—

And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand: And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, and cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season. And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead lived not again, until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years. And when a thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison.

This, Sir, is that famous passage of the Apocalypse, in which they allege the error of the Millenarians originated. Ask them, now, what that error is? We know no other error of the Millenarians, than that which these same doctors have impugned, and with good reason condemned, in Cerinthus, Nepos, Apollinarius, and all their followers. But did the error of these men, or that which in them they condemn as error, originate in this passage in the Apocalypse? Turn and peruse it with more attention, and see if you can find one word which favours in any way the indecent ideas of Cerinthus, or those of Nepos, or those of Apollinarius: and, finding neither vestige nor shadow of such extravagancies, ask all the Millenarians of the heretical, Judaical, and fanciful schools how they dared to add to the sacred text, novelties so inconsistent with the same? how they considered not, nor dreaded that fearful commination which is written in the last chapter of this very Apocalypse? If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues which are written in this book. And, finally, aim your blows upon these daring men: but leave in peace those who add nothing to the sacred text, nor assert aught different from what the text itself asserteth.

But in this very thing, the error, the doctors reply, consisteth; that although they add nothing to the sacred text, they at least understand it too literally, thinking, in their simplicity, that it means what it says; whereas, under the sound of the words there lie concealed other mysteries, widely different, and incomparably more sublime, for the use of the more spiritual. And what are these? You shall now see what they are.

The three principal things, or, indeed, the only ones, which are found in this passage of the Apocalypse are these. —First, the imprisonment of the Devil, or Satan, for a thousand years, with his enlargement thereafter for a little season. Secondly, the thrones and judgment, or power, which is given to them who are seated thereon. Thirdly, all that relates to the first resurrection of those who live and reign with Christ a thousand years.

With respect to the first, they assure us, with all formality, that the imprisonment of Satan here spoken of, is not a future event, but one long since past; not a prophecy, but a history; and, that even when St. John had this vision, which was during his exile to Patmos, the thing had already happened, according to some, more than fifty years, according to others, more than ninety years before, about the time of St. John’s birth. The last-mentioned of these teach us, that the angel who descended from heaven with the key of the abyss in one hand and the great chain in the other to bind the Devil, was not really an angel, but the very Messiah Jesus Christ, also denominated in scripture Angel; who, on the very instant of his incarnation, bound, chained, and imprisoned him in the abyss for a thousand years; that is, for as long as the Christian church should abide in the world: and the words, that he should deceive the nations no more, they would make to signify, that he should no longer deceive the elect. Observe here, in passing, that the same doctors who in the preceding chapter had just converted this very Jesus Christ, the very Word of God, the very King of kings, into the angel St. Michael, do in this chapter, with the same ease, convert an angel into Jesus Christ.

Other doctors are of opinion (and this seems the more common opinion) that the angel here spoken of is a true angel, who holds the superintendence of hell. This angel, they say, descended from heaven with his key and chain on Good Friday, at the ninth hour, the same instant in which the Lord expired on the cross; and executed by his orders this sentence upon the Devil, keeping him thenceforth chained and imprisoned in hell until a thousand years should be accomplished; that is, (taking that period not determinately, but undeterminately,) until the times of Antichrist, when he shall be loosed for a little season and although this happened on the day of the Lord’s death, yet the beloved disciple who was there present did not see it then, but here in Patmos, sixty years afterwards.

With respect to the second point; that is, the thrones and the judgment which was given to those who sat thereon, we find in the interpreters two different opinions. —Some say, they are the episcopal thrones and the pastors who sit upon them, to whom is committed the judgment of things pertaining to religion. Others affirm, that by the thrones and judgment, nothing more should be understood than the places of honour and dignity which the souls of the saints occupy in heaven, where they live and reign with Christ, &c.

With respect to the third point; they assure us, as a truth clearer than light, that St. John does not here speak of the real resurrection, but of the new life, to which the martyrs and the rest of the just enter when they leave this world and pass into the heavens. This new and most happy life is that which the beloved disciple calls the first resurrection; —this is the first resurrection; —which is to endure a thousand years: that is, not till Antichrist, like the imprisonment of the Devil, but some time longer, wholly undetermined, until the universal resurrection; and then, resuming their bodies, they shall begin to taste the second resurrection. This is the sum of all we find in the doctors upon the twentieth chapter of the Apocalypse. I doubt greatly whether this explanation have satisfied you, and I even dare to doubt whether it could have satisfied the very authors of it: but it was necessary for them to say something, if by any means they might succeed in saving their system. But since nobody obliges us blindly to receive their explanation, nor even the doctors themselves can require from us so great a sacrifice of our faith, a sacrifice due only to divine authority, they will not take it amiss that we look into it narrowly, and give way a little to reflection.

§ 4. In the first place; if the thousand years of which St. John speaks in this passage, and which he repeats six times, signify nothing else than the whole period of the Church’s duration, either from the day of the incarnation of the Son of God, or from the day of his death, until Antichrist; we are actually living in that blessed season. Well, then; and do you believe, friend Christophilus, that, in this our age, (and I may say the same of the ages past,) the dragon is bound with a great chain, locked up or imprisoned in the abyss, the door of his prison shut and sealed that he may no longer deceive the nations? If you believe, with the authors of the first opinion, that this imprisonment of the Devil, with all the circumstances which are expressed in the sacred text, took place on the incarnation of the Son of God, you have against you nothing less than the whole history of the Church; wherein you shall find him so loose, so free, and so entirely master of his actions, that, amongst many other things, he could seek out and find Christ in the desert, elevate him to the pinnacle of the temple, thereafter convey him to a lofty mountain, whence to show him all the glory of the world, and require that he should worship him as God: how doth all this liberty comport with that imprisonment?

If, again, it took place on the death of Christ, as others affirm, you hold against St. Peter and St. Paul, who could not be ignorant of an event so interesting. The one exhorts all Christians to be sober, to live watchful and vigilant, be cause your adversary the devil, like a roaring lion, goeth about seeking whom he may devour. Why caution and vigilance against an enemy chained and buried in the abyss? The other bitterly complaineth of an angel of Satan who troubled him: and in another place says, that he hindered him in a matter which he had purposed to do, but Satan hindered us. You hold, moreover, against the whole church, which, in her public prayers begs to be preserved from the snares of the devil, and useth exorcism, and holy water, to put demons to flight. (ad fugandos dæmones.)

My friend, be not so credulous, the devil is now as loose and free as ever; the only novelty, yet one most worthy to be noticed, which took place at the date of Messiah’s death, and still holdeth with respect to the devil, is this, that neither does God grant him so much licence as he would have, nor are those who believe in Christ so unarmed, as not to be able to resist him, and put him to flight; seeing that by the merits of Christ, and by the virtue of his cross, are now granted unto us, and placed in our hands, excellent weapons where with to resist his assaults, and subdue him under our feet. If this stout resistance which Satan now findeth in some through the goodness of their armour, and through the grace and power of Christ, they would have us to call a chaining and imprisonment of him in the abyss, with the door of his prison shut and sealed, that he may no more deceive the nations; they might as well, and with the same propriety say so of a robber, who going by night to rob a house should find the people on their guard, and armed, so as to resist and put him to flight, and save their treasure from the hands of the unjust aggressor. Which were certainly a mode of speaking extravagant, and well worthy the name of a barbarism. But as the Holy Scripture is wont to speak in a dead language, that it may speak to the mind of any one who makes it speak; it is quite an easy thing to make it say what you please, by simply adding the word that is.

It being then with such good reason denied, that the imprisonment of the devil spoken of with such clearness and circumstantial detail in the 20th chapter of the Apocalypse, hath yet taken place, it seems necessary to say and allow that it will take place at its time. When? When the Lord shall come in glory and majesty; for the scripture very manifestly fixes it to that time, and no one has taken, or can take the liberty of changing times, or removing events from that determinate place and time to which God hath appointed them. Read the 24th chapter of Isaiah, which altogether bears the closest resemblance to the 19th chapter of the Apocalypse and the opening of the 20th; and there you shall find in the 21st verse the same mystery of the imprisonment of the devil, with all his angels and all the potentates of the earth. “And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall punish the host of the high ones that are on high, and the kings of the earth upon the earth, and they shall be gathered together as prisoners are gathered in the pit, and shall be shut up in the prison.” And if you wish to see a clear enough intimation of the loosing of the devil and his angels, after a long time, as St. John says after a thousand years, you may observe it in the words which immediately follow; and after many days shall they be visited. This same prophet Isaiah

xxvii. 1. speaking of the day of the Lord, declares, In that day the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; &c. And by Zechariah xiii. 2. The Lord declareth, and also I will cause the prophets and the unclean spirits to pass out of the land; (de terrâ, out of the earth:) which is the same with that declared by St. John, at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th chapter; whereby it is seen that the beloved disciple alludes here to those, and such like passages, of which we shall speak in their place, and gives the key for understanding them.

After the imprisonment of the devil, St. John says he saw thrones, and on them sitting certain ones whom he nameth not, to whom was given judgment and the power of judging. And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them. The explanation and understanding which they pretend to give of these thrones, and of those who sat on them, some saying that they are bishops, and others that they are the souls of the blessed in heaven, seems manifestly in the times here spoken of, to be out of the question. Nor is it to be believed that these two things, or either of them, should be revealed to St. John as two new things, and that in so obscure a manner, at a time when the world was full of bishops, and heaven peopled with righteous and holy souls. This single reflection is sufficient, and more than sufficient to set aside the interpretation.

§ 5. The holy text immediately proceeds to say, and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead lived not again, until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection.

The explanation which the interpreters give us of this text is very revolting. They say that St. John speaks of the metaphorical resurrection, or of the new and blessed life to which the martyrs and the just do pass at death. And is it to be believed, that a truth so well known, and which was the consolation of the primitive church, should be manifested to St. John by so obscure a revelation, and under metaphors and figures so difficult to penetrate? Can it be, that a truth known to all believers should be manifested to the beloved disciple in the tone of prophecy sixty years after the death of his master? But the most weighty circumstance that this resurrection embraceth, those who had not worshipped antichrist, destroys all such explanations. St. John clearly marks the time of this first resurrection, when he says that those beheaded for Christ, and those that did not worship the beast, lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years, and that the rest of the dead lived not then, but shall live when the thousand years are expired. Therefore, that the first resurrection may have place, antichrist must first be come: and therefore this resurrection is not the blessed life which the just obtain upon their departure out of the present life, because this they have already for some time enjoyed.

From all these reflections which we have made, be this the conclusion, that so long as they furnish us with no explanation, which will completely satisfy the text and all the context, we will abide by the text itself, taken in its proper and natural sense. And if any one will say that we err in so doing, he must prove it by such demonstration as the subject is capable of, and not answer by merely repeating the question. The latter it is very easy to do, the former neither has been, nor do I expect will ever be done. Till this hour have I never seen any thing beyond the refutation of the many gross absurdities which the heretics introduced; but these ought not to be confounded with the truth, which will ever remain unsullied, clear, and manifest, to all who without prejudice shall search for it; and, for his ignorance thereof, no one can allege any reasonable excuse. I say, reasonable excuse, for if you accurately observe the foundation of the contrary doctrine, it reduces itself to pure extrinsic authority; and that too not clear, but very equivocal: now we have already seen what weight should be given to this.

They will tell you, my friend, that it is necessary to break the rough shell of the almond, in order to come at the good fruit which is enclosed within. They mean, that you must break the letter of the Holy Scripture, in order to discover the treasure which is concealed in it. But what treasure do we expect to find within the letter of Scripture? Haply it is some piece of original matter? haply some treasure at the discretion, to the mind and interest of him who seeks for it? Will it not suffice to find that particular treasure, be it what it may, which the letter itself clearly indicates, and to rest satisfied therewith? Every child knows that the fruit of an almond, which he desires to eat, is not the rough shell which presents itself to his sight, but that which it encloses within; but he knows as well that the specific fruit, which he is to expect on breaking the shell, is not any which may appear to him the best, but that, and that only, which is called an almond. Whosoever, then, thinketh to find within the letter of the Holy Scripture, some treasure different from that which the letter itself points out, would be much like to one who should think to find a diamond within an almond shell.

As their last resort, the doctors observe, and set store by it as if it were the chief difficulty, that the word, a thousand years, in scripture phraseology, does not mean precisely and determinately a thousand years, but a long time or many years. This is all good, and I am of the same opinion. It has always appeared to me, that the expression, a thousand years, which St. John makes use of six times in this passage, signifies nothing else but a great space of time, perhaps equal to, or greater than, that which has run since the beginning of the world till now, comprehended together in the round and perfect number of a thousand. But what do they gain by this concession? Nothing, my friend. Be the thousand years of which we speak, in very deed twenty thousand or a hundred thousand, more or less, as may like them best. That which I intend, is simply, that those thousand years no single man, nor all juntos of men, shall place where it seems to them most convenient, but there precisely where holy writ placeth them; that is, after Antichrist, and the coming of Christ which we hope for. And if you can in no way harmonize this with your ideas, I pity your troublous case, and propose for your deliverance, one of these two alternatives. The first, that you deny your ideas, if you would believe the Holy Scriptures: the second, that you deny the Holy Scriptures, if you would follow your ideas.

But I bear in mind, that it is not yet time to draw a conclusion so severe; and shall content myself; for the present, with another conclusion more just and less severe, which is all the fruit I seek from this dissertation; to wit, That the proposed system may be heard without alarm, received without apprehension, and permitted to have free course; that it shall not be reckoned a fault, either of a heavy or a venial kind, nor even an extravagance, to propose this system, as a true and proper key to all the Holy Scripture; and having made the supposition, to bring it to examination and proof.

This is all which at present we demand. If; after having proceeded with our proofs, it shall be found, that this system and key opens doors most strongly barred, and which heretofore appeared impregnable, that it opens them all, or almost all, that it opens them with ease, that it opens them without force or any violence; while the other key, claiming to be the only one, in place of opening, only leaves them faster than ever, &c; then we shall enlarge expressly upon the conclusions which ought to be drawn. But this will not be practicable, till after we have advanced far into the observation of those particular phenomena, which I denominate the barred gates of the Holy Scriptures: which we shall take care to do in the second part.

Do not ask me, Sir, to explain myself further upon this point of the millennial kingdom, because it is not yet the time. What I aimed at by means of this dissertation was not fully and fundamentally to treat that very grave point; for which, as is due, a dissertation of entirely another kind is designed; I have but proposed to open the way by removing a mighty obstacle which hindered my foot from stirring to make one step in advance, and to dissipate a very dark cloud which intercepted from my sight the observation of the heavens.

All, or almost all, the ancient Millenarians have either explained themselves but little on the subject, or have explained themselves before the time. They have not laid down firm foundations whereon solidly to build. They have moreover added many peculiar notions, some without form, others immaterial, others incoherent, according to their several talents, inclinations, and tastes. And thus all, or almost all of them have embraced many inconsistencies; wherefore I am determined not to explain myself before the proper time; that is, not to add any thing to our general proposition, till after having established with all possible firmness all the grounds which seem to me necessary. And, in the same spirit, I am determined to add no ideas but such as I shall find clear and express in the Holy Scriptures, and be able substantially to prove upon that infallible authority. Be patient, my friend, and, God willing, you shall not fail to see something in the Second Part, and the whole in the Third.

CHAPTER VI.

SECOND DIFFICULTY—THE RESURRECTION OF THE FLESH IN ONE COMPANY AND AT ONE TIME (SIMUL ET SEMEL)32. —DISSERTATION.

§ 1. AT length, my Christophilus, we have escaped with our life from that dense and pitchy cloud into which we had the courage or rashness to enter, and where we have tarried much longer perhaps than there was need. There is no reason why we should fear it any longer. It will go on clearing more and more the more closely we encompass it with our observation, and the more fearlessly we look into it.

It now remains that we should exercise the same diligence with respect to another cloud of the like nature, and which bears a close relation to the former. This is the resurrection of the bodies of the dead in one company and at one instant (simul et semel). For if it be true that the resurrection of the flesh, in which all Christians believe with hope, as an essential and fundamental article of our holy religion, is to take place in all the individuals of the human race together and at once, that is to say, by one single act, and in one and the same instant and moment of time; by this alone do all the ancient Millenarians, without distinction, remain convicted of error. By this alone should that twentieth chapter of the Apocalypse be eyed with great reluctance, as a deceitful and perilous place: and by this alone our system at once falls to the ground, at least in one of its parts, where a breach being opened, it shall be most easy to destroy the whole. But is this tenet certain? Is it so assuredly certain that a man who is a Catholic may not prudently doubt of it, or even examine it by the light of the scripture? This is what I now go to submit to thy consideration.

I know that the theologians who touch this point (consisting not of all nor, I believe, of many) are for the affirmation: but as well do I know, and with the same certainty, that they do not prove it. Some say that this tenet is a consequence of faith. Others more spirited, add resolutely that it is an article of faith. If we ask of them whereon it is founded, they produce in reply, from Holy Scripture, a great multitude of passages, whereof two parts prove clearly that there is to be a resurrection of the flesh, and nothing more; and the third proves the contrary of their assertion. If I should seem to you to exaggerate, it will be very easy to place the matter beyond doubt, by examining any theologians you please. In every library you will find wherewithal to satisfy your curiosity. The principal passages of scripture which they allege in their favour are the following: So man lieth down, and riseth not: till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep, Job xiv. 12. And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God, Job xix. 25. Thy dead men shalt live, together with my dead body shall they arise: Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust: for thy dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead, Isa. xxvi. 19. But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living, Matt. xxii. 31, 32. Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live. Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, John v. 25, 28. Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise. again, John xi. 23. The whole vision of dry bones, in the thirty-seventh chapter of Ezekiel. In a

32 ‘at once and together’

moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, 1 Cor. xv. 52.

This last passage makes some appearance for their opinion —in the proper time we shall show that it is appearance only, by examining the whole of the context. Of those passages of scripture one might cite, without much labour, well nigh a couple of hundreds. And the excellent and admirable part of it is, that, having quoted these and other similar passages, they conclude, with great satisfaction, that the resurrection of the flesh is in one act and instant (simul et semel), is either an article of faith, or at least a consequence of faith. When you have the inclination to imitate this mode of reasoning, you may easily prove the following proposition to be either a consequence of faith, or even an article of faith. All men, who presently live, have to die, (simul et semel) in one act and moment.

To prove this, you need to take no farther care than merely to open the Concordance of the Bible, and seek for the word Death; string together thirty or forty texts which make mention of it, as for example: Thou shalt die the death. It is appointed to all men once to die. We all die, and are carried away like a flood. Who is he that liveth, and thall not see death, &c. This done, thou mayest at once deduce thy consequence of faith: Therefore all men who presently live shall die, simul et semel, at once and in one act. There is no need to detain ourselves in applying this similitude.

§ 2. But that we may enter in good earnest into the examination of this point, and that thou mayest not believe me one of the sect of the Sadducees, take, my friend, in good part, this short and sincere confession of my faith, which I submit to thine inspection.

First, I believe, in the proper and natural sense, what those passages of scripture declare, which the doctors quote, and which go to build up that article of faith which is expressed to us in these two words of the Apostle’s Creed, the resurrection of the body. And, to come to particulars, I believe that all the individuals of the human race, men and women, who have ever lived, who do now live, and who shall live hereafter, as they have all to die, except those who are already dead, have likewise all to arise from the dead, except those who have already risen. Likewise, I believe that there will come a day in which this general resurrection shall take place, and in which the sea and earth, limbo and hell, shall yield up their dead, without retaining one, however small he may be; John v. 28; Rev. xx. 13. I believe, that as Jesus Christ arose in his proper flesh, or in the same body which he had before death; so without any loss of parts, shall every one of the human race arise, however much decomposed his body may be, and mingled with the earth. I know not that thou canst require of me, touching the resurrection, any more substantial confession than this, which is all that believing Christians hold. If hereby you be satisfied of the purity of my faith, we shall proceed.

There is no occasion to go farther (methinks I hear you say), believing well that I stand convicted in terms of my own confession, because I have granted that there is to be a day and an hour in which the general resurrection of as many as have lived, live, and are to live, shall take place, so that there shall not remain one who riseth not. Yes, my friend, yes, I hold to what I said, and confess once more that all this is true and of faith divine. But what consequences do you mean to draw from my confession? Doubtless you have not well observed that word which I dropped, as it were casually, but declaring expressly, As we have all to die, save those who are already dead, so we have all to rise again, save those who are already risen. Wherefore it is certain, and of faith divine, that in that day and hour shall arise all who till then have died, and have not risen; but it does not thence follow, that they also have to rise at that time who have risen before.

Were it well that, among those who are raised in that day and hour, we should reckon the most holy virgin Mary, our Lady, of whom the whole church believes, and has believed, that she rose ere ever her sacred body could see corruption? for we must first make her return to death, if we would have her raised in that day. Were it well that amongst those who are raised in that day and hour, we should likewise reckon the many saints of whom we are told in the gospel, Matt, xxvii. 52. that many bodies of the saints which slept arose? It is true that there are not wanting doctors, to assure us by reasonings founded on the air, that those saints who rose with Christ, returned immediately to death: but whence have they this knowledge? The Evangelist clearly says, that they arose, not surely in appearance, but in reality, wherefore he useth the expression many bodies; and he saith not that they returned to death again: how then are they assured that they returned to death? Were it well that amongst those who in that day and hour shall be raised, we should reckon those two prophets or witnesses, whose death, resurrection, and ascension to heaven, are most clearly spoken of in the eleventh chapter of the Apocalypse, long before that day and hour, and this by the absolute confession of all interpreters?

Probably you will answer, that all these resuscitated ones of whom we have just spoken, will not rise in that day and hour, because it is clear that they are already raised, and that the two last will arise in their time before the general resurrection: And whence know we this? We know it, thou sayest, —of our Lady the Mother of God, because it is a most ancient and universal tradition; the whole church without any reasonable contradiction having believed and believing it: of those saints who arose with Christ, because it is so declared clearly and expressly in the gospel: and of the two last prophets, because so the apostle St. John announceth in the Revelation. All this seems to me a mode of speaking, at once religious and just, wherein revelation and reason go hand in hand. But now I would ask you, how all this comporteth with the multitude of passages of holy writ, which are cited to prove the resurrection, (simul et semel,) in one act and in one instant, of all the individuals of the human race, Without distinction? How doth all this comport with those words of Job? When man lieth down he shall not arise till the heavens be no more: or with the words of the gospel? All who are in their graves shall hear the voice of the Son of God: or with the words of St. Paul? in an instant, in the twinkling of an eye, for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible.

So that, without prejudice of the general resurrection, which is to be accomplished in that day and hour whereof we speak, God could many ages before raise the most holy Virgin Mary, could raise many saints to attend upon the risen Christ, and shall raise the other two a good while before the general resurrection. Therefore, without prejudice to that general law, may God very well grant this same grace to many other saints, according to his own free and holy will. And who knows whether already he may not have granted it to many without asking our consent, or making us privy to his purpose? I know that some classical authors are of opinion that the apostle St. John may, and ought to enter into the number of the raised. Whether with reason, or without it, is not a question for this place. Only thus far it is in point, that according to these authors we might lawfully count one saint more, in the number of those raised before the general resurrection, and that without any prejudice to the general law.

This being granted, I advance a little, and ask, If that same God, who hath already raised our Lady, and many other saints, shall have promised to raise many more at a certain time prior to the general resurrection; may we doubt of his promise merely on account of the general law of the resurrection at the last day? I am sure you will say no. But where is this promise of God clearly given? It is clearly given my friend, in the same Divine Scripture, understood in the proper, obvious, and literal sense, for there is no other means of coming at the truth. The whole of our controversy, thus now reduceth itself simply to this, that I should show you authentic and clear documents which I have for such a promise of God; and this I proceed to do.

§ 3. First Document, in the first place, we must recollect and re-consider with more attention, all that was observed already in the third article of the preceding dissertation, upon the very famous text of the 20th chapter of Revelation: to which we have nothing either to add or to take away. However much the doctors may cry out and contend, that it is not the proper and true resurrection of the body, which is there spoken of, but a spiritual resurrection of their souls to grace and glory, &c; however much they may say that the contrary tenet is an error and a dream; however much they may seek to persuade us that the imprisonment of the devil is already past, and that the King of kings is not Jesus Christ, but St. Michael, &c. unless they produce other reasons, we remain as was said, firm and sure, that the sacred text viewed in all its aspects, and with all the circumstances which precede, accompany, and follow to the end of the chapter and even to the end of the whole prophecy, is an authentic and faithful document, from which it most clearly appeareth to be a promise of God, binding himself to raise many other saints before the general resurrection; consequently this is an undoubted document, which we cannot, and ought not to hide.

§ 4. Second Document. The apostle St. Paul, writing to the Thessalonians, says to them, “But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not even as others which have no hope. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him. For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, (the promise of God follows) that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord, shall not prevent them which are asleep. For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God, and the dead in Christ shall rise first. Then we which are alive and remain, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord. Wherefore, comfort one another with these words.”

From these words of the apostle, which he himself gives us to know, that he spoke by the word of the Lord, we derive two truths of the utmost importance; first, that when the Lord returns from heaven to earth, upon his coming forth from heaven, and much before his arrival at the earth, he will give his orders, and send forth his commandment as King and God omnipotent; which is all signified in these words, With a shout, [in the vulgate, jussu, i.e. by the order] with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God. At this voice of the Son of God, those who shall hear it, shall forth with arise, and, as saith the Evangelist St. John (chapter v. 25.) “those who hear shall live.” But who are these? May it not be all the dead, good and bad, without distinction? It certainly and evidently appears not, otherwise St. Paul would not have taught us, upon the word of the Lord, the great novelty of two things absolutely incomprehensible, as well as contradictory, to wit, that all the individuals of the human race good and bad should rise, which could not take place unless all had died; and after that resurrection, that some should still live and remain until the coming of the Lord.

Besides this, it ought to be remembered that the Apostle in this place is speaking of the resurrection of the dead who are in Christ, or of those who sleep in Jesus, and not a single word does he speak of the other infinite multitude; doubtless for this very reason, that their time is not yet come. In the same way speaketh the Lord in the Gospel, and pray consider it. And they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with great power and

glory; and he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds. Matt. xxiv. 30.

If you compare this text with that of St. Paul, you shall find no other difference than this, that those who are to arise on the coming of the Lord, the apostle nameth those who are dead in Christ, who sleep in Jesus; and the Lord nameth them his elect. But in both places the resurrection of these only is spoken of, and not a single word said of the rest. And it is well worthy of remark, —that when the Lord said these words, he was not talking with the common people, nor with the crowd, nor with the scribes and pharisees, with whom he was wont to speak in parables. He talked with his apostles, and them only, in the solitary retreat of mount Olivet: he talked not incidentally, but on purpose, concerning his coming in glory and majesty, and the principal circumstances thereof: he talked, at the request of these same apostles, who sought to know more in detail, what in general he had publicly declared to all: he talked, in fine, with those very men to whom, upon another occasion, he had said, to you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven; but to others in parables. Luke viii.

10. This observation is very important: for those doctors, who set so little store by this passage of the gospel, do much exaggerate what in other places is spoken generally.

The second truth, which we derive from the text of St. Paul, is, that after the raising up of those dead who are in Christ, the living who in that day likewise belong to Christ, (who, according to other notices which we find in the gospels, cannot be many, but will be very few, as we shall see in the proper place,) all those of this class then living shall be joined to the dead in Christ already raised, shall ascend from the earth and go to receive Christ; “then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air.” Though the interpreters and theologians up to this hour have taken all pains to elude or soften down the force of this text, they have said nothing which is even tolerable. Some say that the saints shall arise first, not in respect to priority of time, but of dignity: meaning thereby that good and bad shall all arise in one and the same moment; but that the saints shall take in the resurrection the priority of place, and be more worthy and honourable than the wicked. And is this the great novelty which St. Paul announceth to us, by the word of the Lord; —that the saints shall be thought more worthy of honour than the wicked? the apostles more honourable than Judas the traitor? St. Paul more honourable than the executioner who beheaded him? and to tell us this truth, could the Apostle find no other words than these? —the dead in Christ shall arise first, then we who are alive. Read, my friend, the holy text, and do more honour to the Apostle and your own reason.

Other authors, less rigid, (and this is the more common opinion,) do frankly concede that the Apostle without doubt speaks of a priority of time; but, as if that time were their own property, as if it were money in the hands of an usurer, they serve it out sparingly. They grant, however, in order to verify in some way the clear and express words —shall rise first, that the saints shall really be the first to rise; but then, with an extreme economy, they add, that for this a few minutes will suffice —five or six, which, in a time so tumultuous, will pass insensibly, and may well be regarded as nothing. This appears a greater miracle, than to satisfy five thousand with five loaves. And yet behold the admirable facility with which it is accomplished.

Christ comes from heaven to earth in the glory of his Father with his angels: at the first sound of his voice forth with arise those who hear it that is, all his saints, the dead in Christ shall rise first. These, being arisen, shall immediately ascend through the air, to receive the Lord and enjoy his bodily presence: together with them shall likewise arise, or be caught up, the living saints who are upon the earth. —These living saints, who have not passed through death, shall in a moment die, —there, in the air, before arriving in the presence of the Lord; or, according to the opinions of others, they may, perhaps, die and revive in a moment, before being caught up.

While the risen saints are ascending through the air, and in the brief instant that succeeds the death and resurrection of the living who accompany them, all of them being now far distant from the earth, there shall come down upon it that great and universal deluge of fire, which shall destroy every thing that liveth, —from men to cattle, and from the birds of heaven to the fish of the sea; notwithstanding that in Ezekiel xxxix. 4. and in the Apocalypse

xix. 17, 18. we see the birds feasted in the day of the Lord, at the great supper of the Lord; that they may eat and be filled with flesh of all degrees of people, whom the Lord in his indignation is to offer up. —But of this elsewhere. The living being all killed by the deluge of fire, this conflagration is in the next moment all quenched, and in the next arise all the dead from all parts of the round world, and take their way, and, in a moment of time, are conveyed to Jerusalem. In fine, when the Lord arrives at the earth, with all his company, he finds the whole human race already raised up, and gathered together, the great and small, into the valley of Jehoshaphat. This is, in substance, all which the expositors and theologians set forth to us upon the text of St. Paul, whereof we are speaking; and, however many libraries you may visit, rest assured, my friend, you shall find nothing different from what you have just heard.

§ 5. Reflection. Having seen what the doctors say to us upon the text of St. Paul, and considered their very great economy and niggardliness in the partition of instants and moments; tell me, my friend, to what end such economy serveth? to what end such great haste and driving to extremities? peradventure some one followeth us with a naked sword? It is, in simple truth, that they may by any means save the system: that they may be able to maintain and carry forward the idea of one single resurrection, and that (simul et semel) in one act and instant; which system would stand convicted of falsehood, if a thousand years were interposed between the first resurrection of the dead who are in Christ, and the resurrection of the rest of men; and which truly stands convicted of falsehood, by the interposition of some hours or moments: for, once admit any intermediate time, and the resurrection of the human race cannot be simul in one company, nor semel at one time; and still less can it not be in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye.

Moreover it would be good to know, upon what authority this usurious serving out of instants and moments proceedeth: on what ground they assume that the righteous still alive, who ascend in the clouds to meet Christ in the air, are to die and be raised there in the air, before coming into the Lord’s presence. For which you will not mention nor allege to me pure extrinsic authority; for this were to fall into that great fault which the logicians call, answering with the question. We know that many doctors have thought so, but we know not from whence they could have drawn their knowledge. St. Paul assures us upon the word of the Lord, that the just who shall be found alive at the coming of the Lord, shall mount up into the air, in company with the saints who are already risen to receive him. This particular minuteness might have been well spared, if to appear in the presence of Christ, they had first to die and rise again, whether there in the air, or here upon earth before ascending; for by simply saying the dead in Christ shall arise and mount up to receive him, all would have been said: but to tell us expressly that not only the saints raised up, but that likewise the saints alive should arise from the earth, and go together with them to receive Christ, without making any mention, the slightest, of a death and a resurrection to them, appears a clear and manifest proof that there will be no such instantaneous death or resurrection. It is very easy to see, my friend, why these doctors make such speed to hurry over the matter whereof we treat. It is the idea which they have formed to themselves (upon grounds which we shall examine by and by), that the Lord is to come from heaven to earth with the like speed, and consequently, when he comes to the earth, he must find the whole human race dead and raised again, and collected into a certain place for universal judgment. This idea, taken as they pretend from the parable, When the Son of man shall come, &c. in the twenty-fifth chapter of Matthew, without caring to bear in mind that it is merely a parable; —this idea, I say, contrary to the whole scriptures, which do, at almost every step, cry aloud against it, has been, and till this hour is, a true veil, which has covered, and left in a condition of little less than total blindness, every one who is found possessed with these contradictory notions. But of this we have a time to speak, and there will not be wanting to us hereafter, occasions more appropriate.

Let it suffice then for the present, to draw from all that has been said, this important conclusion. Notwithstanding the efforts made by the most learned and ingenious doctors, to explain the text of St. Paul in some softer way, which might be more compatible with their system; notwithstanding the great and even extreme economy in the subdivision of instants and moments, they find themselves compelled, at length, to concede something to us, as we have just seen. They concede to us, first, that the dead in Christ, who appear identically the same with those whom we read of in the twentieth chapter of Revelation, shall arise before all the rest. They grant to us, in the second place, that after the resurrection of these, the saints who may be found alive shall die, either on the earth or up in the air, and that these likewise shall rise before the rest. They concede to us, in the third place, that after these again, all who shall then be living upon the earth shall die, or be destroyed with a deluge of fire. They concede to us, finally, after the death of all the living, and of every thing which is found upon the earth, after the assuaging or dissipating of this boundless sea of fire, (which will, one should think, require some minutes,) there shall be raised up, at last, all the dead who remain, and who doubtless will be the more numerous company.

Let us be content for the present with the little which they will give us, (in due time we shall ask some little more,) and let us draw now this important and legitimate conclusion; That the resurrection of the flesh in one act and instant, far from being an article, or a consequence, of faith, is quite the contrary, and ought to be regarded as a false assertion, and that by the confession of the very parties who maintain it.

§ 6. Third Document. The same Apostle and teacher of the Gentiles treats diffusely of this matter, in the fifteenth chapter of the first epistle to the Corinthians, and coming to the 23rd verse he speaks thus, “But every man in his own order: Christ the first-fruits; afterward they that are Christ’s at his coming. Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. For he hath put all things under his feet.”

Let us take these words in order. The first raised is Christ himself, who is the first-fruits of the resurrection: Christ the first fruits. After Christ follow those who are his: then those who are Christ’s: compare in passing these words with those others, the dead in Christ shall rise first, and you will see how all proceeds in perfect conformity. After the resurrection of those who are Christ’s, shall come the end: then the end.

Here let us pause a moment to make two observations. First, where, in this passage, is the resurrection of the rest of men placed? If, as they think, they are to be raised in one company with those who are Christ’s, why doth St Paul speak never a word concerning them? The dead who are in Christ being raised, the end follows: then the end: and the rest of the dead, who are the greater part, are not yet raised. How can we conform this with the simul et semel, the at once and together? Secondly, Is this end of which the Apostle speaks, to follow immediately, upon the resurrection of the saints? Yes, you will necessarily say, because it is indispensable that we should attend to economy, and not lose a moment of time. But St. Paul, who doubtless knew better, gives us clearly to understand, that there will be time, over and above, because between the resurrection of the saints and the end, he places great events, which require time and no little of it to bring them about. Attend to his words, and his manner of speaking: Christ the first-fruits, then those that are Christ’s, then the end.

The doctors commonly suppose that here the text of the Apostle concludes, and that the remainder of it will take place after the end; that part has already taken place, and has been accomplishing ever since the Lord ascended to heaven. Let us consider the part of the text which remains; “Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down [in the Vulgate, cum evacuaverit, i.e. when he shall have cast out] all rule and all authority and power. For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. The last enemy which shall be destroyed is death.” The text, thus cut and divided into these two parts, means, as they explain it, merely thus: The first raised is Christ: Christ the first-fruits. Afterwards, when he cometh from heaven, those who are his: Then those who are Christ’s. Forthwith, the next instant, comes the end, the universal deluge of fire: Then the end. In another instant arise the rest of the dead, though St. Paul speaks not a word of them. Lastly, comes the evacuation of all rule, authority and power. What does this mean? It means, that the whole empire of Satan and his angels shall be destroyed, who, they add with much complacency, still preserve the name of that company to which they belonged before their sin and fall. Very well; and are there not evil angels of other orders than these three only? and are there not in our earth also rules authorities and powers? Are there not at present, and have there not been, and shall there not always be, in the hands of men, the rule, the authority, and the power, or force to make themselves to be obeyed? Why then have recourse to the evil angels, and to ideas so very uncertain, doubtful, and obscure, as are the orders to which they belong?

Next follows in the text of the apostle, the delivering up of the kingdom, which Christ shall make to God and his Father. “When he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God even the Father.” And when is this to be? It will be, say they, when, having concluded the universal judgment, the Son, with all his own people, shall return to heaven. So that, according to this scheme, the delivering up of the kingdom will come to be the last event in the whole mystery of God. And yet St. Paul after this, places still three great events; and last of them all, the destruction of death, which is nothing else than the universal resurrection. The last enemy which shall be destroyed is death. And where, with any propriety and decency, do they place that great event, which the apostle places in the midst of the text? For he must reign till he hath put all enemies under his feet.

I observe in all this, and it appears to me that any one may observe, a kind of disorder, obscurity, and confusion; with a transposition of ideas so extraordinary, that to prevent myself from being utterly confounded, I have found it absolutely necessary to read the text over and over several times. My friend, wilt thou not say to me, what reason is there for placing the end immediately after the resurrection of the saints? Is it, perhaps, because without the intervention of another word, it is said, then the end? But the same is said of the resurrection of the saints with respect to that of Christ; and already thou knowest how many ages have past, and perhaps are to pass, between the one and the other resurrection. Christ the first fruits, then they who are Christ’s. Wilt thou not say, what reason have they for not joining the words, then the end, with those that immediately follow; seeing in the holy text we read them united, and no sense, not even grammatical, can be made without uniting them? Then the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom, when he shall have put down all rule, all authority and power. Then those who are Christ’s, saith St. Paul, being raised, the end shall come. But when? When the Lord shall give up, or shall have given up, when he shall put down, or shall have put down, when…whereas it is clear that the end will not come until all these things shall have taken place which we find expressed in the holy text.

In like manner, it appears clear, that Jesus Christ, being the head of the human race, and having taken upon him its recovery, cannot make to his Father the oblation or offering of the kingdom whereof he is constituted heir, without having first emptied it of all foreign domination, till after he shall have wholly destroyed all rule, all authority and power —till after he shall have subjected the whole world, not merely to sterile and lifeless faith, but to the proper fruits of faith, which are piety and love. In short, till after he have converted all the various kingdoms of men into the proper kingdom of God, worthy to be called by that name. For which end, pursues the apostle, it is necessary that the same Son reign effectively, until he hath subjected all enemies and put them under his feet. “For he must reign until he hath put all enemies under his feet.” When all things shall stand subjected to this true and legitimate king, then will he be able to offer the kingdom to his Father in a style worthy of God. And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.

That it may not be imagined, as they give us to understand, that this has all been, or can be, fully accomplished by the preaching of the gospel which began with the apostles, these two things ought chiefly to be noted and well considered. First, that the thing here spoken of, is not the conversion of the principalities and powers of the earth to the faith, but on the contrary, the thing spoke of clearly is, the putting down or avoiding of all principality and of all power. And it is certain, and a thing allowed by all christians, that the preaching of the gospel is so far from drawing on, even indirectly, any such evacuation, that on the other hand, it is one of its capital points to subject us to all principality and power; and to put these principalities and powers into greater security of our obedience and fealty, to which it not only exhorts but indispensably obliges us: “Render therefore unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s.” Matt. xxii. 21. “Let every soul be subject to the higher powers.” Rom. xiii. 1.

The second thing which should be observed is, that the evacuation of all rule, authority and power, with every thing else which we read in the text, must come to pass, not before, but after the resurrection of the saints who are Christ’s, consequently after the coming of Christ. Read the text over an hundred times, and turn and read it over a thousand times more, and you shall find it no otherwise. After this hath all come to pass in the order which St. Paul lays down, he concludes the whole mystery by saying, the last enemy which shall be destroyed is death, in which, behold the end of the whole to be the universal resurrection; whereby death shall be conquered and entirely destroyed in such a way, as that then, and then only, shall that come to pass which is written, “Oh death where is thy sting? Oh grave where is thy victory?”

§ 7. All which we have observed in the text of St. Paul, we find in like manner in the same order, and with even somewhat more clearness, in the twentieth chapter of the Apocalpyse. Let us make a parallel of the two texts, and it will be of great service towards giving us still more clear ideas. First, St. Paul speaks in this place, not only of the resurrection, but expressly of the order according to which it will take place: But every man in his own order: saying that the first of all is Christ. Christ the first-fruits; then after the resurrection of Christ will follow that of his saints, they which are Christ’s at his coming; and even in this place, he does not mention the precise time of this resurrection of the saints, which in the fourth chapter of the first epistle to the Thessalonians he mentions, by saying, that it shall come to pass when the Lord himself shall return from heaven to earth; he shall descend from heaven, and the dead in Christ shall rise first. Now this very thing St. John likewise declareth, with somewhat more enlargement, and with more individual description; to wit, “that they who have been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and they who have not worshipped the beast,” &c. these shall live, or be raised at the coming of the Lord, which is the first resurrection: that they shall be blessed and holy who have part in the first resurrection; that the rest of the dead are not raised then, but after a long time, signified by the name of a thousand years; that this time being passed, the destruction of Gog shall succeed, and fire shall fall upon Magog, &c. I suppose that you have the whole of the twentieth chapter of the Apocalypse before you, and that you will actually consider it with more attention. Among other things, you will find in it this very remark, which of its own accord starts out before our eyes: That those beheaded for the testimony of Christ and the word of God, and who have not worshipped the beast, &c. not only rise at the coming of Christ, but that they reign with him a thousand years. And they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. This evidently supposes, that this same Christ will reign throughout the whole of that space of time, during which there shall be visible thrones, and certain ones sitting on them with the office and dignity of judges.

And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given to them. In sum, St. Paul places after all, and in the last place, the destruction of death, which is nothing else, as we have said, but the general resurrection: the last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. St. John does the same, after his millennial kingdom, and after the fire which falls upon Gog and Magog; whereby are comprehended the east and the west, with all who live upon the whole earth, saying, “And the sea gave up the dead which was in it, and they were judged every one according to his works; and death and hell were cast into the lake of fire.” All expressions most proper for explaining the entire destruction of death in the general resurrection. But the last that shall be destroyed is death.

§ 8. Fourth Document. The fourth instrument which we present for the promise of God concerning which we treat, is to be found registered in this same fifteenth chapter of the first epistle to the Corinthians, towards the end of the 51st verse: where the apostle solicits our entire attention, as being about to reveal to us a hidden mystery, of the greatest interest to those who would profit in the knowledge thereof. “Behold I show you a mystery: we shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.”

You will wonder greatly that I should cite this text in my favour, when it appears so clear against me: the like wonder have I to see the doctors cite it in their favour, after having yielded, though with such economy of time, that the saints shall really rise sooner than the rest of men. The understanding which they have of this last passage of St. Paul, it is difficult to harmonize with that concession. Nevertheless, all are agreed, that the apostle is here speaking of the universal resurrection: But is this certain? By what reasoning can it be made out, seeing the whole context exclaims, and cries out against this understanding. Will you dare to say that St. Paul, or the Holy Spirit, who spoke by his mouth, can contradict themselves? There is no remedy, if you would have it that the universal resurrection is here spoken of, but that you should grant, that he falls irresistibly into two or three manifest contradictions, which are as follow.

First Contradiction. If St. Paul here speaks of the first resurrection, all men without distinction, good and bad, believers and unbelievers, &c. must rise in one and the same moment, in the opening and shutting of an eye. Therefore, that is false which he says to the Thessalonians, the dead in Christ shall rise first.

Second Contradiction. If St. Paul speaks here of the universal resurrection, all men without distinction, must rise in a moment. Therefore, before that moment, all without distinction, must be dead, since the dead only can rise; therefore there neither are, nor can be; any alive to mount upon the clouds and receive Christ, as he assures the Thessalonians that there will be. “Then we which are alive,” &c. Thess. iv.

Third Contradiction. If St. Paul speaks here of the universal resurrection, all men without distinction, of good or bad, of spiritual or carnal, of pure or impure, &c. ought to rise incorruptible; for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible. Therefore, all without distinction will, from that moment, possess incorruption or incorruptibility. Therefore, that is false which the same apostle says in the preceding verse, “Now this I say brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, neither doth corruption inherit incorruption.” You will say nevertheless, that even the wicked will be raised incorruptible to inherit incorruption, because being once raised, their bodies will no more change or be dissolved, but must continue entire, for ever united with their sad and miserable souls. Well, and would you call this incorruption or incorruptibility. Certainly this is not the sense of the apostle, when he formally assures us, yea even threatens us, that corruption cannot inherit incorruption. Neither doth coruption inherit incorruption. What then may this singular expression mean? This is what it manifestly means. That no person, whoever he may be, without any exception, who possesseth a corrupt heart and corrupt actions, and therein persevereth unto death, shall have reason to expect in the resurrection, a pure, subtile, active, and impassible body. He will arise. Yes. But not to life: but to what St. John calls the second death. Not to the peculiar joy of incorruption, but to the grief and peculiar miseries of corruption.

When all these things, which to our slender capacity appear irreconcilable, shall be harmonized in a natural, clear, and perceptible way, then shall we consider what is to be said. Meanwhile we say resolutely, that St. Paul neither does, nor can refer in this place, to the universal resurrection: the very context throughout the whole chapter, though there were no other discordance, evidently proving the very contrary. Study it all attentively, especially from the 41st verse. “There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for one star differeth from another star in glory. So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. It is sown in dishonour, it is raised in glory: it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power: it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body.” &c.

See now, whether you can accommodate the whole of this to the resurrection of all men, without distinction of holy and unholy. Then of what resurrection does the apostle speak? He speaks, my friend, undeniably of that same resurrection of which he speaks to the Thessalonians. In both place he speaks to recent christians, exhorting them to purity and sanctity of life; and holding forth to them a full recompence in the resurrection. In the one and the other passage, he speaketh exclusively of the resurrection of the saints, when the Lord shall come. In the one passage and in the other, he speaks of the saints not dead nor risen, but who are still alive in that day; therefore he adds these words; “The dead shall rise first and we shall be changed,” which evidently correspond to these others: “we who are alive and remain, shall be caught up together with them into the clouds to meet the Lord in the air.” That those alive may pass through the air to receive the Lord, there must needs, before that assumption, have passed upon them a great change.

The interpreters and other doctors who touch the point, recognize in the words of the apostle, no other mystery but, that all the dead, without distinction of good or evil, shall arise incorruptible; and that they shall not all be changed, nor all be glorified, but only the good. Sure am I, my friend, that if the apostle intended no more than to reveal to us this secret, he might well have omitted, or have reserved for some more seasonable occasion, that grand salute with which he communicates it, Lo I tell you a mystery. This convinces me still more, and even forces me to believe, that St. Paul here speaks not here of the universal resurrection, but solely, and exclusively, of the resurrection of the saints, which will take place at the coming of the Lord, as we read in the twentieth chapter of the Apocalypse. Whence we conclude, that the resurrection at one time and in one company, the resurrection in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, of all the individuals of the human race, has no better foundation than anciently had the celestial system of Ptolemy.

§ 9. There still remain several other instruments or documents to be brought forward, but I perceive that I enlarge beyond bounds. Nevertheless, I will point to them as with my finger, showing the passages where they may be found, and praying for them a judicious consideration. First: In the first Psalm I read these words: “The ungodly shall not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous.” This text I find quoted in favour of the simultaneous resurrection in one company and at one time, but I know not for what reason: this proves, they say, that there is to be but one judgment, and consequently but one resurrection. Now, the contrary appears to me the manifest inference, for if sinners are not to arise in the judgment and congregation of the righteous, it follows, either that they are not to arise at all (which is against the faith), or that there is to be another judgment in which they shall arise, and consequently another resurrection. Secondly, in the twentieth chapter of the gospel of St. Luke, 35th verse, I read these words of the Lord, “but they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, [αιων, seculum, age], and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage, neither can they die any more; for they are equal unto the angels: and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.”

Now if in the whole of sacred scripture there were no other text than this, I confess I should not dare to quote it in my favour; but this text, taken in connexion with the others, appears to me to carry with it somewhat more force. And from it I infer, that in the coming of the Lord, with which certainly that other age is to commence, there will be some who shall be thought worthy of it and of the resurrection, and others who shall not; and, consequently, there will be some who shall then be raised, and others who shall not till another time, according to the word spoken by St. John, the rest of the dead lived not, until the thousand years were finished; this is the first resurrection.

Thirdly: St. Matthew says, that when the Lord shall return from heaven in glory and majesty, he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, Matt. xxiv. 31. These, it seems clear, are no others than the saints who are to arise. And if you ask to be shown, in the same passage, the living who are to ascend in the clouds to receive the Lord, observe that which is immediately added in verse 40th: Then shall two be in the field, the one shall be taken and the other left. Two grinding at the mill, the one shall be taken and the other left, &c. What do these two sayings last quoted signify? What meaning can they have? Unless you would consent to use the utmost violence, you must allow that it is here manifestly spoken of persons alive and sojourning, of whom when the Lord shall come, some shall be lifted up on high, and others not: some shall be taken, because they shall be worthy of this assumption, and others not worthy, are therefore left. You may say that the sense of these words is, that from the same office, state, and condition of life, some men shall be saved, and others not: wherein you have spoken a truth, but so general a truth, as to be out of the present question. I ask, When shall this general truth have its entire accomplishment, according to your system? Not, you answer, till after the general resurrection. Then, friend, this is enough for me to conclude that the words of the Lord could not be spoken with a view to this general truth which you hold out, nor will admit of that meaning. Why? Because they manifestly speak of persons who are not raised, nor yet dead, but alive and sojourning: they speak of persons who, in that day of his coming shall be found off their guard, working in the field, in the mill, &c. This is the particular truth to which attention should be given, and which we pray you to confront with that other, He shall descend from heaven, and the dead in Christ shall rise first; then we who are alive, &c. and, it appears to me, that you will find St. Paul and the Gospel speaking one and the same thing: He shall send his angels and they shall gather his elect from the four winds; who can be no other than those very ones who are in Christ, who sleep in Jesus. This done, and there shall immediately befall the living, that which the Lord addeth; One shall be taken and another left, and that which the apostle addeth, we who are alive, &c.

Fourthly: Read these words of Isaiah. “Thy dead men shall live; together with my dead body shall they arise [Vulgate, interfecti mei resurgent, i.e. my slain shall arise]. Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust, for thy dew is as the dew of herbs [Vulgate, ros lucis, i.e. is the dew of the light]; and the earth shall cast out the dead [et terram gigantum (sive impiorum, LXX.) detrahes in ruinam, i.e. the earth of the giants (or the wicked) shalt thou bring to destruction]. For behold, the Lord cometh out of his place to punish the in habitants of the earth for their iniquity: the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain,” Isa. xxvi. 19-21. They say that in this place the universal resurrection is spoken of; but, after attentively considering all its expressions, we do not find a single one of them which will apply thereto. On the contrary, they do all perfectly agree to the resurrection of those upon whom they immediately bear, to wit, the saints, the elect, those slain by Egypt, those who have fallen asleep for Jesus and for the word of God, &c. Observe, that he speaketh not in this place concerning the dead without any distinction, but only concerning those who have suffered violent death by the shedding of blood or otherwise, and for God’s sake, whom, on that account, the Lord himself calleth my slain. Observe, that the resurrection of these, of whom exclusively it is spoken, is to take place when the Lord cometh out of his place, to visit the iniquity of the inhabitants of the earth upon it: and then, says the prophet, the earth shall disclose her blood, and no longer cover her slain, who are the Lord’s. Observe, lastly, that to the dead, to whom this passage refers, words are spoken certainly unsuitable to all the dead. Awake ye who dwell in dust, because the dew of light is your dew, and the earth of the wicked shall thou bring unto destruction; which harmonizeth with that text of the Apocalypse, And the souls of those beheaded, and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years; and still more clearly with that other text of the same Apocalypse, And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations: And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as I received of my Father. And I will give him the morning star, Rev.

ii. 26, 27, 28. By the morning star let others think as they please; I understand nothing else than the first resurrection, with the beginning of the day of the Lord.

Lastly: In the sixth chapter of the Gospel of St. John, I read the promise of the Lord four times repeated —And I will raise him up at the last day: a very remarkable promise, which Jesus Christ certainly makes not to men without distinction, nor even to all Christians, but to those expressly, and those alone, who should profit in his doctrine, his example, his counsels, his death, and, above all, in the sacrament of his body and blood. Now, if all men, without distinction, are to arise, in one company and at one time, what particular grace is this which he promises to those with whom he holds discourse? If it be the resurrection to life only which is promised, then as little would that grace be so specially theirs, as that very many, to whom certainly he did not refer, shall not share it along with them: for example, the innumerable company, who die after baptism before the dawn of reason, and all who at the hour of death find room for repentance, though they have before lived far from his law and doctrine. If all these are likewise to rise to life eternal, what special grace doth he promise to the former?

The instruments or documents which we have presented in this dissertation, if they be seriously considered and combined with one another, appear more than sufficient to prove that God hath promised in his word, to raise many other saints besides those already raised, before the general resurrection; consequently, the idea of the resurrection of the flesh, in one company and at one time, in a moment, in the twinkling of any eye, is an idea which is so far from being just, that it appeareth absolutely indefensible. This is all which at present we aim at, and thus I leave the second embarrassment to our progress cleared out of the way, and the second difficulty resolved.

CHAPTER VII.

THIRD DIFFICULTY —A TEXT FROM THE CREED OF ST. ATHANASIUS. — DISSERTATION.

§ 1. I REMEMBER well, venerated friend Christophilus, that in other times thou didst propose to me this difficulty, as a thing so decisive of the question, that it ought to induce me to alter my mind. I likewise remember, that being taken unawares and unprovided, I found myself embarrassed in my reply: but now that I have had time to think over it, I proceed to answer you with all brevity. For, as the difficulty is an obvious one, especially in respect to the priests, who have to repeat this creed many times in the year, I must not pass it over.

It is founded upon these words of the creed, called the Athanasian, —“From whence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies, and shall give account of their own works,” &c. These words, you will say to me, should be understood as they read in their proper, obvious, and literal sense, out of which there is no reason for taking them; —for all the things which are said in this creed are true in that obvious and literal sense. Before replying expressly to this difficulty, I advert to one thing not to be despised, and which may be of some use to us; to wit, —that though all the matters contained in this symbol be true and of faith divine, as being taken in part from the apostles’ creed, and in part from certain general councils, which so explain them; nevertheless, some theologians who have handled this point do not admit, nor acknowledge as legitimate and just, the following expression, which is used in this symbol; —“For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man, so God and man is one Christ.” This similitude, they say, cannot be admitted without great impropriety; for this reason, —that the rational soul and the flesh exist and form man in such a way, that the one without the other cannot naturally subsist and the man subsist at the same time; the flesh being for the soul, and the soul for the flesh.

On the contrary, God in such a manner is man, and man in such a manner is God, that, without any natural violence, God might well enough subsist eternally without becoming man; and, in the same manner, could man subsist without the hypostatical union to God in the person of Christ: therefore that similitude may be regarded as very improper, and consequently admit of some restriction. If now, I should say the same of that other expression, —at whose coming; if I should say that it is not so natural and so just, nor so agreeable to scripture, as that a better could not be found in its stead, would I in this say any thing false? The certainty is, that neither that nor this are expressions taken from those general councils from which the substance of the doctrine was taken; but that they are put (ad ornatum) for ornament, and according to the particular discretion of them who arranged this symbol as we now have it. With this answer, which is sufficient, our dispute might terminate.

Nevertheless, if you ask and insist that the words, at whose coming, should be understood with all rigour exactly as they read, I grant it to you, my friend, without great difficulty: but upon this condition, not less just than easy, and therefore altogether indispensable, that the same favour should be conceded to me of a literal and obvious interpretation, for the four words which immediately precede that same expression, which are these, —from thence he will come to judge the quick and the dead. These four words are not only part of the symbol of St. Athanasius, but likewise without wanting a syllable of the symbol of the apostles, and of other places of scripture, on which account they are entitled to a little more equity.

§2. This condition, then, so reasonable, being admitted, I ask now, what sense thou wouldst give to the expression, —at whose coming. Thou wilt say, —that sense which the words obviously and literally convey; to wit, that on the coming of the Lord from heaven, while yet he is on his way to the earth, the instant before or after, will take place the universal resurrection of all Adam’s children, without wanting one: at whose coming all men shall arise. And these four other, which immediately precede these, —thence he will come to judge the quick and the dead: what sense wilt thou give them? Thou wilt say, in like manner, that sense which they bear, and no other; which is, that the same Lord shall come in person, at the appointed time, to judge the quick and the dead. Very well. According to this we then hold these two propositions, both true in their obvious and literal sense. First, Jesus Christ shall come from heaven to earth, to judge the quick and the dead. Second, At the coming of Jesus Christ from heaven to earth, there shall take place therein the resurrection of all the Sons of Adam.

It appears to me, good Sir, that all the logicians in a body, after uniting the whole force of their wits, shall not be able to reconcile these two propositions, so that they shall not war with and mutually destroy each other. Behold how evident it is.

Jesus Christ shall come from heaven to earth to judge the quick and the dead. — Thence follows this consequence, clearly and forcibly: that when Jesus Christ comes to the earth, not only shall he judge the dead, but likewise the living; therefore there shall not only be found dead, but also living, whom he may judge. If he finds living men to judge, then are they not all risen; therefore they have not all died, and therefore the second proposition is manifestly false, —which affirms, that all the sons of Adam, without exception, shall rise at the coming of the Lord. At whose coming all men shall rise again.

Not being able to reconcile these two hostile propositions to one another, nor to perceive how both can be true in a literal and obvious sense, it is absolutely necessary that one of them should give way. And in this case, which of the two should yield? Does it appear to you decent, that in order to defend the expression, at whose coming, which neither the Apostles have set down, nor even any general council, an article of faith should have to give way which is clearly and expressly set down in the Apostles’ creed. Then what reasonable sense without violence, proper, obvious, and literal, shall we give it. That sense, friend, which it is capable of, and which alone it can admit, and be in harmony with its own context: thence he will come to judge the quick and the dead; at whose coming all men, &c. Jesus Christ shall come from heaven to earth to judge the quick and the dead, and at whose coming, or by the occasion of his coming as a condition sine qua non, all men shall arise: some forthwith upon the instant, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, to wit, all those saints of whom we have spoken in the preceding dissertation, and the rest at their proper time when they also shall hear the voice of the Son of God, if this sense does not quite content you, think of any other which to your mind may be more obvious and literal, so that it destroy not the truth of the first proposition, which at every expense must be preserved, though it were by life itself.

§3. I am not ignorant, Sir, of the reply which you may make to me on this point. Methinks I see you turning over the theologians and examining the catechisms to know what they say upon the judgment of the quick and dead. If however, you would save some labour, and make use of that which I have taken, you have here in a short space what is to be found upon this point in the best Theologians, and what the catechisms have taken from them. The difficulty must be very great, seeing to resolve it, they are divided into four opinions. All four differing from each other, but harmonizing and uniting perfectly in one single point, which is, to deny our article of faith (so far as it speaks of the living) in its natural, obvious, and literal sense; doing it the utmost violence that it may give way to their system: and if I may be allowed to say so, not admitting it as an article of faith, unless it will yield and stoop, unless it will suffer itself to be bent into their system. This will appear to you somewhat hyperbolical, and, nevertheless, you shall now see it to be truly so.

The first opinion, and the most creditable to its ingenious inventor, says, that by the living, are to be understood all which actually were alive in the world when the Apostles composed their symbol of faith, and by the dead, those who had already died from Abel till that time. And as this symbol was to speak in the church, in all ages, years, and days that the world should last, it always has said, and always will say with truth, that Jesus Christ will come to judge those who have lived, are living, and shall live, and those who before them should have died, consequently the quick and the dead. It appears to me that this sentence, being looked to attentively, means in good language this only, that the word quick, which the Apostles, full of the Holy Spirit set down, is a word altogether useless, which might without loss have been omitted, and that it were enough to have set down the word dead: for by that word alone is the whole expressed, and with much more clearness and brevity. Let us suppose for a moment that the Apostles had omitted the word quick, and set down only the word dead. In this case, according to the reasoning of that doctor, our article of faith would remain to us entire and perfect, even as now we have it, with this simple explanation, Jesus Christ shall come from heaven to earth to judge the dead only: those dead have been once alive, otherwise they could neither be, nor could be called dead, therefore Jesus Christ shall come from heaven to earth to judge the quick and the dead. —(Suar.t.1. in 2.p.d.50.s.2. Lugo de fide d.13.s.4.n.108.)

The second opinion says, that by the quick are to be understood, or as Cardinal Bellarmine says in his large catechism, may likewise be understood, all those who are actually alive when the Lord shall come, and who shall die at once, consumed by the deluge of fire which will precede his coming. But it is clear upon this opinion, that no judgment of the living will take place, seeing that at the time of the judgment they will all be dead. The third opinion, ridiculous in every sense, is, that by the quick, we are to understand the souls, and by the dead, the bodies, so that Jesus Christ shall come from heaven to earth to judge the quick and the dead, means nothing more than that he shall come to judge the souls and the bodies. And when he cometh, he shall already find all men raised, and consequently, all the souls united with the proper bodies in one person. He shall proceed by dividing that person asunder, and consequently kill him another time, in order to take account first of the soul and then of the body, as if the body were any thing without the soul. Truly admirable philosophy! Oh to what shifts a bad cause will reduce one!

There still remaineth the fourth opinion, common and nearly universal with the theologians and the catechisms, which is, that by quick and dead are to be understood good and evil, righteous and sinners. Do not ask me, friend, upon what foundation this opinion rests, because I cannot find any given by its own authors. I know only that they quote the authority of St. Augustine, and upon this as their foundation, pretend to rest it solidly and securely. I had believed this report upon the good faith of those who quoted him, but having read that passage of St. Augustine, which they quote, I am fully satisfied that he teaches no such thing; for I neither find it positively stated, nor from his words can it be inferred. To two places of St. Augustine, the doctors refer us for this opinion, the first in the book de fide et symbolo (concerning faith and the creed), chapter 8. The second in the Euchiridion, chapter

55. In these two places it is certain that the holy doctor touches the point very briefly, but it is likewise certain that he comes to no decision, and takes no side. In the first he says “We believe that he will come at the time most suitable, and judge the quick and the dead, whether by these names be signified the just and the unjust, or whether those be called the quick whom he shall then find alive in the earth before our death.”33 “In two senses,” he says in the second place, “it may he taken, whether we understand by the quick those whom he shall find not yet dead, but still living in the flesh, or by the quick, the just, and by the dead, the unjust.”34

By these two passages of St. Augustine, it is to be clearly seen that the holy doctor determines nothing, but that he speaks rather in passing, and without taking a side either the one way or the other, taking the word quick either in that natural sense, in which all living men understand it as a bodily life, or taking it only by way of similitude, and applied to the life of grace which the just live in virtue of their justification. So that the only foundation, upon which they pretend to found their opinion, falls of its own accord, or totally disappears, by St. Augustine’s own confession, in the very passages which they quote from him.

33 Credimus inde venturum convenientissimo teinpore, et judicaturum vivos et mortuos, sive istis nominibus justi et peccatores significentur, sive quos tune ante mortem nostram in terris inventurus est, appellati sunt vivi.

34 Duobus modis accipi potest, sive ut vivos intelligamus, quos hic nondum mortuos sed adhue in ista carne viventes inventurus est ejus adventus, sive vivos justos, mortuos autern injusios.

Nevertheless, if the book, de Eccl. dog. is St. Augustine’s, his opinion is very clear in those words of the eighth chapter, “Now what we say in the Creed, that, upon the coming of the Lord, the quick and the dead shall be judged, not only signifies the just and the unjust, as Diodorus thinks, but we believe also those who are found alive in the flesh, and who, it is believed, have still to die.”35 This is also what I believe, because this alone is agreeable to what is said in the symbol of my faith. The other opinions, let their patrons and defenders hold them in what reverence they please, I hold to be improbable and false; because they are not agreeable but violently repugnant and contrary to this article of faith.

It is a very extraordinary thing, that Theologians being agreed that the articles of the Creed should be understood by the letter, because only thus are they articles of faith, should except this only, the quick, and give a sense to it after their will and pleasure. Likewise, they say that the explicit confession of this article of the Creed is not necessary, in as far as regardeth the word quick —that no one is under obligation to know certainly what it signifies; that it is sufficient to believe, in general, that all men, without exception, shall be judged by Jesus Christ, when he shall return from heaven. Ask them now, if we might do the same thing by other articles of the Creed; and I know not what they can reply so as to save evil consequences. If there be no obligation to know what is signified in the Creed by the word quick, which appears so clear, as little obligation will there be to know what is signified by the word dead, or what is signified by the words resurrection of the body; or what is signified by being born of the Virgin Mary; or what is signified by crucified, dead, and buried; for what should make the difference?

I allow, indeed, without difficulty, that to know the true signification of the word quick, or to have clear ideas of the judgment of the quick, of which the scriptures speak to us so much, is not a necessary obligation with respect to the commonalty of believers; but it appears to me as a thing most inconsiderate, to extend this indulgence likewise to all those persons who hold the key of knowledge, and who ought to abstain from giving us to understand that the word quick means nothing, that it is useless, and that we can do very well without it. I do not say they teach so expressly; but what else doth it amount to, if they will go about to seek for that word another and another meaning by accommodation; seek for it senses improper, violent, and even ridiculous; and absolutely deny the proper and literal one? Doth it appear to you, my friend, that this short word was placed in the Creed, without the inspiration, without the teaching, without the express command of the Holy Ghost. Does it appear to you, that to understand it, or not to understand it, is a thing of little or no consequence?

§ 5. It appears certain that the doctors think so, who excuse us from the obligation of knowing what is signified by the particular word, the quick. But I cannot think so, because I perceive the extraordinary and terrible consequences which have followed from not admitting in its proper sense this word which seemeth as nothing: yes, which appears nothing, and yet holds a great and close relation with almost all the scripture as it respects the second coming of the Lord. It appears nothing, and it is one of the clearest lights which shines upon the most obscure and difficult passages of the same scripture. It appears nothing, and it is a master key which opens a hundred doors. This is the true reason why the interpreters are forced to use violence in the exposition of the Holy Scripture, in order to bend it whither it refuses to be

35 Quod autem dicamus in Symbolo in adventu Domini vivos et mortuos judicandos, non solum justos et peccatores, significent, sicut Diodorus putat, sed et vivos eos qul in carne inveniendi sunt, credimus, qui adhuc morituri creduntur.

bent. This seems to be the true origin of all those senses, so many and so diverse, of which they make so much use or abuse in the exposition of the scripture. This, in short, is the true root of the greater part of those rules which have been established as certain and as necessary, according to their way of speaking, for the understanding of the Holy Scripture; but perhaps they would speak better, if they said, for never coming to understand it. All, or almost all, in my opinion, has been derived from this, of not having sought to understand the word quick, as every man understandeth it who is quick; of not having sought to believe words, according to the scriptures, that there is to be a judgment of the quick (or, which is the same thing, a reign of Christ over the living), very different from the judgment of the dead, or the reign of the same Christ over the dead —as widely different as the dead are from the quick.

There is no need of great talents or great penetration, but only of a little study free from prejudice, in order to know that a great part of Holy Scripture, in that which respects prophecy, clearly speaketh of the judgment of the quick, and of Christ’s reign over the quick. To this judgment, and to this kingdom, almost all the prophecies are directed, and in it they terminate as their principal object; while, of the judgmen